We developed a foods and dishes database from the data of 3-day weighed dietary records (DR) of 1,071 participants in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences, Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA). This database (594 dishes or foods) contained the mean weight, number of servings (SV) for each category of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top, and the mean weights of the food and nutrient contents. We applied the food balance questionnaire (FBQ), which could count SV, and estimated the nutritional intake by using the database. FBQ and 1-day DR were produced from 91 volunteers in Aichi Prefecture (35-79 yr), the validity of the nutrient intake assessed by FBQ being checked by 1-day DR. The differences in nutrient intakes by FBQ and 1-day DR, and the differences between quintiles of FBQ and 1-day DR were examined. Mean SV values were 4.3 (grain dishes), 5.6 (vegetable dishes), and 6.1 (fish and meat dishes). Carbohydrate, salt, vitamin B1, and niacin were significantly different between FBQ and 1-day DR. The 65% (salt) to 84% (vitamin C) subjects were categorized in the same or adjacent category. Extreme differences between quintiles were in the 0-3% range. FBQ was proved useful to easily check the diet balance and nutritional intake.
We investigated the physical properties, sensory characteristics and electromyography (EMG) of mixed sol-gel samples as a model for minced food to find how the difference in gel size affected the ease of eating. Mixed sol-gel samples were prepared by agar gel with a thickening liquid in three different gel sizes. The textural measurements show that the hardness of the samples was larger and the cohesion was lower with increasing gel size. The adhesiveness of the samples increased with increasing gel size, apart from the sample with the largest spherical gel. The result of sensory evaluation shows that cohesion in the mouth and ease of swallowing were dependent on the adhesiveness, and that firmness in the mouth was not dependent on the hardness of a sample. The numbers of chews required for a sample was not dependent on the gel size. The masticatory electromyographic measurements show that there was difference for each individual subject, with no significant differences among the samples. Samples that were thick with the sol did not need mincing if they were tender, and the size of the gel had less effect on the ease of eating than its hardness.
The content of vitamin C in 17 kinds of vegetables and fruits was analyzed by two different high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods, one with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD), and the other with visible absorption detection (hydrazine/HPLC-VIS). The data and usability were compared between these two methods. The value for total vitamin C (ascorbic acid+dehydroascorbic acid) by HPLC-ECD was comparable to that by hydrazine/HPLC-VIS, and significant correlation was obtained (r=0.984, p<0.01). When compared to the hydrazine/HPLC-VIS method, HPLC-ECD required fewer steps for the analysis and a shorter analytical time, gave a higher specificity for ascorbic acid, and could be applied for the analysis of both ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid. These results show the superiority of the HPLC-ECD method for a vitamin C analysis of vegetables and fruits.
Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is widely used for assessing the total body, and sometimes visceral, fat content. However the reliability of the results remains to be confirmed, especially for their relationship to the blood parameters associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. We analyzed the relationship between some blood parameters and the body fat content evaluated by standard X-ray computed tomography (CT) and BIA. Fifty-eight male and 52 female healthy subjects (20-72 years old with a body mass index of 16.3-30.6 kg/m2) underwent both CT and BIA. The visceral fat content was consistently higher in the males than females, regardless of the method used. However, the absolute value by BIA was higher than that by CT. The total and visceral fat contents of the females assessed by CT were positively correlated with the blood leptin, glucose, HbA1c and triglyceride levels, and negatively with adiponectin. The total and visceral fat contents of the males were also positively correlated with the leptin, HbA1c, triglyceride, and insulin levels, and negatively with adiponectin and HDL cholesterol. Similar correlations were also found for the males when the fat contents were assessed by BIA. However, apparently different relationships were found for the females when assessed by BIA compared with those by CT. Assessing body fat by BIA may give some results different from those estimated by the standard CT method, particularly for the relationship with obesity-associated blood parameters.
An unbalanced diet and low weight in women of childbearing age are becoming more common and are considered as important health problems in Japan. The “Dietary Guideline for Pregnancy and Lactation” was revised in 2006, and shows the proper weight increase during pregnancy based on pre-pregnancy BMI, and nutrition education for the pregnant woman and family. A nationwide survey was conducted among registered dietitians at those medical facilities offering obstetrics and gynecology to identify how nutrition assessment and nutrition education were being applied. The response rate was 16.0% (n=208). The respective application of nutrition assessment to outpatients and inpatients was 22.7% and 30.7%, while 31.8-39.8% received nutrition education based on appropriate energy and nutrients. These results suggest that it may be necessary to revise the system for providing nutrition education to the relevant patients. The answers from the medical facilities show that there was no coordinated system with another organization in 58.7% of cases. Comprehensive action for women of childbearing age and expected mothers is necessary to provide cooperation between the community and medical facilities.
The strategies were qualitatively examined for coping with temptation during a weight-loss program. Self-response questionnaires were distributed to 65 adults (22 males and 43 females) in October 2007, 6 months after they had participated in a weight-management program in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Each subject answered open-ended questions about the strategy for coping with temptation regarding weight control, and the answers were categorized by two researchers. The respondents provided 461 items which were assigned to 61 sub-categories in five categories. These categories were counter-conditioning (188 items), eating style (98 items), stimulus control (78 items), cognitive coping (70 items), and social support (27 items). Most coping strategies were similar to the process of change that constitutes the transtheoretical model (TTM). The results of this study suggest that cognitive coping strategies, which are presumed in TTM to be common during the early stage of behavior change, can also be employed during the action and maintenance stages, and that eating style, which is not included in the process of change, may be an important coping strategy for changing eating behavior.