Some authors reported that the SDA of foods may serve a useful physiological purpose to the maintenance of thermal balance in a cold environment. But how and how much effect has SDA upon the extra heat produced dy cold stimulus is out of sight yet. Our present experiments were carried out in Autumn 1954, to examine how much extra calories above basal metabolism produced by cold stimulus in the fasting men may be spared by the ingestion of different kinds of foods. Our subjects were two healthy men of us who lied on bed with only a sheet of blanket during 5 hours after meal in the air-conditioned chamber of 0°C±2°C room temperature. The test meals are shown in table I. These contained, in every case, about 1000 calories for the subject S. S. and about 800 calories for the subject S. N., adjusted to both body sizes. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The extra calories above basal metabolism produced by the cold stimulus in the fasting men during 5 hours postprandium were 25.5% (subject S. S.) and 20.7% (subject S. N.) of each basal metabolism, but the extra calories produced by the cold stimulus after the ingestion of the high protein diet were 12.8% (S. S.) and I. O % (S. N.) of each basal metabolism. Therefore, 12.7% (S. S.) and 19.7% (S. N.), of the basal metabolism. or 50% (S. S.) and 95% (S. N.) of the extra heat produced by the cold stimulus in the fasting state were diminished following the ingestion of the diet. (table 4.) 2) In the high carbohydrate diet, 10.5% (S. S.) and 8.7% (S. N.) of the basal metabolism, or 41.% (S. S.) and 42% (S. N.) of the extra heat produced by the cold stimulus in the fasting state were diminished following the ingestion of the diet. (table 4.) 3) In the high fat diet, 6.1% (S. S.) and 5.9% (S. N.) of the basal metabolism, or 24% (S. S.) and 29% (S. N.) of the extra heat produced by the cold stimulus in the fasting state were diminished following the ingestion of the diet. (table 4.) 4) The high protein diet has the largest, while the high fat diet has the smallest sparing action of extra heat production by cold stimulus. These figures all in above were estimated on the assumption that the value of SDA of food would be constant in any environmental temperature. 5) The effect of the ingestion of food on the skin temperature in cold environment was almost negligible as in figure 2 and table 6.
The basal metabolism and the work metabolism of the farmers were measured in the busy farming season, in June 1954. The average basal metabolism of the 22 men with an average age of 30 years was 41.0 calories per square meter per hour. The lowest was 36.7, the highest 48.7. This average value was 12% higher than the Japanese standard. In the 12 women with an average age of 23 years, the average basal met abolism was 37.7 calories per square meter per hour. The lowest was 33.6, the highest 40.6. This average basal metabolic rate was 14% higher than the Japanese standard. The relative metabolic rates (R. M. R.=extra calories above resting due to work/basal metab.) of the various agricultural works were in the range of about 2.0 to 6.5. Considering the average R. M. R. during the working hours in a day, it showed the value of 4.0-5.0. On the 15 farmers, the time distribution of their daily life and their energy consumption per day were showed in comparison at the busy season and the leisure season for farmers, as follows:
Some problems on the estimation of Vitamin C in foods by Roe's method were studied. The disturbing action of various kinds of pigments contained in vegetables and alkali-treated fructose solution produced by the heating of foods must be considered in this procedure. Disturbing action of pigments as flavon-series and antocyan-series can be diminished or eliminated through the diluting of test solutions. The available range of dilution of the test solutions for this method are 10 and 100 in cases of egg-plant and beefstak-plant respectively. Though alkali-treated fructose solution also presents somewhat disturbing action, the degree of this disturbance can be eliminated from the relation between the wave-length and their extinction coefficients applied to colorimetrie estimation. The Roe's method of Vitamin C estimation can be sufficiently applied to vegetables and heated foods after these considerations. Vitamin C contents in several kinds of foods were estimated by the Roe's method.
The contents of 1-ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid of eleven species of vegetables were determined by 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method. The results show that total vitamin C and 1-ascorbic acid of leafy vegetables and balsam pear are accumlated mostly in the mature stage, after which those contents decrease gradually. In case of egg-plant and cucumber, their contents are the richest in the immature stage. The ratio of the content of 1-ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid to that of total vitamin C is nearly constant during the whole growing stage in sweet pepper, kohl-rabi and immature kidney beans with pods.
From the nutritional standpoint of Japanese people, the deficiency of calaium in their food has been pointed out recently. As we Japanese take it generally from vegetable foods and small fishes, it is very important to imvestigate the utilization of calcium in vegetable foods on human beings. However, we have not so many experiments about absorption of calcium in vegetable foods on human beings, especially in leaf vegetables. To determine the absorption rate of calcium in cabbage and “Tsukena”, the following experiment of 3 cases was made. In one case, 4 experimental subjects were given the basal diet which contains polished rice as the main food stuff and side dishes which are kept constant as to the amount and the Rind. In other cases, same subjects were given 1, 100g of cabbage or “Tsukena” per head per day added to the basal diet after boiling. It was found that the absorption rate of calcium in cabbage and “Tsukena” is higher on every experimental subjects than we had supposed, and generally the former is better than the latter. The average absorption rate of calcium in cabbage and “Tsukena” is 48.6% and 34.8% respectively.
The digestibility of protein, Fat and carbohydrate in Vegetables (cabbage and “Tsukena”) was tested on four human subjects, the results in cated that the digestibility of each conponent in those vegetables is not lower than we had supposed.
The method researched is as follows: Unsaponifable matter dissolved in benzene is passed through a colomun of acivated clay to remove vitamin A coexist with vitamin D, eluted part in the benzene was dissolved in chloroform and colour by trichloro- antimony reagent to estimation by colourimeter. When sterin coexist the difference of the deeping time of the colour is utilyzed to remove the effect of sterin.
Vitamin C is Well known as one of our indispensable nutritional elements which is contained abundantly in leaves of green Vegetables, and it is considered commonly that vitamin C in green leaves will be synthesized abundantly at the place of being not well lighted. And we hitherto have been very rare reported about informations on this problem. We have stude of the effects on Vitamin C synthesis in young green Vegetables on light of specific wave-length by using a simple substitute for filtering apparatus. As a result of our experiments we have recognized a tendency that the increase of vitamin C synthesis is marked in the place of being well lighted and especially, lights of compa ratively shlort wave length such as blue, green are likely to give good effects on the synthesis of vita-of min C.