Since the relationship between food preference and regional difference seen in middle school girls has not yet been known enough, this study was made for the purpose of making it clear the difference between food preference, father's occupation, and food intake of middle school girls. The subjects were 856 girls in the middle school in two districts, Yamagata (Northern Japan) and Saga (Southern Japan) for this study. The age of the girls were 14. The results obtained were as fallows. 1. Significant difference was not observed in obesity rate (Yamagata 14.6%, Saga 10.9%) We adopted Dr. Hibi's Method (1972) in judging obesity. Girls weighing over 120% of their standard weight were judged as obese. 2. The rate of taking breakfast (Yamagata 84.3%, Saga 78.9%) was not related with obesity rate and regional difference was not seen in the breakfast taking rate. 3. There was no relation between obesity and midnight meals. 4. Preference of some food (egg, pork, cow's milk, sausage, salted fish gut, pickled plum, chocolate, ice-cream, bean-jam bun) had no relation with obesity, but regional difference was observed.
In Japan, districts of longevity have become the object of academic study since 1950. However, owing to the recent economic developement, the population and habits in these areas have been drastically changed. Moreover, in 1975, average life expectancy of Japanese people reached 71.76 (male) and 76.95 (female) years old. Thus, it became necessary to survey these districts in mountains, rice fields, isolated islands and seasides. The age of all centenarians in the areas was confirmed by the official birth record (Koseki). Population of old men and women in each area in Feburuary 1976 was listed. Most of the islands and seasides were visited during June, 1976. The results were as follows: 1. In every area except Nishinoshima (Shimane), Ishii and Aizumi (both are close to Tokushima city), the percent of inhabitants over seventy years of age has been increased since 1950 (Table 1). The highest figures (male 12.1%, female 19.6%) were observed in Ohgimison (Okinawa) as contrasted with 3.9% (male) and 5.3% (female) of the average Japanese (Table 2). The emigration of young population (maximum 30% per 5 years) was observed in every area except Ishii and Aizumi (Table 3). 2. The percent of inhabitants over ninety years of age was 0.19 (male) and 0.23 (female) in the mountains, 0.06 and 0.20 in the rice fields, 0.24 and 0.72 in the islands and 0.25 and 0.61 in the seasides. Ohgimison had the highest figures (male 0.4%, female, 1.3%) with population of 4, 126 including four centenarians. The eldest person in Japan was 112 years old. Most of these old people in the areas were hypertensive and their diet habits in their youth were characteristic to each area (Table 4). Otherwise, their case histories were similar to the reports on average Japanese centenarians (1975, male 157, female 651), and they had long-lived parents or close relatives. 3. The diet and life style of these old people (Table 4) and all inhabitants (Table 3) in these areas have changed completely. Instead of barley (most of the area) or sweet potatoes (Okinawa) taken in the past, rice became the major diet in every area. Characteristic diet in each area was lost except Okinawa. Of all working population in these areas, percentage of fishermen and foresters decreased (20 to 60%). Ten out of sixteen areas became resorts.
The subjects, whose daily nutrient intake is under the Dietary Allowances, have been indicated as being undesirable nutritures on the basis of the data concerning food intake investigations. But, these indications are merely based on the comparisons between the food intake and the Dietary Allowances. Hereupon, in order to confirm whether the nutritures of young women (college students) who are in these situations are inadequate or not, each caloric intake and fluctuation of body weight were examined every day through a week in three seasons (April, June, and August). It was found that though their caloric intakes were lower than the Dietary Allowances, their body weight were constant and they could engage in full activities. The authors assumed that these situations need no apprehensions.