The purpose of this study was to estimate some relationships between a constipation and sex, body mass index (BMI), lifestyles, and dietary intakes in collegiate students; males (n = 172) and females (n = 256). Based on the Rome's criteria, subjects were divided into three groups: a regular stool group (R), a tend-to-be-constipated group (T) and a constipated group (C). Following results were obtained. The C group was 3.5-fold higher in the females than in the males (males 2.9%, females 10.2%). The average physical activity level was 2.07 and 1.70 in the males and females, respectively. There was no significant difference in the BMI among the three groups in both sexes. The daily food intakes and nutrients were much more in males than in females. After adjusted for the energy intake, no significant differences were observed in almost all food and nutrient intakes in both sexes, and/or among the three bowel groups. Mean intakes of daily dietary fiber were similar both in males and females (males; 11.6±4.0 g/day, females; 12.1±4.9 g/day). Although dietary fiber intakes per 1000 kcal energy were significantly higher in females than in males, there were no significant differences among the three bowel groups. The males who took daily water over 1,500 ml were more in the R groups than in the C groups. Both males and females who did not defecate at a set time decreased in the R groups, but increased in the T and C groups. Based on these results, it was suggested that sexual differences, lower PAL, lower intakes of water including milks, and irregular times in a bowel evacuation but not in the BMI, might be concerned totally with the incidences of the constipation.
We investigated the relationship between the caregiver's meal and their fatigue by an analysis with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire completed by the main caregiver. The 90 caregivers were 25 men and 65 women aged 20–80 years. They took care of patients at home who required more than level 3 care or who suffered from cognitive dysfunction. Adjusted for sex and age, neither the intake of grain nor of fish and meat, which were the main food groups in respective grain meals and fish and meat meals, was significantly correlated with the caregiver's perception of fatigue. On the other hand, the correlation between caregiver's fatigue and the intake of bean and seaweed food groups was significant (p < 0.05) or non-significant (p < 0.1). Elucidation of the most appropriate type of food for the principal meal will be necessary to minimize the perception of fatigue by the caregiver.
This study was made to help children develop lifelong healthy and good eating habits. A life skills-based nutrition education program was developed for 5–6th graders in elementary schools and its effectiveness and problems were evaluated. The development of family-related self-esteem and social skills was found important for children to develop the habit of eating breakfast. The children were shown how to choose low-fat snacks by considering the available choices and prospects of results in the decision-making steps. An awareness of the needs and benefits made it possible to set a specific and practicable objective to eat vegetables for breakfast. Nutrition education approximately doubled the percentage intake of vegetables and improved the nutritional balance of breakfast. The children who increased their scores for decision-making and goal-setting skills in the tested schools also improved their ability for analyzing advertisements and making good food choices. Classroom teachers should conduct life skills education throughout the school to ensure the effectiveness of running this life skills-based nutrition education program.
The mean national calcium intake has never satisfied nutritional requirements since the national survey of nutrition began. Insufficient calcium intake leads to increased osteoporosis, making it difficult to ensure a high quality of life as Japanese society continues to age. Proper management of bone mass is indispensable for women to prevent osteoporosis in later stages of life. This study was performed to improve the intake of calcium in the various stages of life and to prevent osteoporosis. Calcanel stiffness was measured, and a survey carried out on the nutrient intake, dietary awareness, eating behavior and lifestyle of college students, pregnant women and senior citizens. Although there was generally an insufficient intake of calcium, nutritional education during the early period of pregnancy had a positive effect on the calcium intake and resulted in a significantly improved intake. The results of the study show that calcanel stiffness was higher in the subjects who drank more milk, had a greater intake of calcium and other nutrients, and were aware of the positive effects of dietary and physical behavior on healthy bones. Early nourishment education was important at each stage of life, as well as regular bone mass measurements and being provided with appropriate information. The study shows the importance of promoting changes in dietary behavior and of recommending a better diet that the general public can realistically follow.