About 50% thiamine in Udon fortified with thiamine-HCl lost by boiling it in the prosess of manufacturing. In the case of Udon fortified with Vit-B1 mononitrate or so called “Combined B1” (Vitamin B1 absorbed to Proteine) instead of Vit-B1-HCl, the same results were obtained. When fortified Udon was boiled in the water in which the retention of Vit-B1 in boiled Udon increased. The case of Udon fortified with “Combined B1”, the amount of Vit-B1 added in Udon was kept maintained.
“Fu” which is made by baking the mixture of gluten and flour is one of the protein rich food in Japan. It was studies whether thiamine and riboflavin in fortied “Fu” were destroyed by sodium bicarbonate as baking powder in the process of manufacturing of “Fu”. The amount of both vitamins in fortified “Fu” storing it decreased and especially the decrease of riboflavin is remarkable. When fortified “Fu” was immersed in water at cooking, about each 50% of both vitamins dissoloved out in water.
An intake, excretion and retention of manganese was observed on our previous experiment in which copper metabolism has been observed. The subjects were five healthy women (four 21yrs. and one 40yrs. old). Twenty days were observed. The analysis of mangnese was performed colorimetric ally as MnO4- on the same foods, feces and urin in previous experiment. About 3.5mg. of daily manganese intake was seen in this case. Excretion was 2.0mg., and 1.5mg. of retention was given.
Copper and iron metabolic study on two adult subjects was performed by two processes. The first is copper and iron balance experiment on normal diet in the fifteen days period with same purpose of last our report. The second is an experiment on absorbility of copper and iron in liver and oyster. They were used as sources in each seven days experimental period respectively. The sampling, experimental process and analytical methods are the same with our last report. In the normal diet period, 3.3mg. of copper was taken and 1.0mg. was retained per person per day, 20mg. of iron was also taken and 3mg. was retained. In the liver period, copper intake was 3.9mg. and it's retention was 1.9mg., iron intake was 49mg. and 2mg. was retained. In the third period oyster was given, 7.3mg. of copper was taken and 2.6mg. was retained, iron intake was 60mg. and 39mg. of retention was obtained. It was observed in this experiment that the equiliblium amount of copper will be lower than 3.3mg. on normal diet for adult men. Copper was mostly well absorbed in liver period, and iron was greatly absorbed in the liver and oyster period than normal diet period.
The authors have investigated four basic cooking methods, i. e. boiling, frying, steaking and broiling in order to find a satisfactory cooking method to prevent putrefaction of foods. The preservation period for meats in summer was examined and the following results were obtained. 1) It was generally found that all foods tested could be preserved longer in frying and broiling than when boiling and steaking methods were applied. 2) There was a tendency that in steaking, putrefaction of meats occurs at on earlier stage than in boiling, while a reverse tendency for fish and poultry was observed. 3) In regard of all tested foods, meats could be preserved for a longer period than fish an poultry. 4) It is concluded that two factors, the loss in moisture content according to the cooking method employed and the extent of contraction of the material are considered to be the main causes of the above resullts.
In order to search for a food most effective to promote the multiplication of Lactobacillus acidophilus in the intestine, cow's milk, whey, soybean juice, soybean juice whey, soybean infusion, swine liver infusion, tomato juice, and lactose-glucose-pepton solution were used as test specimens, and multiplication of L. acidophilus in these kinds of juice was examined and compared with that of L. bulgaricus. The results were: 1) L. acidophilus was found to increase in all foods above mentioned, out of which soybean juice was most effective on multiplication, cow's milk, soybean infusion, tomato juice and swine liver infusion following. The increase of the bacterial count was also recognized in lactose-glucose-pepton solution and soybean juice whey, while in whey little increase was observed. 2) On the other hand, L. bulgaricus multiplication was promoted in cow's milk, and in swine liver infusion it was comparatively good. But in whey only a little increase was observed and in the other foods even 96 hours's culture failed to promote the counts.
