The sooty mould fungi of the subfamily Eucapnodieae occurring on the various plants associated with scale insects, aphides or the larvae of white flies in Formosa were collected by the present author. Since various spore forms often appeared on each colony of these fungi by contamination of other fungi, whether these spore forms in the perfect and imperfect stages of each species of these fungi belonged to the same species or not were determinated by the results of studies made on the cultures originated from single spore isolations. The diagnoses in both stages of these fungi, i.e. Copnodium Walteri Sacc., Scorias cylindrica Yam., Chaetoscorias vulgare Yam. and Capnophaeum fuliginodes (Rehm) Yam. are described in the present paper. Among them, three species being new to science the diagnoses of them are described in Latin as follows. Scorias communis sp. nov. Figs. 11-16. Pycnidiis gregariis, microxyphio-formibus longissime stipitatis, totaliter longitudine 308-1148μ longis; stipitibus synnematioideis, rectis vel leniter curvatis, raro superiore dichotomice ramosis, atris, opacis, 224-896μ longis, ad basim 23-46μ crassis, apice inflatis et pycnidiis ornatis; pycnidiis propiis ellipsoideis vel elongato-ellipsoideis, longiore rostratis, apicem versus attenuatis, atro-brunneis vel atris, opacis sed superiore pallide brunneis apice ostiolatis et hyalino-fimbriatis, partis pycnidiis 89-126μ longis et 30-69μ crassis, partis rostriformibus 70-168μ longis; pycnidiosporis ellipsoideis vel oblongis, continuis, hyalinis, 4-5.5×2-2.5μ; peritheciis sparsis vel subgregariis, piriformibus vel subglobosis, plus minusve stipitatis, apice plus minusve papillatis et indiskincte ostiolatis, glabris, coriaceis, mucilaginis, atris, 112-154μ altis, 93-133μ crassis, stipitibus 18-55μ altis et 48-53μ crassis; ascis clavatis, elongate-ellipsoideis vel clavato-cylindricis, apice late rotundatis et incrassatis, 4-8-sporis, aparaphysatis, 41-64×14-19μ; sporidiis elongato-obovoideis, apice rotundatis, ad basim obtusis, 2-5 (plerumque 3-4)-septatis, e hyalino dilute olivaceis, 17-28×4.5μ. Hab. in foliis Coffeae libericae, etc., Formosa. Scorias cylindrica sp. nov. Figs. 23-26. Pycnidiis gregariis, cylindricis, rarissime dichotomice ramosis, rectis vel leniter curvatis, apicem versus non vel vix attenuatis, apice ostiolatis et non fimbriatis, atris, opacis sed ad apicem pallidioribus, 250-700μ longis, ad basim 16-32μ crassis; pvcnidiosporis ellipsoideis vel oblongis, continuis, hvalinis, 3.5-4.5×1-1.8μ; peritheciis sparsis, ellipsoideis vel ovoideis, plus minusve stipitatis, apice indistincte ostiolatis, glabris, coriaceis, muciiaginis, atris 84-126μ altis, 70-90μ crassis; stipitibus 28-112μ altis et 25-35μ crassis; ascis obovoideis vel clavatis, apice late rotundatis et incrassatis, 4-8-sporis, 23-39×9-11.5μ; sporidiis elongato-obovoideis, ad basim leniter attenuatis et obtusis, apice rotundatis vel obtusis, 2-3-septatis, e hyalino dilutissime olivaceis, 9-14×3-4.5μ. Hab. in foliis Gardeniae angustae var ovalifoliae, etc., Formosa. Chaetoscorias vulgare sp. nov. Figs. 17-22. Pycnidiis gregariis, longissime stipitatis; stipitibus, synnematioideis, rectis vel plus minus curvatis, apicem versus attenuatis, raro superiors dichotomice ramosis, atro-brunneis vel atris, opacis, 140-1064μ longis, ad basim 25-69μ crassis, apice abrupte inflatis et pycnidiis ornatis; pycnidiis propiis ellipsoideis vel elongato-ellipsoiedeis, apice ostiolatis et hyalino-fimbriatis, 56-112×25-46μ; pycnidiosporis ellipsoideis vel oblongis, continuis, hyalinis, 3-6×1.5-3μ; peritheciis sub-gregariis vel sparsis subglobosis, apice plus minusve papillatis et indistincte ostiolatis, non vel plus minus tipitatis, superiors 1-8-setosis, coriaceis, mucilaginis, atris,
Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) was seeded at various rates and on different dates, to study the relation between the microclimate in the tuft and the development of the Sclerotinia rot. In the sunny daytime, the air temperature within the tuft of milk vetch, especially in the plots of thick stands, was lower than in the temperature screen. While, in the daytime with heavy cloud or at night, the temperature within the vetch tuft was higher than in the temperature screen, in proportion to the density of the stand. The temperature of the soil at 1cm depth showed the same tendency of fluctuation with the temperature in the tuft. Accordingly the extreme differences of air and soil temperatures by day and night was least in the tuft of the thickest stand. The air humidity in the tuft was higher than in the temperature screen and was highest in the plot of thick stand. The quantity of dew formed at night on the plants per unit area was greater in the plot of thick stand than in the thin stand, but vice versa when calculated on the basis of individual plant. The incidence of Sclerotinia rot was high in the plot of thick stand of milk vetch. It may be explained by the microclimatical difference above described.
The present paper describes the experimental results on the amount of free auxin in normally growing plants compared with that of abnorml ones such as the virus-infected body and the various fungous galls caused by blister blight, rust, white rust or smut. The avena test was done by regular Went's method and its modified one: The tip of the coleoptile of oats was cut off at the place 2cm below from, the tip after 3 hours from the 1st cutting, and then the small agar piece was put on the cut head. The observation was done after 14 hours. The agar pieces containing free auxin was prepared as follows: The agar pieces are immersed into the pressed-out juice from the tissue, or else a tissue piece of definite volume is put on the agar plate. The results are briefly stated as follows: 1. The amount of free auxin (examined, by the modified method and the pressed-out juice) tested with eleven fungous galls are given in Table 1. Usually in these galls the free auxin is contained in greater quantity than in the healthy tissues, and the upper part of leaf-blade contained free auxin in greater quantity than the lower part. 2. According to the results obtained by the modified method, the free auxin in the tissues of nine galls formed on the stem and the leaf-blade are contained in greater quantity than that of the healthy ones (see Table 2), and the amount of free auxin in these experiments showed smaller figures than in the case with the pressed-out juices. 3. The lateral migration of free auxin through the tissue in the fungous gall is possible, though the migrating quantity is smaller than in the case of vertical migration. Any growth-inhibiting substance is not found in the galls (see Table 3). 4. In the experiments with the modified method, the amount of free auxin in the stem of virus-infected potato and radish shows smaller quantity than that of the healthy ones (see Table 4). 5. The amount of free auxin (examined by the Went's method and the diffusion from the tissue) in the young stems of sweet potato infected with mosaic-virus shows smaller in quantity than that of healthy ones, and the culture test of the healthy stems also shows better growth (see Table 5-7). 6. From the experimental results above mentioned, the writer considers that the relation between the abnormal growth (hypertrophy or dwarfing) caused by the fungi or the virus correlates proportionally with the amount of contained free auxin n the tissues.
For estimating the degree of damage of the rice plants affected with sheath blight (Hyp. Sasakii Shirai), following formula has been proposed. Degree of severity(%)=3n1+2n2+1n3+0n4/3N×100 where, N=n1+n2+n3+n4: n1…number of stems having affected upper leafsheaths up to the top leaf: n2…number of stems having blighted upper leafsheaths except the top leafsheath: n3…number of stems having blighted leafsheaths except uppermost 2 leafsheath: n4…number of stems having the 4 uppermost leafsheaths healthy.