It is now well recognized that both Postprandial hyperglycemia and postprandial hyperlipidemia contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Both an impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and hyperglycemia after glucose loading have been reported to be risk factors for coronary arterial disease. Postprandial hyperlipidemia, or an increase in remnant lipoproteins in the plasma after a meal has been recognized as atherogenic. It therefore becomes important to establish an international standard test meal for simultaneously assessing both postprandial hyperglycemia and postprandial hyperlipidemia. Test meal A was developed for this purpose by the Working Group for Test Meals under the Committee of Laboratory Testing for Diabetes Mellitus of the Japan Diabetes Society. Test meal A contains total energy of 450 kcal with 51.4% of carbohydrate, 33.3% of fat and 15.3% of protein. Eighteen diabetics, 12 IGTs and 29 subjects with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled for this study. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed one week after loading with the test meal. There was a close correlation between the blood glucose values 120min. after glucose loading and 120min. after test meal loading. A blood glucose value of 200mg/dl 2 hour after glucose loading corresponds to 150mg/dl at the same sampling point after test meal loading, and a blood glucose value of 140mg/dl 2 hour after glucose loading corresponds to 10mg/dl at the same sampling point after the test meal loading. No significant increase in plasma triglyceride was apparent in the hypertriglyceridemic subjects, while the normotriglyceridemic group showed a significant rise in plasma triglyceride after the test meal loading. The results indicate that test meal A can be applied as a pilot model for the simultaneous assessment of both postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in diabetic subjects.
The process of a life skills-based nutrition education program and impact on upper grade students in elementary schools were evaluated with regard to their knowledge, attitude, behavior while eating snacks and breakfast, and self-esteem. The subjects for this study were students from two elementary schools in Osaka prefecture. The students in the intervention school participated in a nutrition education program between the second trimester of the fifth grade and the first trimester of the sixth grade that focused on eating healthier snacks and eating breakfast every day. Questionnaires were completed by the students in the intervention and control schools before and after the program. A total of 160 students (88 in the intervention school and 72 in the control school) participated in the survey. A chi-square test, t-test, McNemar test, and Wilcoxon signed-ranks test were used to examine the effects of the program. The statistical significance level was 0.05. Although the teachers could implement well the program for eating healthier snacks, they pointed out the need to reexamine the process and worksheets of the program for eating breakfast. The overall program had a positive effect on nutritional and behavioral knowledge and on the self-control of students in selecting healthy snacks. However, it did not change to the expected extent the intake of oily snacks, attitude and behavior toward eating breakfast, and self-esteem. These results suggest that the program should be revised to improve life skills including decision-making and goal-setting abilities among elementary school students, and to strengthen the relationship between schools and families.
The relationship between sweetness preference and habitual nutrient intake, and the effect of a 14, 000-m run in heat on the sweetness threshold and sweetness preference of male collegiate runners are examined. Twenty-six male runners completed sweetness threshold and sweetness preference tests before and immediately after the run. Although the individual sweetness threshold was unchanged by the run, there was a large variation in the change in sweetness preference among the runners. Based on the difference in sweetness preference before and after the run, the subjects were divided into three groups: increased (group I; n=11), unchanged (group II; n=9) and decreased (group III; n=6). The levels of the sweetness threshold before and after running were unchanged among the three groups, but the sweetness preference after running was significantly higher in group I than in group III. The group I runners consumed significantly less carbohydrate/kg of body weight and micronutrients than the group III runners. Habitual nutrient intake might therefore be closely implicated in the change in sweetness preference due to running.