This paper deals with clarifying the present states of newly built residences for sale in Japan from the viewpoints of the orientation to lifetime homes. A series of surveys has been recently carried out through five typical urban regions on the basis of an evaluation method regarding about universal level, which is the combined method between the sixteen criteria in "Lifetimes Homes" proposed in United Kingdom and five retrofitting levels for satisfying the criteria. As a result, the following items are clarified. 1) Universal level is so low in general that non-structural components shall be retrofit. 2) The trends evaluation to lifetime homes is also low in order to predict the conditions in the near future. 3) Universal level is the highest in commercial flat type from the viewpoints of supplying system.4) Among all the criteria in Lifetime homes, access and water-related parts such as toilets, bathes, and water basins are seriously low because of the conservatives in life behaviors of Japan. 5) In general, the higher the land price per unit area is, the lower the universal level becomes.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify how to maintain the neighborhood parks continuously to develop, with the viewpoint of the public participation. We examine the government maintenance method, the residents' use and demands, the environmental problems of the parks and the way to solve them. Main findings are as follows: 1) The each plans for "maintenance of equipments" and "maintenance of environment" are needed. 2) "Maintenance of functions" must be reinforced. 3) The government and citizens should maintain parks taking account of the location, scale, neighborhood management and residents' activities.
In the settlement, the character of the space is made with the element with various boundaries of the internal space of each dwelling, and external space. Those elements are not individual, patency and closing nature are made as an aggregate of an element, and it is thought that the character of the space is understood by change of a field of view. In this paper, the form of housing space and the change of space character in the modernization of a YAMI's dwelling seen from change of a field of view are solved. Furthermore, the position and character of the space are clarified by expressing relation nature with a circumference house with changing to vision distance the amount of each solid quantified here to an arrangement plan.
This paper deals with clarifying the present conditions and improvement trends of lifetime oriented homes from the viewpoints of required care management levels. Three urgent evaluation items for solving the problems are selected in order to initiate a self supporting life according to each level of the individualities. The following technological items are listed on the basis of performing comprehensive survey through five typical urban regions in Japan; 1) The average condition is located in the low level of necessity in nonstructural retrofitting. 2) The lower the care management level becomes, the lower the evaluation points of critical items becomes. 3) The present and near future conditions are not always promised for the care management levels with possibility of self supporting life.
The purpose of this study is to make clear what kind of effect the introduction of downsizing care with private room give staffs' behavior in long-term care ward.The results of the analysis are as follows. 1) A staffs' stay place changes drastically from the bed room to the living room. 2) The time of bathing care and excretory care decreased, and the time of meal care increased. 3) It increases the efficiency of the control business, and conversations between the aged and the staff member increase. 4) It cuts down the thing which a gap is with the stay place and the contents of business between the care staff member and the nursing staff member.
The aim of this study is to provide some suggestion on the establishment of Nagoya Municipal Science Museum (NMSM). The result of the analysis are as follows: 1)NMSM was established by Nagoya City as a first public museum of science and industry in Japan after the World War II, being introduced the concept of German Museum in Munich. 2) Dr. Shimizu, the president of Nagoya Institute of Technology and the former director of Education Ministry, designed the exhibition of NMSM to encourage the practical science and technology education for visitors. His plan was supported by both local private sectors and universities.
Taking a case study of TEACCH programmed grouphome for people with autistic disorder in North Carolina State, USA, this paper makes it clear how the grouphome staff support residents' lives. The support activities largely consist of two types of support, environmental and human supports. The environmental support is realized through "structured teaching," which often enables the residents to practice their living activities by themselves without staff's direct intervention. The human support also enables the residents' independent action by way of stimulating their choices and preferences with using visual instructions. The staff effectively adapt their manner of human and environmental supporting to suit each resident's preference and choice, and realize stable and independent daily lives for people with autistic disorder.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect that the shape and the position of partition have on spatial impression from reclining postures. The various shape and position of partition panel is presented randomly. There are two types of subject's posture (i.e. reclining, standing), and two types of subject's position (i.e. parallel, sheer). Subjects are asked spatial impressions. The results are summarized as following: 1).The evaluation of subjects regarding "comfortable", "oppressive feeling", "security of owned place" and "sight-obstruction of partition panel" would be changed by the different posture in the examined area. 2).The important element of the evaluation of subjects was the relationship between the differrent eye-height by subject's posture and the partition-height.
