栄養学雑誌
Online ISSN : 1883-7921
Print ISSN : 0021-5147
ISSN-L : 0021-5147
64 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
  • 吉池 信男, 林 芙美
    2006 年 64 巻 1 号 p. 1-11
    発行日: 2006/02/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    「健康日本21」において解決すべき課題として挙げられている肥満, 糖尿病といった生活習慣病の予防の観点から, 2000年に当時の文部省・厚生省・農林水産省により策定された「食生活指針」が示す10の望ましい食生活のあり方について, 具体的に「何をどれだけ食べたらよいか」を示す視覚的媒体「食事バランスガイド」が, 2005年7月に厚生労働省・農林水産省より発表された。
    一方, 深刻な肥満問題に取り組む米国では, 科学的根拠に基づき5年ぶりに改定された2005年版の“アメリカ人のための食生活指針”の内容を受けて, 具体的な行動変容を促すための教育ツールであるフードガイドを十数年ぶりに改定し, 2005年4月に“マイピラミッド”を発表した。従来のフードガイドよりも, より個人を意識した内容となり, インターネットを介した情報発信やガイダンスを行っている。
    それぞれが国民に伝えるためにとったアプローチ手法は対照的ではあるが, シンプルに相手の興味を引き, さらに長続きできるような行動変容を支援していくことを目指している点は同じである。栄養教育に従事する管理栄養士等においては, それぞれの特徴や理論的背景等を理解し, 実践の場でぜひ柔軟に活用していただきたい。
  • 海老 久美子, 中尾 芙美子, 上村 香久子, 八木 典子
    2006 年 64 巻 1 号 p. 13-20
    発行日: 2006/02/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    高校1年生野球部員285名を対象として, 栄養・食事指導が体格の向上にどのように関与するかについて調査, 検討を行った。
    調査対象は, ほぼ同じレベルの実力を有し, 練習時間も同程度である, 15~16歳の1年生野球部員とした。部員は学校単位で, 栄養・食事指導をしない対照群と, 指導を行う指導群に分けた。
    結果, 指導前では対照群, 指導群の間に差は認められなかったが, 指導後の測定・調査において, 指導群は対照群に比べ, 体脂肪率で有意の低値, 除脂肪量で有意に高値を示した。また, 食事分析調査では, エネルギー量と多くの栄養素の摂取状況において, 指導群は対照群に比べ, 有意に高値を示した。さらに, 指導群には, 指導内容を反映した食事パターンの変化が確認された。このことから栄養・食事指導は対象者に理解され, 実行されたことが示唆された。
    また, 指導群の除脂肪量の増加量と1日の合計エネルギー摂取増加量, 及び, 午前中エネルギー摂取増加量, 穀類摂取増加量の間にはそれぞれ正の相関が認められ, それぞれの食事量を増やした選手に除脂肪量の増加が多いことが確認された。
  • 鈴木 純子, 荒川 義人, 大塚 吉則, 安江 千歳, 森谷 〓
    2006 年 64 巻 1 号 p. 21-29
    発行日: 2006/02/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    We examined the effectiveness of two types of nutrition education, one based only on the theory of health behavior (HB), and the other (HB+GI) on the theory of health behavior (HB) combined with the glycemic index (GI). The study subjects were 41 undergraduate students divided into two groups: 20 students for the HB nutrition education, and 21 for the HB+GI nutrition education. Each group of research subjects was educated by the respective method for 5 months.
    A comparison before and after nutrition education showed improved awareness and behavior of the students towards their diet. However, their awareness of good nutrition was improved much more than their behavior toward it, suggesting the further benefits of long-term education in order to improve eating habits.
    A comparison between the HB and HB+GI groups showed differences in the degree of change in the subjects' behavior; for instance, we found that the food intake by the HB+GI group became more nutritionally proper. These results show that nutrition education based on the theory of health behavior resulted in a more nutritionally suitable food intake when combined with GI considerations. We propose that nutrition education incorporating the perspective of GI can motivate students toward achieving a nutritionally proper food intake.
