Tile is water-proof, beautiful and useful materials, but it has fatal problem that it may be peeling off. So, skillful workers often have to make hammering tests for all tiles. From experimental study, it could be found that such a tile was vibratory in frequency range from 1 kHz to 2 kHz. Based on the result, author proposed a new detecting method that is feedback circuit using twin piezo-electric buzzers, for touching to a tile, and as for input and output. It could oscillate and radiate a sound only when touched to a tile in peeling off.
This study investigates vibration sensation which is a standard to evaluate habitability for horizontal vibration occurring in the high-environment. In this paper, the authors pay attention to words expressing sensation for horizontal vibration as natural expression. An experiment was done using Semantic Differential Method, and the result was analyzed with Multivarilate Statistical Methods. Consequently, two basic properties of the words expressing vibration sensation are abstracted : intensity influencing sensation and difference in meaning objects. And the words are divided according to their properties. Furthermore, relationships between each word and physical element of horizontal vibration are investigated ; therefore, a position of each physical element is clarified in expression of sensation for horizontal vibration.
The sequential sampling is one of the evaluation methods for high class cleanroom to reduce sampling duration. In this paper, sequential sampling is simulated by Monte Carlo method and characterized in the case of different concentration and its distribution of particles. Two types of model are considered as sequential samplings. One is the particle arrival model and the other is the constant unit sampling model. These models are applied to simulate particle concentration.
In previous papers, the authors reported on a simplified model for predicting vertical temperature distribution and a mathematical model for unsteady state heat analysis of a large space. We verified that these models could be used to make accurate predictions by comparing results produced using the models with the results of laboratory tests. In this paper, we apply these models to an existing large space and compare the results of calculations with measured values. An atrium building was chosen as the subject space because vertical temperature differences tend to be large, especially in summer, and the building was suitable for confirming the accuracy of predictions made with our proposed models.
This paper focussed on the features of actual water consumption and operating condition of wastewater recycling system in multi-use building, in order to obtain basic design data for the water balance between water supply and use of reclaimed water, which plays an important role of system performance in the stage of the planning, maintenance, and control. In this report, authors surveyed the tendency and amount of city water consumption, drainage water from the flow equialization tank, and pattern of reclaimed water consumption. And authors simulated the variation of water level in the reclaimed water receiving tank, the operating of treatment facility, and the quantity of make-up water into reclaimed water by the new set point of water level, for the purpose of optimization of operating condition.
This study examines primary energy saving by using low temperature un-used energy. The following two points are influence factors of energy conservation. 1)Maximum heat consumption density a day. 2)Variation of annual heat consumption. Using these points, we classified all districts in Tokyo into 14 types. We examined primary energy saving rate by using four un-used energy. : sewage treatment water, sewage, riverwater, and seawater. Considerating primary energy saving rate and heat consumption density, we selected area possible to use low temperature un-used energy in Tokyo.
With the objective of developing guidelines for a flexible-industrialized housing system. that is, one capable of transforming in consonance to changing family lifestyles, a survey was conducted on 150 houses that had undergone modification. The purpose was to determine why, after how many years, and how houses are modified. Modifications were classified into patterns and were correlated with socioeconomic data from each family. In addition to providing realistic information on how houses can be modified, results showed that certain socioeconomic factors have stronger relationships with specific patterns leading to the hypothesis that patterns can be analyzed and planned independently.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the influence of various temperature level on a living activity and living space within detached houses in Hokkaido.When there is a change in the temperature condition to an optimal level, living activities and circumstances also undergo a change : (1) A dwellar does not sense a coldness while engaged in activity within the house. (2) There is a change in a pattern of movement as there is no longer a need to get more warmth. (3) A living space is extended due to a conversion of unusable-cold room.
The Chinese cave dwelling was introduced to the world by Bernard Rudofsky in 1964. In his book ARCHITECTURE WITHOUT ARCHITECTS, which shows aerial photographs of pit type cave settlements, the distribution pattern of the underground courtyard is shown. The writer describes the pattern as the most rigorous, not to say abstract, design. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution pattern of the courtyard of the pit type cave dwelling. in order to achieve this goal, the relation between the pattern and the clan conglomeration which can be seen in Chinese traditional rural villages will be focused on.
This study aims to clarify the temporal change of spatial distributions of community facilities around railway stations for their appropriate location planning. We surveyed fourteen different areas around railway stations in naturally developed built-up areas mainly using residential maps. As a result, we point out the characteristics of distribution patterns of various facilities by the passage of time. They are classified into four types. We also found that railway stations have a great influence on generation of community facilities around them.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the features of architectural design, especially focused on the space cognition of design process, and to propose a educational method for designing. The students' design process were searched by protocol analysis. The architectural space "viewing" is defined as the scene of space cognition and consists of 'point of view', 'way of view', 'object', 'design object'. The results of this study are as follows; (1) The architectural space "viewings" are divided into 10 types. The four types of them (Spo, Sp-o, Sp-oo, Spo-o) are used frequently and recognized at the first term to the end of the design process. The others (Spoo, Sp-o-o, Sppo, Sp-p-o, Spp-o, Spo-p) are used scarcely and recognized at the middle term of it. (2) The individuality of architectural design is perceived partly at the bias of these "viewing" types. (3) There are some stems of the architectural space "viewing" at the design process. These stems are one of the structures of space design. And the union and the division of some types of the "viewing" and the connection of two stems are characteristic in space cognition of architectural design.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the visual sequence and the human movement in some spaces and to verify the sequence notation defined by P. Thiel. The analysis was made by applying this notation for some selected environment, such as a Shinto shrine, a Buddhist temmple, a garden for a teahouse, art museum, facilities for the handicaped and a promenade, having different and sequential characteristics. The result of this casestudy applied on various environmental conditions shows the said notation is useful devise to describe the environment along the pass in real time with eve-level views, and to express some imaginary environment for design purpose.
