栄養学雑誌
Online ISSN : 1883-7921
Print ISSN : 0021-5147
ISSN-L : 0021-5147
63 巻 , 5 号
選択された号の論文の8件中1~8を表示しています
  • 北野 隆雄
    2005 年 63 巻 5 号 p. 253-259
    発行日: 2005/10/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    カルシウム (Ca) がヒトの生命維持に必須であることはよく知られている。Caの必須性についての研究は, 生化学や分子生物学の分野で明らかにされてきている。しかしながら, 日本人のCaの必要量については, 余り多くの報告は認められない。それは, Caの生体内の利用がその他のミネラルや他の栄養素によって影響されることによる。
    この報告では, これまで我々が行ってきたCa栄養に関しての基礎的・疫学的研究について報告した。
    まず, たんぱく質摂取とCa出納について, 3~6歳の小児27名と19~21歳の6名の成人男子において研究を行った。次に尿中窒素, Ca排泄ならびに成長との関連を9~15歳の男女児217名を対象に調査を行った。その結果, たんぱく質摂取とCaの尿中排泄には有意な相関が認められた。また, 結果としてたんぱく質摂取とCaの体内保留には負の関連が認められた。これらの結果は, 日本人においてもたんぱく質の摂取が, Caの体内利用に影響していることを示唆している。
    その後, 骨密度と体組成ならびに生活習慣について, 20歳の女性214名を対象に10年間の追跡調査を行った。また, 19~40歳の女性2,652名について横断的研究を行った。その結果, 骨密度と除脂肪量, BMIには有意な相関が認められた。また, 体脂肪率は骨密度と負の相関が認められた。
    Caの体内利用性については, 他のミネラルや栄養素との関連について明らかでないことが多くある。
    食生活のあり方やヒトでのマクロな栄養研究から, 栄養素の働きについての研究が必要であると言える。なぜなら, それは栄養学が, 人々の健康と幸せに寄与する予防医学であることによる。
  • 石川 豊美, 堀江 祥允, 堀江 和代
    2005 年 63 巻 5 号 p. 261-271
    発行日: 2005/10/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The improving effects of a lifestyle education program on the arteriosclerosis index in male volunteers were studied, and the data obtained were analyzed in relation to their lifestyle. Out of the 307 male employees in a company in Nagoya with a slightly high risk of lifestyle-related diseases, 49 volunteers aged 30 to 60 years participated in an intervention program involving brief individual counseling and the distribution of a health-education newsletter once a week for 12 weeks. This program, aimed mainly at reducing the daily energy intake, consisted of (1) reducing the intake of sugar, confectionery and oil, (2) increasing the intake of seaweed, yellow and green vegetables, and soybean and its products, and (3) enhancing physical activity as much as possible, at least more than 7, 000 steps in a day. The results after the intervention trial show that nearly 50% of the volunteers had continued to implement objectives 2 and 3, and almost all had maintained objective 1. While the serum total cholesterol level remained unchanged, the serum HDL-cholesterol level had significantly increased, with significant improvement to the arteriosclerosis index. The improving effects continued for four years after the intervention trial. Those volunteers who could be judged to have a stable and active lifestyle best met objectives 1 and 2, and showed a higher serum HDL level.
  • 綾部 園子, 小西 史子, 大塚 恵美子
    2005 年 63 巻 5 号 p. 273-283
    発行日: 2005/10/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study investigates the relationship between infants' breakfast eating habits (296 kindergarten and 145 nursery school infants) and the dietary awareness of their parents (mostly mothers). The results show that most of the infants went to bed and woke up at regular times. However, 11% of the infants went to bed at 10-11:00p.m., and 10% had difficulty getting up in the morning. The later they went to bed, the more difficult it was to wake up in the morning. Five percent of the infants did not eat breakfast everyday, 24% of them ate breakfast alone or ate with siblings, and 34% of the infants ate only one type of food. The parents regarded “nutrition balance” as an important element of meals, except for breakfast. They preferred “easy-to-eat” and “easy-to-cook” meals for breakfast, rather than “nutrition balance”. The parents could be classified into four groups by the quantification theory. It is thought that appropriate guidance to mothers is necessary to improve infants' eating habits from the above-mentioned results.
