The meaning of a “healthy eating habit” among working people in Japan was investigated. Two studies were conducted in the worksite setting. In the first study, open-ended interviews were conducted with 36 individuals to gather qualitative data on the perception of “healthy” and “unhealthy” eating habits. In the second study, a questionnaire survey was conducted (n=365) to assess the extent to which different types of eating-related behavior, which had been reported in the first study, were perceived important, and actually practiced in daily life as part of a healthy eating habit. The participants had correct knowledge of a healthy eating habit which was consistent with current dietary guidelines. They tended to interpret a healthy eating habit in terms of their working style and health condition. A principal component analysis revealed that the perceived importance and actual behavior had similar component structures consisting of five factors. Some differences in the perceived importance and actual behavior were found as a function of age and gender. The participants in their twenties showed lower perceived importance and unhealthier behavior than their older counterparts. The findings of this study may provide a basis for understanding the eating-related lifestyle of an employee and for planning an intervention program in the worksite setting.
The effects of the soy-isoflavone, genistein, on the osteogenesis of rat dams and their offspring were evaluated. Maternal rats were fed on a diet containing purified genistein at the level of 0.5g/kg of diet or on a control diet without genistein from various stages during pregnancy to postnatal day 12. The dry weight, length, ash weight, mineral content, calcium content, and bone mineral density of the femurs from the dams and infants were measured. Genistein slightly affected the bone of infants immediately after the birth, but the effect was temporary on infant osteogenesis. There was no consistent effect on the infants after successive genistein exposure through their mothers during the fetal and suckling stages, and there was no difference in effect according to the period of exposure during pregnancy and lactation. The femurs of the dams ingesting genistein during the pregnancy period showed a significantly higher calcium content, but there was no significant effect on the dry weight, ash weight, mineral content or bone mineral density. The results of this study suggest that maternal feeding of genistein had no marked effect on osteogenesis in the dams, suckling pups and offspring during growth.
We examined how much tuna protein was required to enhance the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of healthy young subjects. We conducted a creatinine clearance (Ccr) test three times, involving starvation and acute loads of baked tuna (157g: 43g, 0.68±0.11g/kg of protein; and 313g: 86g, 1.35±0.22g/kg of protein) with an interval of one week between each, on six healthy young subjects. Ccr during 1-2 hours after the acute 313g load of baked tuna was significantly enhanced (p<0.05) compared with that of starvation. However, Ccr during the same period after the acute 157g load of baked tuna was not similarly enhanced. This result does not agree with that of Nakamura et al., in which an acute 0.7g/kg load of tuna protein enhanced GFR in healthy subjects. This discrepancy might have arisen from the different subjects, experimental conditions and method of GFR measurement between the present authors and Nakamura et al. A further study should be undertaken to examine the relationship between baked tuna protein loading and Ccr. Our result agrees with those reported by Hostteter and Rodriguez-Iturbe that an acute load of over 1.0g/kg of beefsteak protein enhanced Ccr, while 0.6g/kg did not. An amino acid analysis of the baked tuna protein was done and compared to that of beefsteak done previously. Almost the same amounts of glycine and arginine, which had been experimentally observed to enhance GFR, were contained in baked tuna and beefsteak. Further studies will determine the food material protein and amount required to enhance GFR in healthy subjects and the amino acid responsible.
Dietitians need to study the types of meals eaten by elderly patients while in hospital to understand their eating habits in order to improve their quality of life. We analyze in this study the menu selection by elderly patients according to their taste preferences. Each patient selected one of two menus from picture cards. An analysis was made according to the type of food chosen and the ingredients of each chosen dish. Almost all the patients preferred Japanese to Chinese or Western dishes. Many patients chose the fried option for cooking and the meat dish as from the selection of meat, fish and bean curd (p<0.05). The results show that the patients were inclined toward meals high in carbohydrate such as potato, as well as preferring high-fat and meat dishes. The data obtained in this study provide valuable insight into the ways we can improve the eating habits of elderly people.