The Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of Obesity published in January 2006 by Japan Society for Study of Obesity are reviewed in respect of the standard treatment, management and prevention of obesity and metabolic syndrome, and the relationship between these disorders.
Proper management of bone mass during pregnancy is indispensable for women to prevent osteoporosis in later age. The calcanel stiffness of 100 pregnant women was measured and an investigation by questionnaire was carried out on their nutrient intake and dietary awareness and behavior at three stages of pregnancy: early, middle and later stages at 3-4-month interval. The average stiffness decreased during the last stage, but it didn't change or increased in 25% of the subjects. Dietary awareness was significantly higher in this 25% group at the early stage of pregnancy, and the nutrient intake, particularly of calcium and vitamin A, tended to be higher in the middle stage. A close link was apparent between the past milk intake and the change in stiffness, but not between the past degree of exercise and the bone change. The result of the calcanel stiffness increasing in the pregnant subjects who took more milk, calcium and other nutrients with positive dietary behavior indicates that a nutrient intake of high quality contributed to healthy bones. It is important to improve dietary habits during both pregnancy and the pre-pregnant period.
Studies on the weight rebound were studied with 60 women who had taken a 6-month course of a weightreduction program. These women were within 0.5 to 5.0 years after successfully participating in the program. The women participating in the program did not show any symptoms of serious diseases, except for those with simple obesity and a BMI score of higher than 25. Some of them experienced a significant weight rebound after completing the program. The present results indicate that those who gained weight failed to restrict their energy intake at meals, and also that their eating behavior tended to be greatly affected by outside stimuli. A further investigation randomly assigned the 60 women to 4 groups to find an effective way to prevent them from regaining weight. The first group was those subjects who did not make any effort at all during 6-month intervention period. The second group was regularly provided with intervention by telephone, the third group was provided with only information regarding diet and health through newsletters, and the fourth group was given the intervention by both telephone and newsletters. The treatment, which consisted of psychological support by oral communication as well as the constant offer of current news related to diet and health, seemed to be the most effective approach to control the weight of obese women.
Eggs and milk are two major allergens for preschoolers. This study analyzed the frequency of using eggs and/or cow's milk in dishes, and the proportion of these foods in the private menus and shared menus for nursery school lunches in the Okayama district of Japan. Eggs and/or cow's milk were used for more than 40% of the dishes in both private menus and shared menus. In respect of the staple foods, 40.8% of the private menus contained eggs and/or milk, this being significantly higher than the 14.1% of the shared menus. With the main and side dishes, in contrast, the shared menus contained eggs and milk more frequently than the private menus. Eggs and cow's milk in the main dishes were more often found in processed foods, while cow's milk itself was often used in snacks in the shared menus. These results clarify that the frequency of use of eggs and cow's milk in the menu items differed between private menus and shared menus. These differences need to be considered to deal with food allergies in nursery schools.