Type 2 diabetes is one of the most challenging health problems throughout the world and is increasing at an alarming rate. Most clinical evidence involved in therapeutic guidelines for diabetes is derived from European or American cohort studies, and the characteristics of diabetes in Asians, including Japanese, have been only poorly investigated to date, despite Asians constituting approximately half of the world diabetes population. The Japan Diabetes Complications Study (JDCS) is a nationwide multi-center prospective study of type 2 diabetic patients. In 1996, 2, 205 patients aged 40-70 years with previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes were recruited from 59 Japanese institutes that specialize in diabetes care. Parameters related to their diet, exercise, glycemic control, diabetic complication events, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity and quality of life have been measured and collected every year until now. It was clarified from the interim results of JDCS that the characteristics and pathophysiological backgrounds of diabetes in East Asians were quite different from those in Caucasian subjects. Compared with Caucasian diabetic patients, the JDCS patients had a much lower body mass index (BMI). Moreover, whereas the mean BMI of Caucasian diabetic patients was higher than that reported for non-diabetics of the same ethnic origin, the mean BMI of Japanese diabetic patients was normal in comparison with the Japanese non-diabetic population. Other differences between Japanese and Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes could be found in the incidence rate and risk factors of complications, the effects of moderate alcohol drinking on cardiovascular disease, and the clinical significance of the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. These profound differences demonstrate the necessity for obtaining clinical evidence based on a large-scale study of East Asian patients in order to establish and provide management and care specific to this particular population.
The glucose absorption was measured from the small intestine of streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, the Type 2 spontaneously diabetic model. Control, STZ and GK rats were fasted and sacrificed, and then the small intestine was isolated and perfused in vitro. A Krebs-Ringer buffer containing either 60 or 300mg/dl of glucose was perfused from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). After pre-perfusing for 20min, a 3% glucose solution was infused into the lumen from the duodenum for 30min. The total glucose absorption was calculated from the difference between the initial glucose concentration and that of the perfusate flowing out of the portal vein. The increase in the amount of glucose from the preperfusion was also calculated. Decreased glucose absorption was observed in the control rats after the glucose infusion into the lumen, when the perfusate glucose concentration rose to a high level. Increased glucose absorption was observed in the STZ rats with a 300mg/dl perfusate glucose concentration when compared to that with a 60mg/dl concentration, and no decrease was apparent. The glucose absorption by the GK rats did not change at all. These results suggest that the insulin-deficient STZ rats and spontaneously diabetic GK rats each showed an abnormal glucose absorption mechanism. Hyperglycemia may be attributable to a malfunction of the absorption mechanism.
To examine the influence of opinions about the school and school lunches on the lifestyle and health of children, a questionnaire survey on the lifestyle and subjective feelings was conducted on 2nd and 4th grade schoolchildren in two elementary schools in Fukuoka prefecture. Approximately 30% of all the children answered that the school lunch was not a“happy”event. The average height, weight, and body mass index of these children were lower than those of the children who answered“happy”. Most of them indicated subjective symptoms. Moreover, their intake of cereals for breakfast was little, and they eat snacks at will. Most of them stayed up until late. Approximately 50% of all the children answered that the school was“unpleasant”. Most of them indicated subjective symptoms, and had a higher probability of a low intake of breakfast cereals and drinking carbonated drinks at breakfast than the group of children who answered that school was“pleasant”. The opinions of the children about the school and school lunches were closely related to their lifestyle and had a strong influence on the appearance of subjective symptoms.
The effects were evaluated of nutritional and exercise intervention on the dietary habits and oxidative DNA damage in elderly women. We conducted eight health education sessions focusing on nutritional and exercise intervention with 36 women aged 64-86 years old (69.5±5.3 average age) in Seika-cho, Kyoto prefecture. The participants were divided into two groups, one combining exercise with nutritional intervention (NE), and the other with exercise alone (E). A food frequency questionnaire was conducted on anti-oxidative foods, and serum lipids, vitamins and urinary 8-OHdG were measured at the start and nine weeks later. The consumption of apple and nuts was significantly increased in the NE group, but not in the E group. The serum β-cryptoxanthin level was also significantly increased in the NE group, but not in the E group. The urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly decreased in the NE group, but not in the E group. It is suggested from these results that nutritional intervention with exercise was more effective than exercise alone for preventing oxidative DNA damage in elderly women.