This report is concerned with the second-year survey on 76 farmers in Yamagata Prefecture conducted twice in the summer and winter of 1956. The results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The nutritional status of these farmers resulted in deficiencies in animal protein, vitamin A, C, and fat in the one hand, and excesses of carbohydrate and salt in the other hand. (2) Features of the hypertensives were relative fatness and relative high serum cholesterol, and deficiencies in serum vitamin C and serum-cholinesterase (3) It seems that there are two kinds of hypertensives: one of them, is a well-fed city type with a high haemoglobin index and serum protein, and the other, an ill-fed rural type accompanying anaemia. Anyway, as the Japanese generally take a far less amount of fat as compared with Americans and Europeans, the origin of the hypertension cannot be attributed to the overtake of fat as supposed in the case of the European, but this is probably caused by the excessive intake of carbohydrate of the Japanese.
For the purpose of decision of nutritional repuirements for prisoners, the absorption rate of food, the basal metabolism, the body density, the body weight and the blood properties were measured during 33 days on 5 healthy male prisoners who were a little lower than Japanes standard physique in the state not to work such as tuberculosis patients. As the result of the experiment, the present supply of the 5th grade of the regulation of Justice Minstry maintained almost the nitrogen blance, and did not show the decrease of their body weight; and the supply which was increased by 10g. or 20g. of protein maintained the positive nitrogen blance, and showed a tendency to increase their body weight, basal metabolic rate and blood properties. Therefore, I observed that even the present supply of the 5th grade which contained 2100 Cal. and 78g. protein almost met for the requirements in the state not to work, and the supply which was increased by 10g. of protein and contained 2100 Cal. maintained enough for the calorie requirement in the state of no work.
In order to decide upon the nutritional requirements for prisoners, the same experiment as previous report was conducted during 29 days on 5 healthy male prisoners whose body structure correspond to the Japanese standard physipue. As the result of the experiment, the present supply of the 5th grade of the regulation of Justice Minstry showed the negative nitrogen balance, the decrease of their body weight and basal metabolic rate, but the supply which was increased by 10g. or 20g. of protein maintained the positive nitrogen balance, and showed a tendency to increase their body weight and basal metabolic rate. Therefore, the calorie supply for prisoner engaging in no work should he 2100 Cal. and the protein supply should be improved as 88g., e. g, increased by 10g. more than the present supply.
It is very important for the determination of amino acids in proteins or foods by microbioassay to know the best conditions of hydrolysis. This experiment was attempted in order to clarify the appropriate time of hydrolysis and the influences by carbohydrate coexistence and humin present in the hydrolysate. Ovalbumin was used as the test sample, and the following three kinds were prepared: 1) albumin only, 2) albumin plus glucose, 3) albumin plus starch. These samples were hydrolysed for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours, and of each hydrolysate, methionine, and threonine were determined microbiologically. As far as these two amino acids of ovalbumin are concerned, 6 hours' hydrolysis seemed to be proper, and the analytical values of the amino acids were more or less influenced by the presence of carbohydrate. Humin had also an influence on the values to some extent.
Eight non-essential amino acids contained in Japanese animal foods were determined microbiologically. The hydrolysis and other conditions were the same as those of the previous report, and as test organisms Leuconostoc mesenteroides P-60 was employed for the determination of most of the amino acids, except for alanine which was determined by using Leuconostoc citrovorum 8081. The results of the assay were found to be approximate to the figures of the literature.