Lattice screens of a building located in a traditional street control pedestrians view and sunlight into a room facing the street. They seem to create a serene, vivid, and comfortable interior space. We observed such spaces in traditional old sections in Japan and surveyed relation of an opening ratio and luminance contrast of lattice surfaces with spatial images and doings in the space. Then we examined the relations by using 1/5 mockups of different lattice and opening sizes. As the result we have found that (1) the 50% opening ratio creates serenity with both images of connection and seperation. We have also found that (2) an interior spot with the 45° view angle to the center of the lattice screen is comfortable for concentrated thinking, whereas a spot which faces the screen directly is comfortable for eating and drinking.
This study aims to clarify what designers think of Person-Environment Relationships, for example, mode of being in place, user situation, and design vocabulary on design concept of Public-Open-Space. The method is interpretion of contents and classification of thought about Person-Environment Relation-ships, in 112 articles published from 1971 to 2002 in "SHIN-KENCHIKU", which is one of the most popular architectural journals in Japan. The result shows that there are: (1) twelve categories for person-environment relationships in design concepts of public open spaces, (2) historical tendency to thought of person-environment relationships, (3) relation between person-environment relationships on design concepts and design vocabularies.
This paper clarifies the present conditions of District Six (Cape Town, South Africa), which was destructed by the Group Areas Act (No.41 of 1950) and discusses the validity of the planning idea and method of slum clearance and zoning based on the racial segregation. The major objective of this article is to review the idea and method of colonial town planning. ・District Six had been formed as a non-white quarter since the 1830's, which is well known as well as Bokaap which was formed as Malay quarter. Firstly, this paper deals with the history of development of District Six using the various maps and materials. Secondly, we consider the relationship between laws and space formation. Thirdly, this paper tries to reconstruct the District Six just before its demolishment and discusses the redevelopment plan based on the field survey checking all the buildings left at present. One of the conclusions is that slum clearance method is rooted in the modern planning method and is not special in apartheid system of South Africa.
The study aims to survey the circumstances that the landscape administrative measures of the 47Prefectures have been promoting centering around the landscape ordinances, classify in view of the landscape ordinances' various administrative measures, make clear the present condition of the types severally, and consider the new turn. Those ways of the study, through the first investigation, are the grasping the landscape administrative measures of the Prefectures and the analyzing the landscape ordinances. According to these analyses, the landscape ordinance of the Prefectures can be classified roughly in 3types of the region protective type, the total development type and the idea active type, still more in 8types. And in 1969 the landscape ordinance has begun to establish, since the latter half of 1980's the total development types have enacted mainly, after the latter half of 1990's the idea active types have started to institute, those stream shows the landscape administrative measures of the Prefectures have been changing to support and cooperate with the residents and the municipalities.
Chiyoda City, Tokyo established Housing Linkage System, which was the urgent action taken to prevent the population decrease. This system was enforced at 1992 and it was effective against an increase of population in Chiyoda City. This study aims to point out the amount of housing supply and the increase of population brought by Housing Linkage System. First, we made a field survey on the housing supply. Second, we interviewed the developers about the Housing Linkage System. Finally, we made a proposal for the improvement of existing methods of Housing Linkage System.
This paper aims to discuss the technical and social aspects of an environmental infrastructure project in Pakistan, known as Kasur Tanneries Pollution Control Project (KTPCP), which has been recently completed in Kasur city by the Government of Pakistan and United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) by utilizing a huge amount of US $ 10.147 million. Kasur is one of the most polluted cities of Pakistan in terms of hazardous industrial waste discharged from leather tanning industry. In Kasur, more than 50,000 people are victims of diseases associated with this industrial pollution and entire population of city is forced to drink polluted groundwater, which has high concentration of chromium, sulphates and other toxic chemicals. Unfortunately, this project proved technically insufficient to achieve National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) at the first year of its operation with its optimal efficiency. The case of KTPCP also demonstrates that if the basic needs of local communities are not considered while formulation the environmental infrastructure projects, the global agenda of local actions for sustainable development cannot be implemented successfully.
In this paper, a new facilities location model based on Spatial Interaction Models is presented. As a criterion of facilities location, likelihood of tangible demand ratio is proposed, and problem to find both optimal location and optimal sizes of facilities which maximize such criterion is proposed. A method of solution is presented, and effectiveness of presented method is confirmed. Properties of optimal location and size of facilities are investigated on segment city model and 2-dimensional city model. As results, it is shown that optimal location is strongly influenced by damp parameter β and in some cases optimal number of facilities can be derived.
