A cross-sectional study on 468 males (aged 20-59) was conducted to investigate the relationship between their dietary characteristics and frequency of eating out. The frequency of eating out was categorized into three groups, namely ≥1 time per day, 2-6 times per week, and ≤1 time per week. The effect of nutritional labeling on the subjects' dietary awareness when eating out was also investigated. Those with a high eating-out frequency tended to have significantly more undesirable dietary habits. This was evident from the lower averages of three ratings, i. e., the balance score, vegetable score, and dietary habit score. These three scores were improved in the group with an eating-out frequency of ≥2 times per week when the subjects paid attention to and used nutrition labels. On the other hand, such an improvement was not clearly evident for those who had a low eating-out frequency. The use of nutritional labeling was therefore found to be effective for improving the general dietary habits of those whose eating-out frequency was high.
Dietary histidine has been proposed to decrease food intake and body fat. A powdered bonito bouillon extract, which was rich in histidine, was used in this study. In the first experiment, the rats were assigned to three groups, and fed a 20% casein diet, 20% casein +26% powdered bonito bouillon extract diet, or a 37.5% casein diet for 6 days. The food intake decreased on days 1 and 3 in the group fed with the 20% casein +26% powdered bonito bouillon extract diet, but there was no difference in food intake among the experimental groups on the other days. In the second experiment, the rats were assigned to two groups, and fed a 41.5% casein diet or a 18% casein +40% powdered bonito bouillon extract diet for 12 days. The food intake was depressed in the rats fed with the 18% casein +40% powdered bonito bouillon extract diet throughout the experimental period. The abdominal fat pads and epididymal fat pads were reduced in the rats fed with the 18% casein +40% powdered bonito bouillon extract diet compared with those fed with the 41.5% casein diet.
The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has recently been introduced to assess the clinical skills of medical trainees. This study develops scales and assesses the problems with such a system for evaluating the skill of a student at a registered dietitian school. All 34 undergraduates in the third year of a 4-year dietitian course were enrolled to examine the reliability of the scales for evaluating skills and to assess the test reliability. Significant correlations were found between two observers, and an acceptable Cronbach alpha level for the evaluation sheet was obtained. However, the result for the total correlation among collected data revealed several items decreasing the internal consistency. These items need to be investigated thoroughly and improved in order to increase reliability. We conclude that OSCE is a useful addition to the dietetic curriculum, offering an objective means of identifying weaknesses and strengths in specific areas of clinical competence.
This study examines the reliability and validity of the newly developed Irrational Eating Belief Scale (IEBS) that is expected to provide a cognitive approach to nutrition education. The subjects were 1, 045 adults (526 males and 519 females) who were recruited at a health center where they each had an annual medical check. Each subject completed a questionnaire involving IEBS, Internal Health Locus of Control (IHLC), life style and demographic information. A factor analysis was applied to the IEBS structure, and the reliability and validity of the IEBS subscales were examined. Three IEBS subscales were identified: negative thoughts about weight loss, evasiveness to changing eating habits, and barrier to changing eating habits. The level of internal consistency for each subscale was moderate. The scores for negative thoughts about weight loss were low with those subjects who frequently skipped breakfast and ate out. On the other hand, the scores for evasiveness to changing eating habits and barrier to changing eating habits were low with those subjects eating breakfast and vegetables everyday, although the former had a negative and the latter had a positive correlation with IHLC scores. The results for the three subscales suggest that evasiveness to changing eating habits, and barrier to changing eating habits demonstrate the reliability and validity of IEBS, but that negative thoughts about weight loss do not.
In addition to tocopherols, tocotrienols are considered to be a promising supplement to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. The recognition, use, and desire to take tocotrienols as a supplement by selected members of the Japanese Society of Nutrition and Dietetics were investigated in comparison with tocopherols. About 20% of the members took tocopherols as a supplement, the mean intake level per day being 133mg as α-tocopherol. This level is within the maximum intake level of 150mg/day as a supplement recommended by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Those members who felt the stress of daily life and were worried about their health took a higher level of tocopherols than those who did not feel the stress and had confidence in their health. However, few members took or desired to take tocotrienols, despite the fact that about 40% of the members who took any supplements to promote their health recognized tocotrienols. These results indicate that the use of tocotrienols as a supplement by selected members of the Japanese Society of Nutrition and Dietetics was much lower than that of tocopherols.