Metabolic syndrome is a new concept of disease that indicates a high risk state for the development of atherosclerosis, and develops due to an over-intake of fat and lack of exercise based on our changing life style. Metabolic syndrome is accompanied by a number of metabolic disorders including dyslipidemia, high plasma glucose, hypertension and central obesity. One of the characteristics is an increased risk of coronary artery diseases or diabetes, even though the degree of each metabolic abnormality is not particularly severe. Insulin resistance plays a key role in the development of metabolic syndrome, this being closely associated with visceral fat accumulation. The pathogenesis of insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome is caused by a change in the secretion of such cytokines as TNF-a from adipocytes, depending on the region of accumulation. The treatment of metabolic syndrome needs long-term management of patients concerning modification of their life-style with the careful assessment of pathological adipocytes.
This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of educational intervention on the glycemic control of type 2 diabetes. We searched for English language trials in the Medline database (1986-2005). Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials, tested the effect of health education on adult patients, and reported extractable data on the effect of treatment on glycohemoglobin (GHb). A total of 30 studies of 115 initially identified articles met these selection criteria. We classified the studies into one of the following categories by the type of intervention: diet and exercise, use of education tools, educational approach, mode of instruction, and telephone follow-up. We then calculated the pooled effect sizes by using random effect models. The largest decrease in GHb was observed with diet and exercise intervention (standardized difference in means (SDM)=-0.722, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-1.032--0.412). It was difficult to reduce the body weight and GHb by diet management alone, so exercise needed to be incorporated into the program. Since telephone follow-up was also effective (SDM=-0.229, 95% CI=-0.444--0.014), using a telephone instead of visits would be a feasible option for planning sustainable education programs for workers.
A questionnaire survey was conducted with a total of 1, 269 parents of the children attending 13 kindergartens in Miyagi prefecture to examine who takes care of the children's meals. Mothers are living with 96.7% of the children, and 99.1% of those mothers take care of their meals. The meals for 78.6% of all the children are taken care of only by the mothers. Fathers are living with 92.7% of the children, and 7.9% of those fathers take care of their meals. In some households, a grandparent, especially the mother's mother, takes care of the children's meals. Of the parents who take care of the children's meals, 36.3% reported being bothered with this activity, while 35.9% of these parents were candid in their answers, including reporting personal problems. Almost all the parents taking care of their children's meals pay attention to nutrition, taste, and other attributes, as well as teaching their children suitable table manners for eating the meals.
The threshold level of the five basic taste attributes was examined in elderly subjects for comparison with the levels in young subjects. The relationship among the taste threshold, sex, drinking, smoking, and artificial teeth was also examined, and the features of the food preference and taste were compared between the elderly and young subjects. The threshold level of all five taste solutions for the elderly subjects was higher than for the young. No relationship among the taste threshold, sex, and artificial teeth was apparent. Any influence of drinking and smoking on the taste was not clear, because the amounts of alcohol and tobacco consumed by most of the elderly subjects were small. The elderly had less preference for a sweet taste than the young. No correlation between the taste preference and taste threshold was apparent. These results suggest that the sensitivity for all the basic taste attributes of the elderly was inferior to that of the young, and that the taste preference also differed between the elderly and young subjects.