The purpose of this study is to formulate the estimation model of households by age and housing types that incorporated the fluctuation of population and household movement. For the case study, three prefectures are selected, Yamaguchi, Fukuoka and Miyazaki, and applying the model from 1993 to 1998, the comparison is carried out with real value. In case of Yamaguchi, about the all tenure of dwelling, the accuracy of households were 0.9. And especially, in the Owned houses and Rented houses owned privately, the accuracy were high by age.
Self-reliant housing has been proliferating in Hanoi and other Vietnamese cities since the beginning of 1990s and contribute great amount of housing supply in cities every year. This paper is at first to address socioeconomic context and policy changes that brought about the explosion of self-reliant housing. At second, the paper discuss about processes of self-reliant housing provision, focusing on households as principal actors and their activities. The paper also investigates 'product' of this housing provision model - the outputted residential environment through intensive fieldwork at a peripheral commune in Hanoi city. The paper closes with conclusions on merits and demerits of self-reliant housing activities and suggests way to mitigate its shortcoming.
The purpose of this study is to explore the changing process of attic space and "CHUMON" type, examining room layout, structure, and dwelling space of farmhouses in Shonai district. First, attic space was all storage space, and in the Middle of Meiji, the mezzanine was produced taking advantage of the difference of ceiling height. In the early stages of Showa, the upper story of the whole first story became storage space in mezzanine, and the house which had dwelling space parts of mezzanine also appeared. And it changed to dwelling space of perfect second story type after the Showa 40s. Next, traditional "CHUMON" type changed to the mezzanine type in "CHUMON" because of changing clay tile roofing from reed roofing in the early stages of Showa. Furthermore, it changed to "GENKAN-CHUMON" of perfect second story type after the Showa 40s.
The purpose of this study is to consider the spatial composition of rural settlement and housing lots. The case of this study is Tsukuba-city. First we analyzed Omura settlement which is a cluster of housing called "Das Haufendorf". The housing lot of Omura settlement can be classified in 3 types. Those are 1) type : the front of main building abuts on the road, 2) type : the side of main building abuts on the road, and 3) type : the back of main building abuts on the road. Second we analyzed Konda and Horage settlements which are line settlements called "Das Strassendorf". The housing lot of Konda settlements can be classified in 2 types. Those are 1) and 3) type. The housing lot of Horage settlement can be classified the only 2) type.
The author, in this monograph, intends to give concrete explanation to the contents of contract for building Namauchi was built by bricks, in Nagasaki prefecture, by Yosuke Tetsukawa, the new church's total cost is 6721yen16sen9rin, period of construction is 1909 on April to 1910 on August. The construction work was begun by the purchase of materials. Yosuke Tetsukawa, who created "the new building cost of construction settlement of accounts document" after the construction, it was created based on three pocketbooks and "A monthly account book". The construction work expense is prepared items of 12. Payment was divided into direct expense and common cost, and divides direct expense for the church construction into "official business" and "private use". The names and job classification of workers, broker who purchased materials.
By this study, We paid oou attention to an intention of the public presentation in the Marine Biological Station Aquarium attached to Tokyo Imperial University. And We examined what kind of influence proposal of IIJIMA in 1898 gave a design in 1909. As a result, the proposal in 1898 contained the open intention. And it was realized in the design in 1909. The aquarium consisted of a room for research, and a open room from the proposal of IIJIMA. And this proposal was influenced of Roscoff and Banyuls attached to Paris (Sorbonne) university. In addition, the design in 1909 was influenced of the exposition aquarium and Marine Biological Station of many foreign countries.
This paper tries to show the significance of the material the architect Sutemi Horiguchi(1895-1984) left in Meiji University to delve into his design and architectural thoughts: According to our research, this collection is made up of 4,705 items, whose dates span the years between 1919 and 1965 covering most of his whole career as an architect. Most of them are working drawings and documents relating to building. The collection includes the information on buildings and projects unknown to be his works and on materials to show processes of some famous buildings, which could triggar a reevaluation of him.
This paper shows that in the ceremonial section of the Meiji Palace, the grandiose interior was designed in relation to its use. The public part of the Meiji Palace was clearly divided into the ceremonial section and the daily-work section by means of building planning and interior design. In the ceremonial section, the ornaments were designed selecting the motifs and the colours to show the image of each ceremony (the audience and the party). The patterns of ornaments were derived from the ancient tresures in Japan, and the most of the ornaments were manufactured applying modern techniques.