The anthor prepared a new medium from boiled so ybean toisolate Lactobacilli, and compared it with the agar media wich have been windely used for this purpose. Th eresults of isolation of Lactobacillus acidophilus from feces and saliva were compared between this new medium and other media, and it was found that soybean infusion agar had a same inconvenience as other media in discerning L. acidophilus from enterococci, but as to the number and growth of colonies and prevention from occurrin gthe extraneous organisms this new medium was much superior to others.
To as certain the effectiveness of the soybean infusion and soybean juice as foods which promote multiplication of Lactobacillus acidophilus an experiment was performed on albino rats. The results were: 1) By administration of soybean infusion the L. acidophilus count was recognized to increase in three rats out of four. 2) In case of soybean juice two out of four animals showed a tendency to promote the multiplication. 3) Coli-form bacilli, on the other hand, showed little change by ingesting either the infusion or the juice.
Lactobacillus acidophilus in the intestine of the rats was observed to increase when soybean infusion was administered. Soybean juice, too, indicated the same tendency. This paper is to report about the results of an experiment on human being, results being as follows. 1) The intake of 10% soybean infusion 500cc per day promote the multiplication of L. acidophilus, 2) The decreasing trend of coli-form bacilli was observed. 3) No effect was recognized by drinking soybean juice 1 liter per day.
On the determination of amino acid contents in serum, urine and foods, minimal medium for the microbioassay was established except cystine. There are two questions in the case of cystine. (1) The standard curve is low. (2) The recovery is no good. As it is thought that the fall of standard curve was due to the decomposition of cystine in the time of sterilization, the author observed the decomposition of cystine at the usual condition of sterilization (15 pounds, 10 minutes; autoclaving). And the decomposition of cystine was certified even in the exact condition of sterilization (15 pounds, 3 minutes, autoclaving).
By the improving of the condition at the time of sterilization, the fall of standard curve of cystine was removed, but the recovery was still undesirable. Therefore, the author re-examined the nutritional requirement by the test organism, and invented a minimal medium. The recovery by this minimal medium showed the satisfactory results on the analysis of cystine in serum, urine and foods. The character of this minimal medium was partial modification of uniform medium which was established by Gakuzo Tamura et al.
It is very interesting that copper and other mineral elements are excreted through the skin when they are metabolised in human body. Many studies concerning the excretion of minerals through the skin were attempted in the past. But those experiments were only held under specific conditions: such as one hour collection of sweat, some specific work or els any artificial enviromental condition. However, it is necessary to investigate the intrinsic sweating loss of them through the skin of human body. The author attempted to certify the amount of mineral loss throught he skin over 24 hours. Copper, iron, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium contents in sweat were measared in this experiment. Three healthy women were used for the subjects. So called liquidy sweat and contain greasy sweat and peeled off epitheliar cells filth which were all collected over 24 hours. Head, forearm and feet were omited from the weat collection in this experiment. It was observed in this experiment that daily loss from the skin for the copper was 1.0mg. or more, iron 3.5mg. or more, calcium 35mg. or more, phosphorus 15mg. or more, sodium 3.3g. or more and potasium was 2.3g. or more. respecsively. Ecretion by sweating was compared with urinary and fecal losses. Copper and iron losses from the skin were almost same quantity with fecal excretion, while, calcium and phosphorus were negligibly small amount. Copper and iron ballances were also studied. Copper intake in this experiment was 3.4mg., out of which 2.8mg. was retained excepting the sweating loss, and in case of iron, the intake was 5.6mg., retention being 1.8mg. per day per person respectively on 9 days experiment.
In the previous report, the author obtained the values of mineral losses through the skin in the summer period, and in this experiment, those of spring period were determined to compare the previous report. The condition of the sweat collection is exactly same with that of the previous experiment. The subjects were three healthy women, 21-23 years old. The sweat was collected over 6 days. The amounts of daily loss through the skin were as follows: copper was 0.7mg or more, iron 2.0mg. or more, calcium 34mg. or more and phosphorus was 42mg. or more respectively. Comparing these data with the previous summer period ones, the ratios of summer to spring were as follows: copper was 1/2, iron was 1/4, and those of calcium and phosphorus were almost 1. It was seen that the greater paret of iron loss from the skin was consisted of strip of the skin. Same as previous experiment, it was recognized again that the skin was a main excreting route of copper and iron in human body.
