栄養学雑誌
Online ISSN : 1883-7921
Print ISSN : 0021-5147
ISSN-L : 0021-5147
60 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の5件中1~5を表示しています
  • 武見 ゆかり
    2002 年 60 巻 2 号 p. 63-74
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    A new framework for the evaluation of participatory nutritional education is presented after a review of the concepts relating to participation and empowerment. There was a paradigm change from health education to health learning during the late 1980s in Japan, being similar to that from health education to health promotion in the Ottawa Charter of WHO in 1986. It is more important for people to participate in the planning and decision-making process than in its implementation. Community participation, involvement, organization, and empowerment are closely associated with this participatory approach. Japanese participatory health education, which is called health learning, closely resembles the idea of educational empowerment based on Freire's idea. In summary, participatory nutritional education needs the active involvement of participants in the decision-making process, dialogue among the participants, and identification of their problems and the social roots of these problems by critical thinking, besides empowerment for the action to overcome obstacles in achieving their goals.
    Few papers have been published in Japan on participatory nutritional education, and there is a need to discuss more about the methodology and to put most emphasis on the evaluation. In an ideal evaluation of participatory nutritional education, both an evaluation of the process and of the outcome are needed. The process evaluation should involve measurement on each level to identify individual, organizational, and community change. For the outcome evaluation, measurement should be made on each level to identify the knowledge, skill, attitude and behavior related to food and nutrition, food consumption, nutrient intake, nutritional and health status, and quality of life. The framework that I present in this article is intended to be useful for these evaluations.
  • 山村 千晶, 柏崎 浩
    2002 年 60 巻 2 号 p. 75-83
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The post-absorptive resting metabolic rate was reassessed by using published data for the Japanese basal metabolic rate (BMR). Concurrence between the observed value and that predicted by widely used equations for calculating BMR were also examined. All of the BMR data were measured under the post-absorptive condition early in the morning. The BMR value for each subject was also predicted from the sex, age and weight by using the equations presented by the Japanese Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA-Jpn) (1999), Schofield (1985) and FAO/WHO/UNU (1985). A stepwise regression analysis of the original data indicated that weight alone explained more than 40% of the BMR variance, while other independent variables (sex, age, height, BMI, and indoor and outdoor temperature) together explained 77.9% of the BMR variance. The difference between the observed value and that predicted by the RDA-Jpn equation was higher for lean subjects over 18 years of age who had been classified according to the body mass index (BMI) (BMI≤18.4kg/m2), than those predicted by the other equations. In contrast, the difference was less for the normal-weight subjects (18.5kg/m2≤BMI≤24.9kg/m2). The degree of concurrence between the observed and predicted value thus differed by group based on a subject's BMI. This finding indicates that the body composition should be examined in a future study to provide a more appropriate database for BMR than that based on previous BMR measurements.
  • 小野 茂之, 杉浦 陽子, 吉松 正, 江口 泰輝, 飯野 久和, 佐々木 大輔
    2002 年 60 巻 2 号 p. 85-91
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is known that the fecal bulk and short-chain fatty acids produced by the anaerobic microbial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates increase the colonic motility. The fecal bulk and short-chain fatty acids respectively act as physical and chemical stimuli. An increase in fecal bulk and short-chain fatty acids can be respectively achieved by ingesting non-fermentable and fermentable dietary fiber. The present study investigates the effects on defecation by female college students suffering from functional constipation of a dietary fiber (DF) beverage containing 3g of commercial depolymerized sodium alginate as non-fermentable dietary fiber and 3g of commercial water-soluble corn bran fiber as fermentable material. The presence of functional constipation was determined in accordance with “Rome II” diagnostic criteria, and clinical testing was performed by using a single-blind crossover test. Ingestion for 2 weeks of the DF beverage significantly increased (p<0.05) the number of days on which the subjects defecated. The DF beverage also tended to increase the fecal volume and to improve the fecal properties without the subjects showing any sign of gas being present in the colon. The results demonstrate that the DF beverage was effective for inducing defecation by subjects with a tendency to functional constipation.
  • 林 辰美, 伊東 るみ, 二宮 正幸, 伊藤 雄平
    2002 年 60 巻 2 号 p. 93-97
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    我々は, 先駆的に小児生活習慣病予防健診を実施しているS県KおよびH地区において, 1999年4月に身長, 体重および血圧測定を高校1年生1,542人 (男子794人, 女子748人) に対して行った。健診の基準値として用いている肥満度が50%以上の生徒および血圧が集団の95パーセンタイル値以上を示し, 二カ月後の血圧測定 (6月) においても基準値以上であった生徒43人 (男子20人, 女子23人) を対象に, 食生活, 生活習慣ならびに疲労自覚症状についての調査を行い, 特性を知るための検討を行った。
    疲労自覚症状と食事摂取との関連については, 精神的自覚症状の訴え得点が高い者には, 脂質, 加工調味食品, 漬物の摂取量が多く, 得点が低い者には味噌, 乳・乳製品の摂取量が多い, という有意な関連性が認められた。
    生活習慣の中では, 就寝時刻が23時以降になるほど, また睡眠時間が7~8時間より長くあるいは短くなるほど身体的, 精神的疲労の自覚症状を訴える傾向にあるが, 休日の過ごし方としてクラブ活動を行っている者の疲労自覚症状は少なかった。
    本調査研究によって, 若年肥満, 高血圧者には, バランスのとれていない食生活や就寝時刻の遅い生活習慣などに問題点を有していることが示唆された。
  • 大福 月江, 井形 和枝, 遠藤 千鶴
    2002 年 60 巻 2 号 p. 99-105
    発行日: 2002/04/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
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