For the purpose of evaluating the relationship between hone density and nutritional status in Japanese children, bone density measurements were made on urban and rural children aged 6 to 15 years and individual dietary surveys were conducted on rural children. Bone density was measured at the phalanx 5-2 center by the X-ray densitometric method. The film exposure conditions using a soft X-ray instrument were 45KVP, 5-10mAS according to the growth stage and 35cm focal distance. As a reference wedge, ivory was used. Bone density was calculated as a density index by the method of Williams and Mason. Bone density index is expressed as X-ray equivalent grams of ivory per cubic centimeter of bone. The bone density index increased with age in both sexes and was higher in girls than in boys. The density indexes of rural children were significantly lower than those of urban children at each age group in both sexes. The nutrient intakes of rural children were markedly low in vitamin A, vitamin C and calcium as compared with the dietary allowances by sex and age. When the comparison was made between Japanese and American children, the bone density values of Japanese children were slightly lower than those of American children.
The relationships between bone density and nutritional status were evaluated for two groups of urban and rural pre-school children aged 3 to 6 years. Bone density was measured at the phalanx 5-2 center by the X-ray densitometric method. The film exposure conditions using a soft X-ray instrument were 45KVP, 5mAS and 35cm focal distance. As a reference wedge, ivory was used. Bone density was calculated as a density index by the method of Williams and Mason. Bone density index is expressed as X-ray equivalent grams of ivory per cubic centimeter of bone. The bone density indexes of rural boys were significantly lower than those of urban boys, and the density values of rural girls were in a slight lower level as compared with urban girls, though the statistical significant differences were not seen between both groups. The nutrient intakes of rural children were much lower in animal protein, vitamin A and vitamin C than those of urban children. When 4-6 year-old boys and girls were divided into two groups respectively by the level of bone density index above “Mean+SD” and below “Mean-SD” and the nutrient intakes of these two groups were compared, vitamin A intake was found to be significantly different between them. And also, in two groups of boys who have taken a little amount of meat or milk and who have taken a little amount of vegetables in their dietary habits, their density values were significantly lower than the average density value of other boys group. These findings suggest that the bone density measurement at phalanx 5-2 center may be useful for evaluating bone formation with relation to nutritional status.
The investigation on the actual state of frequency in use and the refuse of several kind of main raw vegetables and fruits used for lunch in a institutional feeding facility has been carried out for about past eight years. The resuls obtained are as follows. 1. The foods which showed the highest frequency in use were carrot (85.0%), onion (56.5%), cabbage (44.2%), potato (28.3%), and sweet pepper (21.7%). The foods which showed high frequency next to the fomer foods were cucumber (31.9%), spinach (19.5%), tomato (12.8%), and brassica chinensis var komatsuna (11.5%), lettuce (10.2%), and their appearance was limited in the season. The foods which belonged to the lowest group in frequency were Japanese radish root (8.4%), kidney beans with pod. immature (6.6%), peas with pod. immature (3.1%), and daskeen. taro (1.8%). 2. The fruits were generally used in its season. 3. The average refuse rates (%) of Japanese radish, cucumber, carrot, sweet pepper, cabbage, tomato, onion, potato, citrus unshiu, apple and summer orange were 15, 5, 11, 18, 11, 3, 8, 8, 24, 11 and 40 respectively.