Continuing to the former report concerning the mineral excretion through the skin of the adult women, the author attempted in this report, to do the same experiment on infants. Experimantal method was same as in the former reports. Fourteen artificially-fed healthy infants, from 35 to 300 days old, were adopted as subjects in this experiment. The average daily losses of minerals from the skin were: copper 0.6mg., iron 1.4mg. Calcium 22mg. and phosphorus 31mg. respectively. Copper and iron metabolism were also studied. on the same infants. Average copper intake was 0.87mg./day, or 0.172mg/day/kg., and its retention was 0.17mg./day, or 0.033mg./day/kg.. Average iron intake was 7.2mg./day, or 1.4mg./day/kg., the retention being 1.37mg./day, or 0.29mg./day/kg., No significant variation due to the age or body weight of the infants was seen on the retention of copper and iron, and also on the mineral losses from the skin.
Not a few researches have been made in the composition of breast milk, but, as the proportion of the components to one another is apt to change from various causes, research workers have drawn a great variety of conclusions. The present writer has examined eleven lactating women in good life environment who are healthy and secreting their breast milk in sufficient quantities, in order to find out how much breast milk a day they have secreted over a period of six months since their time of delivery and whether the necessary nutrients (chiefly, protein and calcium) are contained in their breast milk in adequate quantities. The results of this examination are as follows. 1) The average daily quantity of breast milk is 865cc. for the first month and 930cc. for the second month respectively. This is a great quantity as compared with 625cc. for the first month and 791cc. for the second month given in Morishige's paper. According to the investigations of Morishige and other research workers, breast milk is supposed to increase in its quantity after the third month, but in the present examination it has not be seen that the quantity of breast milk increases as the lactation lengthens. 2) The average quantity of protein contained in 100g. of breast milk is 1.42g., a quantity close to 1.4g. given in the standard tables of food composition in Japan, but there have been great variation because of the conditions of the lactating women at the times of examination. 3) The average daily intake of protein by a baby is 11.7g. (per 1kg. of body-weight is 1.54g.), and this is a very small quantity as compared with 30g. of protein allowance for an average Japanese baby. 4) The average quantity of calcium contained in 100g. of breast milk is 25.7mg., and is smaller than 35mg. given in the above mentioned table. 5) The average daily intake of calcium by a baby is 0.217g., and this amounts to no more than 55 per cent of the allowance (0.4g. of calcium). The intake per 1kg. of body-weight is 0.0337g., and this is aquantity smaller than that given by Dr. Hayami. 6) It follows that neither protein nor calcium is taken in adequate quantities by the babies compared with the allowance, but those babies have gained weight satisfactorily.
Continuing to the former report concerning the metabolism of copper andiron on adult men, the similar study was also perfomed on children. The subjects were 6 healthy boys from 5.3. to 9.8m. years old. The metabolic study was held through 15 days. Average copper intake per child per day was 3.2mg., and urinary and fecal excretions were 0.1mg. and 1.3mg. respectively. The retention was 1.8mg. Converting these values to per kg. of body weight, 0.15mg. of intake and 0.08mg. of retention were obtained. Average daily iron intake was 11.7mg., urinary and fecal excretion were 0.5mg. and 9.0mg. respectively, therefore and the retention was 2.3mg. per day. in this experiment, These were equal to 0.52mg. of intake and 0.11mg. of retention per 1kg. of body weight.