  • 宮崎 由子, 緒方 智子
    2006 年 64 巻 1 号 p. 31-43
    発行日: 2006/02/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The eating habits, psychological features, and nutritional conditions of 1, 219 female university students were surveyed in July 2002 for early detection of eating disorders and early treatment. The relationships among these factors were also investigated. The results of the eating habit questionnaire enabled the students to be classified into four groups: one healthy group with no eating disorders (63%) and three groups with a tendency toward eating disorders (37% of the total), comprising those with anorexia nervosa (AN, 1.5%), those with bulimia nervosa (BN, 31.1%), and those with both anorexia and bulimia (AN+BN, 4.4%).
    A nutritional assessment of 122 of the 1, 219 subjects indicated those tending toward a nutritional disorder accounted for 41.8%, including those with an eating disorder (ED, 2.5%) and undernourished persons (LN, 39.3%).
    Those persons tending towards an eating disorder who responded to a questionnaire regarding psychological features indicated a positive correlation between somato-type negativism and good-child thinking, binge eating and a desire for maturation, a desire for thinness and self-negation, and a desire for thinness and perfectionism.
    There was no significant difference in the self-expression item among the four groups (healthy, AN, BN and AN+BN); this seems to be a characteristic of female university students. The energy, fat and cholesterol intakes of the ED subjects were all lower, whereas the intakes of iron and dietary fiber were higher than those of the healthy subjects.
  • 田中 恵子, 池田 順子
    2006 年 64 巻 1 号 p. 45-53
    発行日: 2006/02/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    A questionnaire survey was conducted on female college students to examine how they check nutrition labels and use the information for adjusting their intake of four kinds of food: confectionery, soft drinks, milk products, and mayonnaise. The association between their label use and such characteristics as body image, nutrition knowledge, attitude toward nutrition labels was evaluated by a chi-square test, multinomial logistic regression analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis. The subjects were classified into three groups: those who don't read nutrition labels, those who do read them, and those who read and act on them. These groups respectively constituted 24.8%, 28.5% and 46.7% of the total. The multinomial and multiple logistic regression analyses identified body image as the independent factor associated with the transition from non-readers to readers of nutrition labels, while knowledge of energy requirements, adequate energy composition for snacks, usefulness of labels, understanding the contents of labels, and ease of label use were important factors in the transition from readers to actors. It is suggested from the results that clarification of required dietary habits before learning basic nutritional knowledge and accepting the usefulness and ease of label use are needed before education in label use can be effective.
  • 勝間田 真一, 松崎 広志, 坪井 理恵, 上原 万里子, 鈴木 和春
    2006 年 64 巻 1 号 p. 55-60
    発行日: 2006/02/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The effects were investigated of aging and a high-phosphorus (P) diet on bone metabolism in mice. C57BL/6J strain mice, aged 4, 12, 24 and 80 weeks, were randomly divided into two experimental groups (C and HP), each at the same age, one group being fed with a control diet (0.5% P) and the other with a high-P diet (1.0% P) for 28 days. The results with the control diet showed the 80-week-old mice to have a higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration than the mice at the other ages. The serum osteocalcin concentration and urinary excretion of the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx) were significantly lower in the 12, 24 and 80-week-old mice than in the 4-week-old mice, the urinary CTx excretion being significantly higher in the 80-week-old mice than in the 24-week-old mice. The breaking force and stiffness of the femur were both significantly higher in the 12, 24 and 80-week-old mice than in the 4-week-old mice, the stiffness of the femur being significantly lower in the 80-week-old mice than in the 24-week-old mice. The high-P diet resulted in a higher serum PTH concentration in the 12, 244 and 80-week-old mice, and a higher serum osteocalcin concentration and urinary CTx excretion in the 4, 12, 24 and 80-week-old mice than in the same-age animals fed on the control diet. The breaking force of the femur was significantly decreased by the high-P diet in the 80-week-old mice, while the stiffness of the femur was significantly decreased by the high-P diet in the 24 and 80-week-old mice. These results suggest that the high-P diet increased the bone turnover at all stages of life. Furthermore, the high-P diet seemed to have a greater effect on bone metabolism in the old mice than in the young and adult mice from the different response in PTH secretion.
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