The relationship was investigated between the swallowing ability and nutritional index of long-term hospitalized patients to clarify the influence of dysphagia on the nutritional status. 55 chronic-stage rehabilitation patients under long-term hospitalization who were feeding orally were divided to two groups. One group consisted of 22 patients who had normal swallowing function (12 males and 10 females with an average age of 69.7±14.1 years) and received a solid diet, this group being regarded as the normal swallowing group, while the other group consisted of 33 patients who had mild dysphagia (21 males and 12 females with an average age of 75.5±11.3 years) and received a diet prepared for dysphagia, this group being regarded as the dysphagia group. The serum albumin level, body mass index (BMI) and energy intake adequacy of both groups were compared, and the relationship between dysphagia and nutritional index investigated. There was a significant difference in the serum albumin level between the normal swallowing group and dysphagia group, i.e., 4.0±0.3g/dl in the normal swallowing group and 3.4±0.4g/dl in the dysphagia group. The ratio of hypoalbuminemia was also significantly lower in the normal swallowing group than in the dysphagia group (i.e., 9.1% and 48.5%). BMI was significantly different between the normal swallowing group and the dysphagia group, i.e., 22.6±4.3kg/m2 in the normal swallowing group and 19.4±3.5kg/m2 in the dysphagia group. The incidence of low weight tended to be lower in the normal swallowing group than in the dysphagia group (i.e., 18.2% and 42.4%), while the incidence of obesity tended to be higher in the former than in the latter (i.e., 31.8% and 12.1%). The energy intake adequacy was significantly different between the normal swallowing group and the dysphagia group, i.e., 107.3±11.3% and 92.7±16.4%, respectively, there being a significant negative correlation between dysphagia and nutritional index. These results show that the dysphagia group was suffering from malnutrition, the nutritional status of this group being worse than that of the normal swallowing group. It is therefore suggested that dysphagia is a risk factor in the decline of nutritional status in chronic-stage rehabilitation patients during long-term hospitalization.
The similarity in physique of kindergarten children aged from 3 to 5 years and their parents and siblings was investigated in subjects from Shizuoka prefecture in 2002. There was no significant effect on the children's physique from either age or sex. A significant similarity was observed between the physique of a child and his or her mother, this similarity being stronger for the girls than the boys. The frequency of obese children was 34 % in those families with an obese mother/obese father and with an obese mother/non-obese father, 21% with an obese father/non-obese mother, and 14% with both non-obese parents. The correlation coefficient for BMI was significantly positive for those siblings of similar age, but was not significant with the parents. The obese children with obese parents spent longer watching TV, and spent less time playing outside the house than the non-obese children. There was a lower intake of soybean and its products, and a higher intake of meat by the obese children with obese parents. The obese mothers with non-obese children allowed their children free access to snacks and to eat snacks while watching TV.
The change in the absorption of deep-frying oil and substitution of the lipid between a food material and frying oil were investigated to standardize the absorption rate of frying oil for use in a dietary survey. Pork loin, pork fillet, salmon, horse mackerel and shrimp were used as the food samples. The absorbed amount of frying oil was calculated by the change in fatty acid composition (18:2) of both the food and frying oil before and after deep-frying. The variation in the absorption between each deep-fried food was small in comparison with the change in lipid amount before and after deep frying, i.e. the apparent absorption of frying oil. In contrast, there was wide variation in the substitution of the lipid among the food samples. In particular, the absorption of frying oil by the pork loin, whose lipid content was high, was twice the apparent absorption of frying oil. It is concluded that the difference in apparent absorption of frying oil by each deep-fried food sample depended on the difference in amount of the lipid substitution by deep-frying.
The relationships between the serum magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) levels and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in rats after a single feed of an Mg-deficient diet were investigated. A single feed of a control diet (control group) or Mg-deficient diet (Mg-deficient group) was given to male Wistar rats by the meal-feeding method. Blood samples were collected 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after the start of feeding. The Mg intake was significantly lower in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group 30, 60 and 120 minutes after the start of feeding. The serum Mg level was significantly lower in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group 120 and 180 minutes after the start of feeding. There was no significant difference in the serum Ca level between the two groups. The serum PTH level was also significantly higher in the Mg-deficient group than in the control group 120 minutes after the start of feeding. These results suggest that the Mg-deficient diet induced the change in serum PTH level without any change in the serum Ca level and that Mg is an important factor in regulating PTH secretion.
Phosphorus is an important component of phospholipids, ATP and other compounds. It has been suggested that a higher intake of phosphorus possibly inhibits calcium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, while casein phosphopeptide and some sugar phosphates have a facilitating effect on calcium absorption. The effect of phosphorus may therefore differ by its form, organic or inorganic. We measured the contents of sugar phosphates in major foods and estimated their dietary intake. Large amounts of glucose 1 phosphate, glucose 6 phosphate, and fructose 6 phosphate in the main glycolytic pathway and a small amount of galactose 1 phosphate were detected. Gender, age, and region are the main factors for differing food intake, so we calculated the daily intake of sugar phosphates as 135mg a day based on data from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan.
This study on the link between urinary amino acid and food intake was undertaken as one of the objectives of the Hyogo Prefecture Health Promotion Association. 90 women aged 58-78 years consented to the health examination required for this study. The subjects were classified as inhabitants of three types of area in Hyogo: city, inland, and seaside. Twenty-four hour urine was collected, and the taurine, 1-methylhistidine (1-MH) and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) levels were measured. The results show that the level of taurine in the seaside group was significantly higher than that in the city group (p<0.05), and that the 1-MH level in the city group was significantly higher than that in the seaside group (p<0.01). The 3-MH level in the seaside group was significantly higher than that in the inland (p<0.05) and the city groups (p<0.01). Those in the seaside group eating seafood 3 to 5 times per week had a significantly higher urinary taurine level (p<0.05), while those in the city group eating meat 3 to 5 times per week had a significantly higher urinary 1-MH level than the subjects in the other areas (p<0.01). The urinary 3-MH levels were similar in the three areas, and there was a positive correlation (r=0.43) between the taurine and 3-MH levels. It is concluded that the 3-MH level was related to the consumption of animal protein, including seafood and shellfish.