Endogenous losses of copper, iron, manganese and zinc of human subjects were investigated in this experiment. Three healthy adult men were employed as the subjects, they were fed with test food which contained extremely low level of the minerals near to zero as possible. The period studied of on this low mineral diet was 2 days. The average daily amount of minerals found in the excreta were 0.7mg. for copper, 2.8mg. for iron, 1.0mg. for manganese and 1.6mg. for zinc respectively. Considering the accuracy of this experiment, it was supposed that actual endogenous excretion of each elements might be lower than those figures.
For the similar purpose with the former report, the amount of the endogenous excretion of minerals, such as copper and iron, from gastrointestinal tract were investigated in this experiment again with 6 healthy adult women. To ascertain the relation between the amounts of the endogenous mineral excreteion and their intake, 16 days of preliminary period was arranged. In this preliminary period, the subjects were divided into three groups: the first was fed with the ordinary diet, the second was given high amount of iron peroxide the diet and the third was given 30gr. of dry yeast per day beside the diet respectively. The average amounts of excretion of mineral per day were measured as follow: 1.0mg. for copper, 1.0mg. for iron, and 15mg. for calcium, for the coresponding intakes of 0.3mg., 1.5mg. and 33mg. of respective elements. No difference was seen among the 3 groups. due to the difference levels of mineral intakes in the preliminary period.
For the purpose of obtaining the data for the standard of calcium requirement of Japanese people, the following experiments were atempted. First of all, a experiment for adult women was performed and four healthy college women were employed as subjects. Total experimental period was 20 days; from Aug 8. to 27 in 1954 and was divided into four stages of five days; the 1st was the stage for preparation, the 2nd was for the basal diet, the 3rd was for milk calcium supplement: daily with 100gm. of yoghurt and the 4 th was for supplementing with 30gms. of fat beside the basal diet. It would be estimated that the calcium maintenance may be obtained if during the period in which the calcium balance was zero or near to zero. If the rate of calcium retention was estimated as 30per cent, the average calcium balance of the subjects might be obtained with the intake of 413mg; 8.3mg per kg. of body weight.
Four healty old women: three house wives (77, 76, 76 years old) and one laboratory worker (65 years old) were taken as the subjects for this experiment, whose average body weight was about 39.5kg. Total experimental period was 18 days; from 22 Aug. to 8 Sept. 1955, and was divided into three stages of six days. The average intakes of nutrients of those subjects throghout the total period were 1750 Calories, 55gms of protein and 20gms of fat and there was no much difference among each stage. But the average daily intake of calcium from the diet was increased from 270mg in the first stage to 370mg in the 2nd and then to 470mg in the 3rd, to change the calcium balance from negative to positive by take foods of higher calcium content. Calcium balance of three house-wives changed from negative to positive when the amount of calcium was increased, while the other one that was seemed to take usually much amount of calcium, showed negative balance through the total experimental period. The calcium balance of the three subjects would be maintianed by the intake of 391mg and it would be 9.6mg per kg. of body weight. More-over, if the results of four subjects were concerned, it requires the additional intake of 147mg of calcium per day to maintain its positive balance, and is 12.8mg per kg of body weight.
Succeeding to the former reports, with the similar purpose to obtain the data for the calcium requirement of Japanese children under ten years old: five school boys and one kindergarden boy were taken as subjects of this experiment. Fifteen days experimental period: from 28, July to 11, Augast 1956, was divided into 3 stages of equal length. The first was the stage for the standard experimental diet, containing calcium as much as 10mg. per kg, of body weight. In the second and the third stadium the subjects were divided into two groups and one group was given 180ml. of milk as a source of calcium in the second stadium and 0.5mg of calcium carbonate in the third to be able to take equal amount of calcium as in the second stadium. The other group was given in reverse order. By the result, in the first stadium, all subjects showed positive calcium balance: 51mg of retention for the average intake of 221mg. In the second and third stadium, according to the increase of calcium intake about 210mg, as the amount of retention 161mg and 145mg were obtained respectively. In this experiment, none of the subjects showed a negative calcium balance and the intake of 5.0mg per kg. of body weight was seemed to be necessary for the maintenance of its balance. Throughout the total period, the subjects showed calcium retention of 118mg on an average to the intake of 362mg per day. It means that 5.3mg of calcium was retained to the intake of 16.3mg per kg. of body weight.
