Between 1992 and 1995, brown necrosis symptoms on the nodal portions (included the pulvinus and node) of barley were observed in several fields in the Hokuriku district of Japan. Plants with such symptoms occurred exclusively in fields with severe leaf scald symptoms by Rhynchosporium secalis. Brown spots first appeared on the pulvinuses (base of leaf sheath), and eventually enlarged to necrotic lesions with dark brown margins. Infected nodal portions became fragile, and were easily broken. The symptoms developed at the later half of the ripening stage to harvest. R. secalis was consistently isolated from brown nodal portions, and the same symptoms were reproducible on inoculated barley plants. This is the first report of R. secalis causing a disease on the nodal portions of barley.
A new disease of Welsh onion, showing the symptoms of stunt, yellows, witches' broom and malformed flower, has occurred in Tokushima and Saitama Prefectures. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of phytoplasma particles in the sieve tubes of diseased plants. Of the two leafhoppers tested, Macrosteles striifrons and Scleroracus flavopictus, only M. striifrons transmitted the disease. The host range of two phytoplasma isolates was similar, and 19 species in 10 families were infected with the two phytoplasma isolates.