An overview is presented of the psychological theories and models that underlie the intervention used in many individual-based health behavior change programs to show theoretically based strategies for health behavior change. Reviewed are the stimulus response theory, social learning theory, health belief model, decisional balance model, and stages of change model. A number of psychobehavioral strategies based on these theories and models can be used by health promotion specialists to motivate clients toward healthier behavior changes and to guide the clients' actions while they make these changes. Theoretical frameworks can help health promotion specialists during the various stages of planning, implementing, and evaluating an intervention. All interventions for health behavior change need to be planned and evaluated according to proven theories and models. The theories and strategies discussed in this paper are focused on the individual-centered approach to health behavior change. Health promotion intervention must be integrated with the social environment-centered approach for influencing behavior at the group, organization, and community levels.
The medical cost in a year was analyzed for patients with hyperlipidemia according to the Mark method for analyzing cost-effectiveness. The patients were divided into groups undergoing nutritional therapy alone (N group: 83), nutritional therapy combined with drugs (N-D group: 17), and drug therapy (D group: 20). The medical cost of \42, 122 (337 at =\125) for each patient in the N group was \90, 000-\100, 000 less expensive than the costs for the N-D group and D group, being related to the types of drugs and the complications. Those patients with hypercholesterolemia (high TC) showed no difference in TC reduction among the groups. The patients in the N group with a TC level of more than 260mg/dl showed a greater TC reduction than those in the D group (-14.8±10.9% vs -4.7±9.7%, p<0.05). The total cost/patient in the N group was \61, 748 (494), this being \140, 000-\160, 000 less expensive than the treatment for the patients in the N-D and D groups. The patients in the N group with a TC level of less than 260mg/dl showed a greater TC reduction than those in the D group, while the patients with a triglyceride (TG) level of more than 150mg/dl (high TG) showed no difference in TG reduction among the groups. The annual total cost/patient for the N group was \54, 367 (435), compared with \80, 000 (640) and \180, 000 (1, 440) for the N-D and D groups, respectively. Nutritional therapy for the patients with a TC level of more than 260mg/dl and for those with high TG was more cost-effective than the treatments used for the N-D and D groups. Nutritional therapy should therefore be considered as the primary treatment in terms of reducing medical cost. The effectiveness of treating by nutritional therapy needs to be based on a diagnosic examination and physical measurement of each patient to provide the optimum treatment.
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is known as a substance for improving the blood pressure condition. The inhibiting effect on blood pressure elevation of vegetables with a high content of GABA was verified by applying pumpkin products, which contain a high GABA content, to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and then studying the change in blood pressure under salt stress. During the four-week experimental period, the blood pressure of SHRs in the untreated control group initially increased from 142mm of Hg to 185mm of Hg and then increased further to 220mm of Hg under salt stress. In the pumpkin-administered group, the blood pressure increased from 190mm of Hg to 214mm of Hg under salt stress, indicating an inhibiting effect. A difference in the degree of inhibition was noted in different pumpkin products, even though they had the same GABA content.