The aim of this study is to clarifying the design works of Chuta Ito (1867〜1954), who have had a great influence on modern Japanese architectural history, through the historical material drawings that were newly found. In previous studies, the 11 projects in the Meiji Era were referred. And the method of Ito's design works was analyzed. In this paper, designs of the 34 projects in the Taisho and Showa Era and their planning processes were shown.
"Prevedari's engraving" (Milan 1481) is the most important work of Bramante's pictorial pieces, concerning the interpretations of antique architectures in the Renaissance. This paper intends to clarify some models of the ruined temple in the engraving, Romanesque Architectures in the Marche region, Venetian Byzantine Architectures, and especially the church of Sant' Andrea in Mantua, the concept of which is reconstruction of an Etruscan temple. Moreover, Cesare Cesanano, Bramante's pupil in Milan, drew the plans of antique temples in the comments on Vitruvius's De Architectura, some of which, including the Etruscan temple, are similar to the "Prevedari's engraving".
The Asiatic Society (established in Calcutta in 1784) published their magazine The Asiatic Researches (vol.I-XX, 1788-1839). In the latter part of the 18th century, the linguist W. Chambers, the mathematician R. Burrow and the astronomer J. Goldingham presented the monographs relative to Indian Architecture to The Asiatik Researches. They were not the specialist in Architecture, although, at "Chambers's monograph," there is a idea which the ruins at Mahabalipuram was built by the sryle of Architecture in the Ancient North India. At "Burrow's monograph," there is a view which the architecture and the pillar in India was perceived to have the identity and the universality with those in Ancient Egypt and Europe. At "Goldingham's monograph, there is a idea which there was the origin of cave in the Ancient India, and which the Cave at Elephanta was copied from the system of this original. At three monographs, there was the near idea of the theory on origin in the views on India Architecture, and this idea had been known to the members of the Society.
This study is an attempt to reproduce the original plan and the furniture disposition of Madame de Gourgues's hotel based principally on her inventory after death, and also to define the characteristics of the French women's living spaces in the 18th century. Madame de Gourgues, who was a typically aristocratic woman in Paris in the 18th century, built her hotel on Saint Dominique Street in accordance with her request. The observation of the original plan focused on the interior design and the furniture showed that Madame de Gourgues's residence was divided into the reception zone and the private zone. Our analysis have shown that she was not concerned about the reception zone, but particularly about the private zone in her hotel.
This research aims at analyzing the birth and development of architectural discourse in Japan using statistical analysis. The keywords of discourse were selected from the object paper "KENCHIKU-ZASSHI" "KENCHIKU-SEKAI" "KOKUSAI-KENCHIKU" "KENCHIKU-TO-SYAKAI" "SHIN-KENCHIKU" "KENCHIKU-BUNKA". And the keywords were classified into 18 categories. The discussion themes were extracted from statistics analysis of each category. Language of the time and IDEOROGUE were clarified with the consideration of development of modernization. As a result, structure of the trend of architecture in Japan is clarified by analyzing the relationship between discourse themes, language of the time, and the IDEOROGUE.
The purpose of this study is to figure out the logical structure of discourses of the architects at the beginning of Japanese Modernization from 1924 to 1928. There are some mutual relationships among the keywords in the discourses selected from the architectural magazines which were important at that period; "KENCHIKU-ZASSHI", "KENCHIKU-SEKAI", "KOKUSAI-KENCHIKU", and "KENCHIKU-TO-SHAKAI". The keywords are classified into ten categories whose relationship amang themselves consist of two elements: affirmative and negative. We make here the structure of the architects' discourses clear by means of the classification mentioned above.
This paper deals with the urban formation of Kyoto at the end of 16th century. "Rakuchu ezu" (1637) shows some blocks through which a river flows. "Kami-kokawa-chou" in the upper district of Kyoto is a typical example of such blocks. The plot division of this area can be reconstructed according to "sashidashi" in 1587 of the "Daichuh'in archives". There was prominent unevenness on street side of the plot division. This is because the road boundaries and adjacent boundaries based on the arrangement of the dwellings facing to the streets. "Rakuchu rakugai zu" (middle of the 16th century) depicted some dwellings which stood on sill. It is considered that Kami-kokawa-chou was consisted of temporary dewllings. That was urban formation of buildings prior to plot division.