We examined the effects of fat intake and dietary fish oil on the development of obesity in mice. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to one of five groups. The first group was fed with a high-carbohydrate control diet (10% safflower oil by energy), the second group was fed with a moderate-fat diet (30% safflower oil), and the third group was fed with a high-fat diet (60% safflower oil) for 16 weeks. The other two groups were fed with fish oil instead of safflower oil as a moderate-fat diet (30% fish oil) or a high-fat diet (60% fish oil) for 16 weeks. The mice fed with the 60% by energy safflower oil diet developed marked obesity, hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia, while the mice fed with the 30% safflower oil diet developed slight adiposity in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue compared to the control group. The body fat, blood leptin and insulin levels were lower in the two fish oil groups than in the 60% safflower oil group. No significant differences in blood lipids, body weight and fat were apparent between the 30% and 60% fish oil groups, and both fish oil groups showed lower blood lipid levels than the respective safflower oil groups. These results indicate that the long-term intake of safflower oil might cause slight obesity in mice, even at a 30% by energy fat intake. Replacing all this dietary fat with fish oil effectively inhibited any body fat increase and improved the blood lipid profile in mice.
The linespread test, a simple method for measuring the physical properties of homogeneous paste foods, was used to measure the spreading distance, and the resulting data was compared with the hardness based on textural measurement and mouth feeling. A hard paste food was found to spread a relatively short distance. In addition, samples adjusted to the hardness of yoghurt [(4.15±0.11)×102N/m2] tended to spread different distances depending on the thickener used. A sensory evaluation of similar samples showed that greater spreading tended to be stickier in the mouth. These results show that the linespread test to measure spreading distance can be utilized by healthcare facilities and hospitals as a simple technique to estimate such textural properties as the hardness and stickiness of sol-state foods.
We measured the basal metabolic rate (BMR), fat-free mass (FFM) and physical activity level (PAL) of well-trained bodybuilders as typical athletes with muscular development by resistance training in order to examine the standard BMR and PAL ranges for athletes. The subjects were 14 bodybuilders (mean±SD age: 36.8±9.1y.; height: 171.6±6.2cm; weight: 77.1±7.6kg; FFM: 67.6±6.8kg) who each trained for an average of 7.5h per week. BMR was measured by using a Douglas bag, the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and FFM was measured by dual X-ray energy absorptiometry. PAL was measured by the doubly labeled water method for 7 subjects selected from the 14 bodybuilders. BMR/FFM was 25.4±2.1kcal/kg of FFM/day. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was 3, 432±634kcal, and PAL calculated as TEE divided by BMR was 2.00±0.21. The FFM value needs to be considered when evaluating a standard BMR range, and both training and daily physical activity levels should be considered when evaluating a standard PAL range.