We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials on the transtheoretical model-based exercise guide (TTMEG) with over a six-month follow up period which had been published during 1982-2007. One of our research purposes was to summarize new evidence on the long-term effectiveness of TTMEG. The second purpose was to examine the differences in results by two kinds of outcome measures: stages of change (SOC) and physical activity (PA) level. Among 16 studies obtained from PubMed and PsycINFO searches, we further focused on studies with over a six-month interval between evaluation and the end of intervention. Four of the five studies with SOC outcome showed a significant effect over six months from the end of intervention, while two studies with PA outcome did not. Five studies showed both SOC and PA outcomes within the study, and the results were consistent between the outcome measures in four studies. In the remaining one study, only SOC was significant because of the greater variability inherent in the self-reported minutes spent in weekly PA. An evaluation using SOC defined the exercise, and it could evaluate the continuity of exercise over six months as well. SOC is therefore considered the preferable outcome measure of the long-term effects of TTMEG.
This study clarifies the relationship between dietary constituents and the estimated stroke risk score. The risk simulation software used was developed from the risk simulation formula based on the Framingham Study. We calculated the risk scores of twenty-six hundred persons who participated in an annual health check in K city (Aomori pref.) in 2005. We randomly selected from these participants two hundred persons each of matched sex and age who were assigned to high-risk and low-risk groups. We asked them to cooperate with a dietary examination, receiving positive responses from twenty in the former group and twenty-eight in the latter group. Three-day dietary records kept by disposable camera and menu cards were used to estimate the daily food and nutrient intake according to the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (5th revised edition). A marked difference between the high-risk and low-risk groups for stroke was apparent in the blood pressure. The intake of vegetables, fruit and milk as foods, and the intake of potassium, calcium, vitamin B1, vitamin C, saturated fatty acids and fiber as dietary constituents were significantly lower in the high-risk group. On the other hand, the intake of processed foods like fish by the high-risk group was significantly higher than by the low-risk group. This difference may explain the higher salt intake and Na/K ratio in the former group. It is suggested from these results that the higher sodium intake and lower intake of potassium, anti-oxidative vitamins, dietary fiber and calcium may have induced the higher blood pressure in high risk group via oxidative stress, and that such effects may be associated with the increased risk of stroke in the high-risk group.
We investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of onion skin on pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. The aqueous extract from onion skin significantly inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Based on this result, we examined the effect of the aqueous extract from onion skin on the blood triacylglycerol level after the oral administration of a lipid emulsion to rats. The aqueous extract from onion skin at a dose of 125, 500mg/kg inhibited the elevation of blood triacylglycerol level compared with the control. In a longer-term experiment (25 days), we examined the effect of the aqueous extract from onion skin on the fat storage induced in mice by feeding a high-fat diet for 25 days. Intake of the aqueous extract from onion skin (125mg/ml) reduced the blood triacylglycerol level compared with the control. To identify the active substance in the aqueous extract from onion skin, we examined the effects of protocatechuic acid and quercetin on the pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Protocatechuic acid inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, but quercetin did not. Based on these results, we examined the effect of protocatechuic acid on the blood triacylglycerol elevation in rats orally administered with an oral lipid emulsion. Protocatechuic acid at a dose of 25, 250mg/kg inhibited the elevation of blood triacylglycerol compared with the control. These findings suggest that the intake of an aqueous extract of onion skin would be helpful to prevent postprandial triacylglycerol elevation.
The foods listed in “Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition-fatty acids section-(Fatty acids table)” announced in 2005 only represent 67% of the foods contained in “Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition (Tables of Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition)”. Tables for the fatty acid and trans-fatty acid contents of the remaining 33% of foods are presented. These two tables are useful for calculating nutrition value and for studies on nutritional science.