In Japan, carbohydrate contents in the three meals, especially in breakfast, are considerably higher than in western countries. Rice has long been used as the main carbohydrate source so that it has come to be called the main dish. Dishes composed of other than carbohydrates, such as, fish, meat, yellow and green vegetables, are all called side dishes. A recent tendency, however, is that people taking bread as the main dish instead of rice have increased in number especially among urban populations. This report makes an attempt to find out any difference in the composition of side dishes between those who choose rice and those who choose bread as the main dish. Data have been extracted from 378 cases randomly chosen from the November 1975 Nutrition Survey of Yamaguchi Prefecture. The results showed that preference of rice or bread caused some different patterns of intake for each group of side dishes, and this led to different levels of nutrient intake between the rice and bread groups. Cereals accounted for a larger portion of total energy intake in menus containing rice than in those containing bread. Conversely, the proportion of animal protein in total protein intake was lower in the former than in the latter.
A survey of intake of beverages and ice cakes was conducted for three days each in May and August, 1979, to calculate the ingestion of sugar from them. The subjects were about 1700 school children residing in a farm village in Miyagi Prefecture. The results were as follows: 1. In pre and primary school children, soda drinks and ice cream accounted for around 30 per cent of total sugar intake respectively. With advance of age, the intake of soda drinks tended to increase and that of ice cream tended to decrease. This increasing tendency was particularly pronounced in males. The proportion of soda drinks in total beverage and ice cake intake by high school boys reached 65 per cent in both periods. Intake of soda drinks at night increased especially in August among junior high school and older children. 2. Intake of “sugar equivalence” contained in beverages and ice cakes was distributed widely among the subjects. There were many children who ingested less than 20g per day of sugar equivalence. On the other hand, a few boys of junior high school and older age ingested 150g or more sugar equivalence a day. Increasing intake of sugar equivalence with advance of age was observed only in males. Difference in mean values of sugar equivalence between both sexes was found in children of junior high school and older age, but not in younger children.