The improving effects of a lifestyle education program on the arteriosclerosis index in male volunteers were studied, and the data obtained were analyzed in relation to their lifestyle. Out of the 307 male employees in a company in Nagoya with a slightly high risk of lifestyle-related diseases, 49 volunteers aged 30 to 60 years participated in an intervention program involving brief individual counseling and the distribution of a health-education newsletter once a week for 12 weeks. This program, aimed mainly at reducing the daily energy intake, consisted of (1) reducing the intake of sugar, confectionery and oil, (2) increasing the intake of seaweed, yellow and green vegetables, and soybean and its products, and (3) enhancing physical activity as much as possible, at least more than 7, 000 steps in a day. The results after the intervention trial show that nearly 50% of the volunteers had continued to implement objectives 2 and 3, and almost all had maintained objective 1. While the serum total cholesterol level remained unchanged, the serum HDL-cholesterol level had significantly increased, with significant improvement to the arteriosclerosis index. The improving effects continued for four years after the intervention trial. Those volunteers who could be judged to have a stable and active lifestyle best met objectives 1 and 2, and showed a higher serum HDL level.
This study investigates the relationship between infants' breakfast eating habits (296 kindergarten and 145 nursery school infants) and the dietary awareness of their parents (mostly mothers). The results show that most of the infants went to bed and woke up at regular times. However, 11% of the infants went to bed at 10-11:00p.m., and 10% had difficulty getting up in the morning. The later they went to bed, the more difficult it was to wake up in the morning. Five percent of the infants did not eat breakfast everyday, 24% of them ate breakfast alone or ate with siblings, and 34% of the infants ate only one type of food. The parents regarded “nutrition balance” as an important element of meals, except for breakfast. They preferred “easy-to-eat” and “easy-to-cook” meals for breakfast, rather than “nutrition balance”. The parents could be classified into four groups by the quantification theory. It is thought that appropriate guidance to mothers is necessary to improve infants' eating habits from the above-mentioned results.
The iron and vitamin intake, blood iron level and vitamin status in 14 female high school rhythmic gymnasts were investigated. Four subjects (anemia group) were classified into three blood iron levels: 2 subjects had prepotential iron deficiency, one had potential iron deficiency and one had iron deficiency anemia. Two subjects in the anemia group were on a special diet, so that the anemia group showed a significantly lower energy intake (kcal/body weight) than that of the normal group (n=10). Ferritin was significantly correlated with the energy intake and iron level from cereals. The blood iron status of the anemia group was poor due to the low energy and iron intakes, although the vitamin B1 and B2 intakes in all subjects were higher than the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs), while the blood vitamin B1 and B2 status of all subjects was adequate.
The relationship between the taste sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and food preference was examined in two-hundred and seventy-eight university students. The taste sensitivity to PROP was investigated by the labeled magnitude scale, the subjects being classified into non-tasters, medium-tasters and super-tasters according to their PROP sensitivity. The name of each food which was disliked, the reason and the time it had been disliked were examined by questionnaire. The degree of dislike for brightly colored vegetables by the non-tasters was less than that by the super-tasters, while the number of foods disliked by the non-tasters was fewer than those by the medium- and super-tasters. However, there was no apparent link between the sensitivity to PROP and the reason for the food dislike. These results suggest that the taste sensitivity to PROP may be related to the food preference.
We have produced nutritional teaching materials for classroom use to improve nourishment. This material was applied to low-income residents of “Ngombe Compound” by the local organization as part of the Sustainable Community Development Program (SCDP). These teaching materials for mothers and children incorporate ‘karuta’ cards, a food tree, and food medals. After having demonstrated the method of their use, we investigated the adaptability of the materials among mothers and infants through to college students. The mothers were most likely to make use of all these three teaching materials, with primary school children next. All these materials provide visual cues, so that even people who have low literacy can easily understand and make use of them. This is why their adaptability to the mothers was higher than to others with higher literacy such as high school and college students. We also found that food medals were highly adaptable to infants and primary and secondary school children. This means that we can apply these for infants through to secondary school children after devising their best way of use. Our opinion is that concern and interest in nutrition can be improved by repeating the practice through the games and plays with these nutritional teaching materials.