  • 宮本 徳子, 今村 裕行, 益田 玲香, 山下 あす香, 宮原 恵子, 濱田 繁雄
    2005 年 63 巻 5 号 p. 285-290
    発行日: 2005/10/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The iron and vitamin intake, blood iron level and vitamin status in 14 female high school rhythmic gymnasts were investigated. Four subjects (anemia group) were classified into three blood iron levels: 2 subjects had prepotential iron deficiency, one had potential iron deficiency and one had iron deficiency anemia. Two subjects in the anemia group were on a special diet, so that the anemia group showed a significantly lower energy intake (kcal/body weight) than that of the normal group (n=10). Ferritin was significantly correlated with the energy intake and iron level from cereals.
    The blood iron status of the anemia group was poor due to the low energy and iron intakes, although the vitamin B1 and B2 intakes in all subjects were higher than the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs), while the blood vitamin B1 and B2 status of all subjects was adequate.
  • 須藤 紀子, 佐藤 加代子
    2005 年 63 巻 5 号 p. 291-299
    発行日: 2005/10/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    市町村保健センターの栄養指導担当者においで, 妊娠中の飲酒が生まれてくる子どもに悪影響を及ぼすことは漠然と認識されているが, 具体的にどのような障害が生じるのかについてはあまり知られていない実態を受け, (1)これまでに前向きコホート研究において観察された, 妊娠中の飲酒が子どもに及ぼす影響にはどのようなものがあるかを整理し, 情報提供することを目的とした。また, 少量飲酒であれば容認する意見もあったことから, (2)飲酒量のレベルを純アルコール14g以下の少量飲酒に限定した場合でも, 障害が認められるかどうかを明らかにすることを目的とした。系統的レビューの結果, 妊娠中の母親の飲酒の影響は, 成長遅滞, 先天奇形, 脳の形成異常, 睡眠障害, 神経学的機能障害, 認知力低下, IQ・学習能力の低下, 言語発達遅滞, 注意欠陥, 問題行動と多岐にわたることが分かった。少量飲酒が子どもの身体発育に及ぼす影響については研究結果間で不一致がみられ, 一定の見解は得られなかった。今後はこれら一つひとつの障害について絞り込んだ文献検索を行い, メタアナリシスを用いて研究結果を統合することで, 科学的根拠に基づいた飲酒指導を行うためのエビデンスを蓄積していく必要があると考える。指導の現場においては, 妊娠中の少量飲酒が子どもに及ぼす影響について研究結果が不十分である現時点では, 少量飲酒を容認することは避けたほうがよいと考えられた。
  • 小杉 理絵, 堀尾 強
    2005 年 63 巻 5 号 p. 301-306
    発行日: 2005/10/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The relationship between the taste sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and food preference was examined in two-hundred and seventy-eight university students. The taste sensitivity to PROP was investigated by the labeled magnitude scale, the subjects being classified into non-tasters, medium-tasters and super-tasters according to their PROP sensitivity. The name of each food which was disliked, the reason and the time it had been disliked were examined by questionnaire. The degree of dislike for brightly colored vegetables by the non-tasters was less than that by the super-tasters, while the number of foods disliked by the non-tasters was fewer than those by the medium- and super-tasters. However, there was no apparent link between the sensitivity to PROP and the reason for the food dislike. These results suggest that the taste sensitivity to PROP may be related to the food preference.
  • 遠藤 千鶴, 井形 和枝, 大福 月江, 光崎 龍子
    2005 年 63 巻 5 号 p. 307-313
    発行日: 2005/10/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    We have produced nutritional teaching materials for classroom use to improve nourishment. This material was applied to low-income residents of “Ngombe Compound” by the local organization as part of the Sustainable Community Development Program (SCDP). These teaching materials for mothers and children incorporate ‘karuta’ cards, a food tree, and food medals.
    After having demonstrated the method of their use, we investigated the adaptability of the materials among mothers and infants through to college students. The mothers were most likely to make use of all these three teaching materials, with primary school children next.
    All these materials provide visual cues, so that even people who have low literacy can easily understand and make use of them. This is why their adaptability to the mothers was higher than to others with higher literacy such as high school and college students.
    We also found that food medals were highly adaptable to infants and primary and secondary school children. This means that we can apply these for infants through to secondary school children after devising their best way of use. Our opinion is that concern and interest in nutrition can be improved by repeating the practice through the games and plays with these nutritional teaching materials.
  • 井階 幸一
    2005 年 63 巻 5 号 p. 315-317
    発行日: 2005/10/01
    公開日: 2010/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
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