Accident reports from 41 public schools and a questionnaire survey in a primary school confirmed high accident frequency at right-angled corners in corridors. A hypothesis was thus formulated that the rounding of corners, if given a sufficient radius, would significantly reduce head-on collisions, and was tested through video research of 203 flow lines in the same primary school and 608 flow lines in a series of full-sized models. The radius of 2.6 meters, which reduced the probability of corrision to 13 per cent, was recommended as a guideline for collision-free corridors.
MACHIYA is a typical residence in the Japanese pre-modern city. We analyze 87 first-floor plans of MACHIYA with the concept of schema grammar proposed in the previous paper. Each rule of the grammar expresses not only a spatial relation between rooms but also a cultural meaning. The grammar reproduces 73 plans, and the plan generation process which shows the difference of spatial order of rooms. Some sets of rules are applicable only to MACHIYA constructed after the mid-18c. These facts show the possibility of the schema grammar such that we can argue a meaning of spatial relation of architectural space.
In this paper, on the basis of our former indexes, we make the nomograms for estimating the number of users. Using these nomogrames, we estimate the number of users of multiple-use facilities for gathering, studying and sports in 106 towns and villages in Japan. And then, we calculate the relative error (actual users / estimated number of users) and show that we can apply this estimating method to the actual planning if we will allow about 0.75〜1.25 for the calculating error.
We aim to make clear the characteristics of the urban apartment houses with a court which admit a dense inhabitation. The St.Georges quarter of Paris constructed in the 19th century was analysed with the notarial deeds, the cadastral plans and the first "sommier foncier". The houses comprised about seven stories with buildng-to-land ratios exceeding 70 or 80%. The main building was generally located on the street side unless the site was large enough to have both court and garden. The ground floor was frequently used as a shop but also for dwelling. The apartments within a house were uniformed as well as diversified. We are assured of the importance of the street space in this kind of urban fabrics and of their diversity by streets.
Playing a design game is an effective method for a participatory planning process. Using three dimensional kits and improving practical method, we tried to develop "Three Dimensional Design Game" that could be useful for consensus building through our research. Five experimental workshops using this game took place in two residential neighborhoods. The gaming processes and results were analyzed from various points. The findings are, as follows; First, participants could begin to see how they can constructively control the course of their own neighborhood's growth and future. Secondary, a more practical decision making process could be realized through this Three Dimensional Design Game.
The construction projects are worked out in various situations and have various purposes and characters. So as to execute efficiently the building construction project, it is required to make the proper project organizations, taking into consideration various features of each project, and to execute properly management of them, and moreover it is necessary to select the construction project management which enables the above-mentioned management to be executed. This paper discusses at first the comprehensive classification of PM systems and then examines exhaustively the features of each construction project where the priority is given to quality or technology development. The authors proposed a system to evaluate and select various PM systems according to project features, using the above-mentioned methods. Some result of simulation analysis is discussed, and its validity is revealed.
A Scenery dose not deal with the "object", because I think, a Scenery is a phenomenon. I tried to explain the structure of a Scenery, and the meaning of a relation between man and things, through the investigation of a Scenery "lived by" Bashoh, a poet. I extracted the words "mood", "atmosphere" as the key words for re-asking the verb "see", "liken" and "entrust" as they are used in his poem and his theory of making poems. In conclusion, a Scenery is based on the identification of the "mood" and "atmosphere", which is the ground of a Scenery.
Descriptions of space organization of architecture by using formal language in above-entitled paper were discussed with respect to following items. 1) Potentiality of shape grammars as a method of describing space organization. 2) A limit of description of space organization by using letters. 3) Explanation of a context-free grammar generating symbolized space organization : Definition of the grammar ; An axiom of space organization ; Rules of the grammar ; Overgeneration ; Treatment of space organization that isn't tree ; Context-sensitivity. 4) Evaluation of generative grammars explained in the paper.
Discussions pertaining to descriptions of architectural space organization using Dyck language are argued against in regard to the following points ; 1) Differences between shape grammars and architectural formal languages 2) Definition of context-free grammar
The historical meaning of DOHGURA in above paper were discussed as following items. 1) The period of the formation of medieval cooperative organization of priests. 2) The relation between DOHGURA and cooperative organization of priests.