The author has proviously reported that the average time required in taking lunch by Japanese women from 18 years old to the lower twenties was 12 minutes and 44 seconds. From this survey on the time required in taking Soba (a kind of noodles) involving 3541 persons who were checked at a railway station stand, it was found that the time required for men was surprisingly short—from 2 minutes and 13 seconds to 2 minutes and 34 seconds, (average, 2 minutes and 22 seconds), and for women, though only slightly longer than men, from 2 minutes and 54 seconds to 3 minutes and 33 seconds, (average, 3 minutes and 4 seconds). The amount of food left in the bowl by women was larger than men. This is usually observed in Japan. It seems that the Japanese do not enjoy in taking their meals so much as Westerners do.
The food preference of the younger people living in 10 areas of Japan: Sapporo, Sendai, Kanazawa, Tokyo, Osaka, Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, Takamatsu, Kumamoto and Fukuoka was studied. Three hundred and fifty-five men and 394 women responded to the questionaire concerning 260 kinds of dishes investigated by means of the Food Action Rating Scale. The results are summarized as follows: 1. In general the men preferred better meat and fish, while the women did cakes, fruits and salads. 2. Almost all of the young generation seemed to dislike kuwai, okara, and shoyumame. 3. The average points of 260 dishes was over 5. 4. The standard deviation acquired proved to provide considerably good information. Some food groups were found to he especially preferred either by young men or young women. (a) Women tended to prefer rice, noodles and vegetables more than men. (b) Pulse, pickles and fish showed a low standard deviation. (c) Eggs and seaweeds showed the same pattern of preference. (d) Meat, milk and chowder (dish containing various materials served in a boiling pot) were preferred by both sex and also showed a low standard deviation. (e) There was a different taste for soup, mushroom and drinks between men and women. (f) Women particularily liked bread, cakes and fruits.
After calculating the caloric intake from the diet of growing infants and the calories expended from the time study of living activities, some desirable ways of distributing the daily diet into three meals were studied and the following conclusions were obtained. 1) The nutrient intake somewhat lacked in calories and there was also a shortage of calcium and vitamin A. The food intake showed a lack of rice, potatobread, potatoes, soy beans, yellow-green vegetables and milk. 2) Both the nutrient and food intake showed a high ratio from lunch and eating in the afternoon as shown from the distributive rate of each meal. 3) By dividing the expended calorie into three times per day—morning, afternoon and noon—, the approximate rate was 24% in the morning, 40% in the afternoon, and 36% at noon respectively for the average of both boys and girls. 4) The caloric intake showed an approximate rate of 24% from breakfast, 44% from lunch and eating in the afternoon, and 32% from dinner and eating at night. 5) The caloric intake from breakfast and the calorie expended in the morning were both balanced in accordance with the relation of the calorie expended and the caloric intake, but the caloric intake from lunch and eating in the afternoon was higher than the calorie expended in the afternoon. The caloric intake from dinner and eating at night was lower than the calorie expended at night. It is necessary that the caloric intake from eating between meals should be considered from the food quality of between meals, especially in the case of infants.
It was previously reported that night duty had influence on the dietary life of housewives and their family members. The purpose of this survey was to clarify the defect in the dietary construction of their dietary life taking time into consideration. Two hundred telephone operators who were on the alternating shift were taken as subjects and asked to keep records on themselves for five consecutive days, including a holiday. 1) The hours spent for performing domestic affairs were found to be differ according to the family type whether it was a single type family or a complex type including grandparents. The housewives of the single type family spent twice as much time as those of the complex type. 2) The percentage of housewives taking breakfast differed according to whether they had infants or not, and also to the condition of their duty. After night duty the percentage of those not taking breakfast was 70%, and the percentage of the day duty mothers having infants, 38%. 3) The housewives of the single type families began to prepare supper an hour later than those of the complex type families. In this case it is feared that their family life cycle will be disrupted. This problem becomes more serious when the housewife is on night duty and cannot assume any responsibility to prepare and look after the evening meal.