The auther has made five reports about the changes of nutritional value of edible fat and oil by heating and cooking. In this paper it was observed that to what extent the low-temperature oxidized oil and heated one up to 200°C (prevented oxidation) would give effect on cholesterol levels both in serum and in liver of the old and young rats administered these oils.
A survey on the feeding way of infants was performed at urban and farming districts in Tochigi prefecture from the view points of the living area and of the educational grade of mothers. Results were shown as follows. 1. Breast feeding was 75.0 per cent, mixed feeding 18.9, bottle-feeding 5.0 and breast feeding by wet-nurse is 1.2 per cent respectively. 2. From the point of the living area, breast feeding was prevalent both in urban and farming district, but bottle-feeding was more frequent in urban than in farming. The breast feeding period was longer in urban than in farming district. 3. From the point of the grade of the mother's education, breast feeding is prevalent in the mothers graduated from primaly schools, on the other hand, mixed-and bottle-feeding were higher in the mothers graduated from high schools and colleges. Breast feeding period was longer in the former group than that of the later. 4. The growth of children by breast feeding was superior than that by bottle-feeding.
A nutrition survey of young women living in the City of Utsunomiya and its surroundings was performed in July, August and December 1959 and also in January 1960. Results were shown as follows. 1. The amounts of intake of calorie, protein, fat and iron were adequate, but those of calcium and vitamin A were under their allowances. 2. The amounts of intake of vitamin B1, B2 and C were reached to their allowances, but it would be desirable to increase their amounts of intake, because of their losses by cooking. 3. The amounts of intake, of these nutrients except fat are superior in summer than in winter. 4. The ratio of the amount of vitamin A to that of the carotene is 1:6.8.
Recently it has been said that the growth of infants fed on mixed and artificial feeding are superior to that of the breast feeding. To insure the actural state of infants. we attempted to investigate the growth of 746 infants living in the area of Nerima Health Center in Tokyo from April 1958 to March 1959. Results are shown as follows: 1. Out of 746 infants, breast feeding, occupied 46%, mixed feeding 37% and bottle feeding 17% respectively. These figures mean that the per cent of breast feeding was higher than that of the breast feeding of the all health centers in Tokyo. 2. From the points of sex and of ages (months) no differences were found among the growth of infants fed by three kinds of feeding. At the end of the first year, the body weight of mixed and artificial feeding infants were a little superior to that of the breastfed, but there is no significant difference on statistical treatment between them.
It seems that the mental and physical development of the children would be influenced by the growth at their birth. Therefore we investigated the relationship between the body weight of newborn babies and the conditions of their births, and also investigated the physiological derease of body weight with 873 newborn babies which were born from Janurly to December 1959, at a maternity hospital in Tokyo. Results were shown as follows: 1. The body weight of the male infants were 3.162kg. and those of female were 3.101kg. All of them were greater than those of the average weight reported in our whole country. 2. As for the relation between the period in mother's uterus and the body weight at birth, there was some difference between the male and the female. The body weight at birth of newborn babies being 40-42 weeks in mother's uterin was the greatest on both sex. The shorter the period in mother's uterus the smaller the body weight at birth. 3. The relation between the body weight and their born order was as follows: In the case of the male, the body weight incresed in the order of first, second and then third, on the other hand, in female, second, first and then third. 4. The relation between the body weight and the mother's age, showed that the body weight of the babies which were born by mothers of 30-31 years old were the greatest. 5. The highest grade of the physiological decrease of body weight was shown by the infants with medium birth weight. 6. The relation between the feeding way and physiological decrease of body weight was as follows: In the case of the breast-fed babies, the higher grade of decrease was seen in the babies of greater body weight. By mixed feeding, higher grade of decrease was seen by medium birth weight, and then bottle feeding babies showed generally smaller reduction. 7. The greater the decrease, of physiological body weight the longer time was required for the recovery.