Development in 1993 of the remnant like particle (RLP) method for conveniently measuring the serum remnant lipoprotein level prompted many studies on the atherogenic significance and metabolism of remnant lipoproteins. A novel apolipoprotein B48 receptor incorporating remnant lipoproteins into macrophages in the arterial wall was discovered, and the genetic structure of the receptor was clarified. The expression of apolipoprotein B100 was recognized in the human small intestine, suggesting that dietary very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) might be synthesized in the human small intestine and converted into VLDL remnants and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). It is recognized that the atherosclerotic risk of postprandial hyperlipidemia is derived from an increase in remnant lipoproteins and that measuring the serum RLP level in the postprandial state is more sensitive and necessary for evaluating the atherosclerotic risk, because serum RLP maintains a high level all day in patients with diabetes mellitus or coronary heart disease. The relationship between postprandial hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance was clarified.
The inhibitory effects were examined of a hot-water extract of coffee beans on Kud: Wistar rats by an in vivo oral saccharinity tolerance test (OST), and the in vitro suppression of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase activity. The hot-water extract of coffee beans strongly inhibited the activities of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase, and reduced the postprandial blood glucose concentration by OST. Chlorogenic acid and acarbose strongly inhibited the activity of alpha-glucosidase, and reduced the postprandial blood glucose concentration by OST. However, caffeine, which is a major component of coffee beans, had no such effect. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of the hot-water extract of coffee beans on postprandial hyperglycemia may have been due in part to the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase by chlorogenic acid which is a major component of coffee beans.
A questionnaire survey was conducted on the variety and application of meals provided for the elderly in nursing and personal care facilities. Survey sheets were mailed to 470 facilities throughout the country, and 120 facilities responded. Average values of 3.1 types of rice and 4.1 types of dish were provided per facility. It is apparent that there was a difference in the perceived definition of dishes, but less about rice. A decision on the type of meal required is based on information from the patient's previous facility. 63.8% of staff responded that the appropriate type of meal for individual elderly patients is provided, although 80.8% of facilities need an index to easily judge the most appropriate types of meal. It is suspected there is room for improvement in this aspect. The level of satisfaction by elderly patients of the meals was related to their evaluation of the taste and appearance of the food. The results of the survey reaffirm the need to consider the most appropriate type of meal for each patient, and to make improvements to the meal service.
The development of body weight and bone mass of immature female and male rats in response to voluntary wheel running was evaluated for comparison with static animals. Four-week-old Fisher 344 rats were divided into a running group (8 female and 8 male) and a sedentary control group (9 female and 9 male). All animals were allowed free access to food and water. The female rats performed wheel running 7 times longer than the male rats. Running induced no significant difference in body weight associated with the increased food intake of the female rats. On the other hand, running exercise induced a decrease in both the body weight and food intake of the male rats. The weight of the tibia in the female running rats was heavier than that in the sedentary controls, although there was no difference in the weight of the tibia between the two groups of male rats. There was no significant difference in the levels of osteocalcine and sex hormones in the serum after the experimental period of 8 weeks between the two groups of both sexes. There was also no significant difference between the two groups of both sexes in the levels of deoxypyridinoline and free-type corticosterone, or between the two groups of female rats in the urinary calcium concentration during the 8-week experimental period. We conclude that sex difference was apparent in the development of the body weight and bone mass of the rats in response to voluntary wheel running.
A study was conducted on the eating habits and nutritional intake of female university athletes to assess suitability for maintaining health and improving performance. The subjects were rhythmic gymnasts (n=5), swimmers (n=5), tennis players (n=9), basketball players (n=9), badminton players (n=10), 6-a-side volleyball players (n=6), 9-a-side volleyball players (n=4) and basketball referees (n=9) who were surveyed in June and October of 1999. Each subject consented to participating in this study. The height, body weight, percentage body fat, lean body weight, eating habits and nutritional intakes of each athlete were evaluated over the study period. The lean body weight of the badminton and 6-a-side volleyball players was significantly lower in October than in June. The dietary intake of energy, protein and carbohydrate by all the sports players in June and October was lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Japanese, and there was no statistically significant difference between the two evaluation dates for these athletes, apart from the basketball referees. The respective rates of skipping breakfast, lunch and dinner were 21.4%, 8.3%, and 7.3%. Only 25.8% of the subjects had a diet composed of a staple food, main dish and side dishes, and cakes and sweets were eaten at one of the three meals. It seems likely that frequently skipping meals and eating cakes and sweets would be responsible for the undesirably low intake of energy, protein and carbohydrate by the university sportswomen, irrespective of the type of sport and training program.
A questionnaire survey was conducted on the milk intake by 77 breast-fed infants born during the two years from January 2002 to December 2003. Individual information on each infant and mother (weight, health condition, etc.), the amount of milk breastfed each day, and the amount of liquids other than breast milk taken each day were recorded. The intake data were recorded from the age of one month old to 5 months old. The intake of milk in a day varied from case to case. Although a relationship emerged between the intake of breast milk and the increase in body weight during the early months, this relationship was not maintained as the infants grew. The mean intake of breast milk per day was 777.8ml, this being higher than the figure of 750ml recommended before weaning in the 6-th Revised Edition of the Japanese Nutrition Intake.