The effect was clarified in humans of protein intake on the mineral balance of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) after consuming an experimental diet without supplementation. The relationship between the protein intake calculated from the diet menu and data from mineral balance studies on 104 Japanese students was analyzed. The protein intake ranged between 64 and 136g/d, or 0.97 and 2.80g/kg of body weight (BW)/d. The respective intake of Ca, Mg and P was in the range of 294-1, 131, 154-379, and 807-2, 217mg/d, or 4.83-23.58, 2.44-7.83 and 13.46-45.69mg/kg of BW/d. The protein intake was well correlated with the mineral intake of Ca, Mg and P, and with the apparent absorption and urine excretion of the minerals. However, the protein intake was not correlated with the balance of these three minerals, while the intake of Ca and P was significantly correlated with the balance of the respective minerals. The protein intake seemed to have no effect on the balance of Ca, Mg and P for the experimental diet without supplementation or when using the data from mineral balance studies.
The effects of dietary biscuits containing medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) on the post-prandial blood lipid and glucose levels in healthy humans were investigated. Seven volunteers ingested biscuits containing 33g of MCT or 33g of long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs) and functional saccharide sweeteners. The two test biscuits were given with a seven-day interval between. Blood samples were immediately collected, and 2 and 4 hours after ingestion. The serum triacylglycerol (TG) level significantly increased after ingesting the LCT biscuit, but not after the MCT biscuit. The serum remnant-like particle cholesterol (RemL-C) level also significantly increased after ingesting the LCT biscuit, but not after the MCT biscuit. RLP-C showed the same tendency. These data suggest that the MCT biscuit may have suppressed the post-prandial elevation of RemL-C that is thought to develop or progress with arteriosclerosis. Moreover, the blood glucose level was significantly lower after ingesting the MCT biscuit than after the LCT biscuit. However, ketones significantly increased after ingesting the MCT biscuit. The overall results suggest that the MCT biscuit may endow a lower risk of post-prandial lipemia and hyperglycemia than the LCT biscuit, although more extensive trials are needed to confirm these preliminary findings.
We investigated whether the frequency of food intake was related to the serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1). The 92 subjects tested were healthy men and women from 40 to 79 years old. Each subject completed both baseline health-related questionnaires and questionnaires on the intake frequency of food in 1989, and offered blood samples to us at the same time. No subject suffered from cancer, cerebral apoplexy, diabetes mellitus, liver disease, or myocardial infarction during the follow-up period. The results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) show that the serum level of sVCAM-1 had a significant negative correlation with the intake of kamaboko (p=0.004) and tomatoes (p=0.040). We did not find any relationship between the sICAM-1 level and frequency of food intake. In summary, a high intake frequency of kamaboko and tomatoes may decrease the serum level of sVCAM-1, one of the markers for vascular endothelial cell activation.
The nutrient intake and iron status of female collegiate lacrosse players were investigated. The subjects were 12 players from one of the top teams in the Kyushu district. Six subjects (the anemia group) were classified into two blood iron levels: five subjects had iron depletion anemia, and one had ex-latent iron depletion. The other six subjects were normal in their iron status (the normal group). The anemia group had a lower iron intake than the normal group. The energy intake for both groups did not reach the estimated energy requirement for activity factor level I, although the protein intake met the estimated protein requirement. We recommend providing nutritional counseling to the players.
Oats and barley are rich in water-soluble dietary fiber which is mainly composed of β-glucan. This study evaluates the nutritional and physiological effects of the water-soluble dietary fiber, cereal gum, in oats and barley from animal and human experiments. Effect of the water-soluble dietary fiber in oats and barley on the lipid metabolism in rats The effects of ingested oat and barley gum on the plasma and liver lipid levels were examined in genetically obese and lean Zucker rats. Obese and lean male Zucker rats, aged 6 weeks, were fed for 34 days on a standard diet or on diets corresponding to 2% total dietary fiber. Both the oat and barley gum suppressed the liver lipid accumulation and elevation of the plasma cholesterol level in obese rats. The results of this animal experiment indicate that ingested oat and barley gum ameliorated fatty liver and hypercholesterolemia in obese Zucker rats. Effects of oat and barley gum on the lipid metabolism in rats The effect of various amounts of oat and barley gum added to the diet on the plasma and liver lipid levels was examined in cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 5 weeks, were fed for 9 days on a diet containing the oat or barley gum corresponding to 0%, 1%, 2%, or 4% soluble fiber. The plasma triglyceride, liver cholesterol, and liver triglyceride levels were lower in the rats fed on the diets containing 1-4% oat gum and 2-4% barley gum than in the rats fed on the gum-free diet. The diet containing 4% oat gum increased the fecal excretion of total lipids. The fecal excretion of acidic steroids was higher from the rats fed on the diets containing 2-4% oat gum and 1% barley gum than from the rats fed on the gum-free diet. The results of this experiment indicate that the minimum amounts of oat and barley gum, which acted as lipid-lowering compounds, were respectively 1% and 2% of fiber in the diet. Effect of oatmeal supplementation on the serum cholesterol levels in men with boundary and mild hypercholesterolemia We examined the effect of oatmeal containing β-glucan on blood lipids and the safety of its long-term intake in men with boundary and hypercholesterolemia. A total of 48 men with boundary and mild hypercholesterolemia were assigned to three groups. Each group A subject was given four pieces of placebo cookies once a day for 12 weeks, each group B subject was given test oatmeal cookies containing oatmeal at 30g/4 pieces, and each group C subject was given the same cookies containing oatmeal at 45g/4 pieces. The serum total cholesterol level for group C with boundary hypercholesterolemia was significantly lower than that for group A or group C (p<0.05). The results of this human trial indicate that supplementation with oatmeal at 45g/day (1.6g of β-glucan/day) decreased the serum total cholesterol level in men with boundary hypercholesterolemia. Additional human trial with oatmeal porridge An additional human trial with oatmeal porridge was examined; each subject in the oatmeal group was given oatmeal porridge containing 45g of oatmeal (1.6g of β-glucan) once a day for 12 weeks, and the control group subjects were given control porridge containing white rice and cellulose as the substitute for oatmeal. The level of serum total cholesterol in the oatmeal group was significantly lower than that in the control group throughout the ingestion period (p<0.05). This additional human trial indicates that oatmeal containing β-glucan could modulate the level of serum total cholesterol. Effect of oatmeal supplementation on the serum cholesterol levels in adults with boundary and mild hypercholesterolemia This study examined the effect of oatmeal on the serum cholesterol levels in Japanese adult men and women with boundary and mild hypercholesterolemia. Seventy-four men and nineteen women were randomly assigned to either the placebo or oatmeal group for