A review is presented of the recent results mainly obtained by author's studies on the texture, taste and odor of chicken, pork and beef. An organoleptic study revealed that the texture of beef was very similar to that of pork but quite different from that of chicken. The meat-like taste and umami of soup were most intensive with chicken and weakest with beef, the umami of the soup being attributable to glutamic acid and 5'-inosine monophosphate. The organoleptic test panel was unable to identify chicken, pork and beef soups by their tastes, possibly due to the fact that the free amino acid pattern of each soup was similar with these three types of meat. On the other hand, the organoleptic test panel could readily identify chicken, pork and beef by their odor. The meat of Nagoya Cochin chicken was shown to have a unique odor of the meat of aigamo (a crossbreed of domestic and wild ducks). There was no difference in the odor character among the meat from three types of pig, including Kagoshima Berkshire. Wagyu beef from Japanese Black Cattle was found to have a preferable aroma (Wagyu beef aroma) which was sweet and fatty. This Wagyu beef aroma was concluded to be the main reason why the Japanese prefer Wagyu beef to imported beef. The Wagyu beef aroma was generated through unknown reactions between lean meat, fat and oxygen and the subsequent heating process.
The purpose of this study was to examine appropriate measures of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior for assessment/evaluation for nutrition education for young adults. The conceptual framework was developed based on two models: one is the Precede-Proceed model by Green and the other is the framework of nutrition ecology by Adachi. Firstly, based on the review of the recent studies and 16 focus group interviews for young adults conducted at worksite and community, several measures were selected; such as self-efficacy, stage of change, and the scale for positive dietary behavior and attitude developed by the author. Secondly, a cross-sectional survey was conducted with questionnaires including those measures, for 397 young adults at 3 worksites. The correlations among health, nutritional status and those measures were examined. Thirdly, participatory nutrition education intervention was implemented at 2 worksites in order to examine the appropriate measures for evaluation of the participants' changes of attitudes and behaviors. Finally, worksite health professionals and dietitians examined the selected measures, from the viewpoints of those applications into worksite health and nutrition promotion. Conclusively, self-efficacy, dietary stage of change, and dietary skill were suggested to be appropriate and valid measures for assessment and evaluation for nutrition education for young adults.
The effects of administering a dietary fiber (DF) beverage on defecation and intestinal flora were studied in female college students prone to functional constipation (n=10). The DF beverage (125ml) contained 3g of commercial depolymerized sodium alginate as a non-fermentable dietary fiber and 3g of commercial water-soluble corn bran fiber as a fermentable supplement. The fecal weight was increased (p<0.05) after 2 weeks of administration, suggesting that DF was effective against constipation. The DF beverage resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) numbers of total microbes, anaerobes, fecal bacteroides and bifidobacterium than those from a placebo during the administration period. The ratio of bifidobacterium to the total number of microbes was also increased by about 40% (p=0.10) at the end of administration. The fecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and ammonia contents per weight of wet feces was unchanged by the administration, so the intestinal environment is presumed not to have been adversely affected. These results indicate that the administration of the DF beverage improved both the intestinal environment and intestinal flora.