Appropriate nutritional management for disabled individuals has attracted increasing attention in Japan following the implementation of the Handicapped Person Independence Support Law in April 2006. However, research dealing with health and diseases among individuals with intellectual disabilities lags far behind that dealing with health and diseases of individuals without such disabilities. Individuals with intellectual disabilities may have problems related to over– nutrition, under– nutrition, co– morbidity, eating behavior including bulimia and swallowing food whole, oral care, and drug administration. It is therefore necessary to provide dietary and nutritional support according to the individual needs of disabled individuals in order to promote their independence and quality of life. The long-term care insurance system for the elderly was revised in October 2005 to include nutritional care and management (NCM) which is a program providing nutritional management services that are designed specifically for each individual. NCM covers nutritional screening, nutritional assessment, nutritional care plan preparation, conferences, nutritional care plan completion, and nutritional care implementation, monitoring and assessment. It is necessary in the future to similarly implement NCM for disabled individuals and to provide dietary and nutritional support by using a multi–disciplinary approach centered on registered dietitians.
Recent growing interest in health and the diet has led to an increased focus on soy foods and their functional components, e.g., isoflavones. The labeling and isoflavone content of 20 commercially available health foods were assessed. The isoflavone content (aglycone equivalents) in one serving of soymilk was in the range of 20-29 mg, these values being almost the same as those reported on the labels of these foods. However, one soft drink had an isoflavone content 1/3 of the value reported on its label. Some powdered foods, e.g., kinako, contained 6-18 mg of isoflavones in one serving; the isoflavone content reported on the labels of these foods was almost equivalent to the actual isoflavone content of the foods. The isoflavone content of such solid foods as tablets, dried soybean, and soy snacks was in the range of 3-46 mg. One tablet contained only 2/3 of the isoflavone content reported on its label. Based on the presence of 12 isoflavone components, a wide variety of isoflavone components and contents was noted, and the foods were classified into three types: soymilk, soy extract preparation, and soybean. Differences in the isoflavone components of the health foods would vary the absorption rate and effect of the foods. Furthermore, differences in the age, sex, and individual characteristics of consumers also need to be considered when assessing the effectiveness and safety of isoflavone-containing health foods.
The relationship was investigated between the body mass index (BMI), eating habits and bone mass in male and female students. A questionnaire survey of the eating habits and eating behavior was conducted on 277 male and 317 female students. We measured the bone mass with a quantitative ultrasound device, the height, body weight, and body fat. We divided the subjects into three groups based on the BMI value: BMI<18.5 group, 18.5≤BMI<25 group, and BMI≥25 group. The percentage of female students who were actively seeking nutritional knowledge and information and who habitually assessed their own eating behavior was significantly higher in the BMI<18.5 group than in the 18.5≤BMI<25 group. However, there was no significant difference in these factors among the BMI groups for male students. The osteo sono assessment index (OSI) was significantly lower in the BMI<18.5 group than in the 18.5≤BMI<25 group of females (p<0.001). The results of this study provide useful data for the relationship between BMI, eating habits and bone mass in male and female students. The data reveal that appropriate nutritional education on bone metabolism in the BMI<18.5 group of female students was especially important for preventing osteoporosis.
An effective nutrition and health education strategy to prevent osteoporosis was examined by analyzing the factors related to the bone mass of female college students. Eight factors were related to the osteo sono-assessment index (OSI): the meat and poultry intake frequency, stir-fried food intake frequency, body mass index (BMI), understanding of proper weight, experience of dietary restriction, exercise habits, sources of information about nutrition, and food preferences. A multiple– regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between OSI and these eight factors. BMI had the greatest influence on OSI, and a principal component analysis showed that the food intake pattern was characterized by a preference for meat and poultry. These results show that maintaining a healthy BMI and improving the intake pattern of preferred foods are important factors related to nutrition and health education for preventing osteoporosis in female college students.
We conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine whether supplementation with soy peptide enhanced the effects of resistance training for community-dwelling frail elderly. The subjects comprised 33 elderly persons who had reported one or more fall experiences in the previous year (designated as “fallers”), and 50 elderly persons who had two or more geriatric syndromes among fall experience, urinary incontinence, disability in one or more items of five instrumental activities of daily living, and a low frequency of going outdoors. The subjects within each subgroup were randomly allocated into an exercise group and exercise plus nutritional supplementation group. Both groups participated in 1-hour supervised resistance training classes twice a week for 12 weeks. The nutritional supplementation group was given a soy-peptide beverage equivalent to an intake of 32 g of soy protein per week during this period. After the 12-week intervention period, the exercise plus nutritional supplementation group within the fallers showed a greater improvement in knee-extension power and usual walking speed, and greater reduction of white blood cell count than the exercise group. However, no significant additive effect of supplementation was apparent in the multiple-geriatric syndrome subgroup. Supplementation of soy peptide may enhance the effect of resistance training in a certain subset of the frail elderly.