Some of the most influential bodies for the direction of international nutrition policies are the United Nations System·Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN), the international conferences and summits related to nutritional matters, the general assembly of the United Nations and the guidelines on nutrition by United Nations organizations or authorized academic associations. SCN promotes cooperation amongst UN agencies to strengthen the coherence and the impact of actions against malnutrition with other partner organizations. The International Conference on Nutrition and the World Food Summit were held in the 1990s, and the objectives that were established were to halve the number of food-insecure and malnourished people by the 21st century, although these objectives are still far from being met. Millennium Development Goals established at the UN General Assembly in 2000 with the declared intent of radicating extreme poverty and hunger, reducing child mortality and improving maternal health, with emphasis placed on nutrition activities for achieving these goals. WHO has reported that child and maternal underweight are the leading global risk to disease, disability and death in the world today. Many guidelines have been developed by such responsible organizations, as WHO and UNICEF, and by academic associations to share a common understanding for combating global malnutrition, including PEM, iron deficient anemia, vitamin A deficiency and iodine deficiency. Although governments of developing countries and donors follow these guidelines, effective measures for nutrition related to HIV/AIDS, life-style related diseases, and anemia have yet to be sufficiently implemented, and measures for developing the international growth standards and food/nutrition aid in an emergency and during war are still challenging issues. Since poverty, hunger, conflict, population growth, food insecurity, infectious diseases, gender issues and environmental problems are strongly associated with feeding all the human beings, we have to widen the scope of nutrition science to adopt these challenging issues so that we can develop international nutrition as an applied science and contribute to combating global nutritional problems.
The effect of bittern on a mouse IgE-mediated dermatitis model was examined. Both the immediate- and delayed-type responses elicited by the IgE-antigen treatment were significantly suppressed in mice treated with bittern. On the other hand, MgCl2, the main component of bittern, failed to suppress either the immediate-or delayed-type response. Furthermore, bittern was found to inhibit IgE production in mice treated with ovalbumin. These results suggest that bittern may improve the pathological state of human atopic dermatitis.
This study was conducted to identify how best to educate adolescent women on nutrition to improve their dietary habits and how this improvement can lead to increased calcareous stiffness. The calcareous stiffness, dietary habits and living conditions of the subjects were first evaluated. Those whose calcareous stiffness was relatively low were randomly divided into two groups; an education group and control group. Those in the education group were given advice based on the evaluation of their dietary habits. A little less than 6 months after that, each subject in the education group started to keep a dietary record and details of the improvement steps taken, while continuing with appropriate education concerning dietary habits and health. The calcareous stiffness of each subject was then determined for the second time, and the usefulness of the nutritional education was discussed. The results of this study show that the subjects in the education group improved in their dietary habits when compared to those in the control group. A before and after difference in the calcareous stiffness was apparent in the subjects of the education group, but not in those of the control group, demonstrating that the increase in calcareous stiffness was related to the nutritional education. Although the relationship between the change in calcareous stiffness and that of dietary habits should be further investigated, the education method used in this study proved to be very effective for improving dietary habits.
The intake of dietary fat, especially saturated fatty acid, has noticably increased in Japan as a result of the Westernization of eating habits. Itoh et al. have shown that the postprandial insulin release in healthy young women was stimulated by meals rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA). Vanadium is known to be a trace element that mimics the biological effect of insulin. The objective of this present study was to evaluate the effect of mineral water containing vanadium on the insulin insensitivity induced by a diet rich in SFA. Twenty healthy young women participated in this crossover study. We used two kinds of mineral water containing approximately 60μg/l of vanadium (water A and B). The subjects were assigned to two groups of 10 subjects each forrespectively ingesting water A and water B. Vanadium-free mineral water was used as a control. Each subject ingested each type of water and a diet rich in SFA for 8 days. Fat constituted 30% of the total energy in the ratio of saturated fatty acid (S): monounsaturated fatty acid (M): polyunsaturated fatty acid (P)=5:4:1. On the last day, the plasma glucose level and serum insulin, triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels were measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120min after the evening meal. Water A reduced the serum insulin level in comparison with the control value 120min after the meal. A similar effect was observed with water B. The postprandial plasma glucose level showed no significant difference between the control and mineral water containing vanadium. Our results suggested that mineral water containing vanadium had a beneficial effect on the insulin insensitivity induced by a diet rich in SFA.
The eating attitude of undergraduate students studying a nutritional science course is reported. The survey was designed as a longitudinal study to examine the change in eating attitude. The participants (79 female college students) answered the same questionnaire twice, once as first-year students and then as third-year students. They were asked what importance they placed on their ideal dietary habits such as “eating satisfaction”, “food culture”, “nutrition” and “cooking”. They were also questioned about their subjective knowledge and skill, the stage of change in their ideal dietary habits, and the desire to become dietitians. The results of the questionnaire survey show that “eating satisfaction”, “food culture” and “cooking” in their ideal dietary habits are considered more important as third-year students than when they were studying in the first year. The third-year students also responded that they have more knowledge and skill to express their ideal dietary habits. However, the students who are in control of their ideal dietary habits did not increase from the first to third years of study, and there was no relationship between the change in eating attitude and their knowledge and skill. Only the aspect of “food culture” in the eating attitude was related to the desire to become a dietitian. This result may provide ideas for educating in eating attitude as part of dietetic education. It may be important for dietitians to have a well-balanced eating attitude, and to keep to a diet that brings them close to this attitude. Our observations provide the essential information that students studying to become dietitians should acquire a well-balanced eating attitude and modify their eating behavior to suit this attitude during nutrition education.
The physicochemical and sensory properties of rice prepared with different types of were examined. These large-scale rice cookers used gas, electricity and induction heating as the energy sources, and rice prepared with a normal gas rice cooker for family use was used as the reference sample. A difference in the overall preference among the rice samples prepared with different cookers was apparent with the low-price Tsugaru roman variety. According to the curve for increasing temperature, there was no difference in the time to reach boiling point between the gas cooker and the induction heated cooker. Both cookers maintained over 98°C for more than 20 minutes which is needed to gelatinize the starch in rice. In contrast, the time taken to reach boiling point with the electric rice cooker was too long, and the degree of gelatinization of the starch in the upper layers of the rice was insufficient. These results for large-scale cooking of rice indicate that an induction heated cooker should be used when electricity is the energy source, because the curve for increasing temperature is equivalent to that for a gas rice cooker. It was confirmed that the temperature history plays a key role in rice cooking.