The purpose of this study is to find knowledge and problems on how to maintain the home life of the elderly with mild dementia who need nursing care. The method of study is to investigate the actual conditions of home living before and after the onset of dementia in elderly people with mild dementia who need nursing care living in urban areas. Next is to examine elements that may be related to establish ways of life that are thought to have an undesirable impact on the maintenance of home life.
The results were as follows.
1) Type of place to stay at home of the day-to-day by the elderly who need nursing care in house after the onset of dementia were classified into four types: bed stay type, bedroom stay type, living or dining room base type, and multi base type, from the most intensive. And there was no difference in physical ability among target of each type.
2) Living style changes of the elderly with mild dementia who need nursing care was categorized into three types: “changes in the use of each room”, “physical changes in the room”, and “changes in housing due to movement”. Except for “changes in housing due to movement,” no mild confusion or worsening of symptoms was observed. Reasons for the change are ease of watching for caregiver, avoiding up and down movement, and ensuring accessibility from bedroom to daily-used rooms such as toilets and living rooms.
3) It was suggested that the differences in lifestyle among the elderly with mild dementia who need nursing care are related to the following environmental elements. Degree or difference of symptom, bedroom size, house size, number of floors, layout of rooms used daily such as bedrooms and toilets, sunlight conditions, connection to externalspace, presence of people living together.
The actual situation described above largely reflects the physical characteristics of typical urban houses which are small in scale and dominated by buildings other than one-story houses. To maintain the home life of the elderly people with mild dementia who need nursing care, it should be noted that:
・A bedroom near the toilet, living room and dining room or on the same floor.
・Multiple places to stay in the house for the elderly with dementia.
・A main staying place where has the well sunlight lit and the connection to the outside.
・Prior understanding of elderly people with dementia regarding the contents when making modifications that change the impression of space.
・Examination of living style from before the onset in the case of living in small houses that exist in many urban areas.
In recent years, the new housing market is expected to shrink in the medium to long term due to the declining population and aging.Among them, the renovation market has been activated.
The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism is developing homes with longer life spans and multiple generations.One of them is the skeleton infill housing, which has the flexibility to meet the diverse needs of residents.Until now, partitions and storage furniture with changeability and renewability have been proposed for skeleton infill houses.
The partition can maintain privacy to by dividing spaces.In addition, the partition can be formed into an L-shaped or U-shaped shape having a side length by connecting the ends at right angles.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the perceived shapes and visual impressions of the side length in the U shape partition. The videos of all 36 partitions were displayed to the subjects at random in the experiment.After that, the subjects wrote the perceived shapes on the floor plan, and answered questionnaires for visual impressions.The experimental video was taken using VR presentation 1/10 scale models and was viewed using a head-mounted display.
Table 4 shows the correlation coefficients between the sum of the lengths on both sides, the number and areas of perceived shapes.The correlation coefficient between the number of perceived shapes and the sum of both side lengths was 0.87.We found that the side lengths in the partition greatly contributed to the number of perceived shapes.
Fig. 10 shows the relationship between perceived shapes and side lengths.A large difference in the length of both sides [D. Both sides asymmetry] suggested that three or more types constituted 50% of the cumulative composition ratio, and thus divided in various ways.
Fig. 12 shows the relationship between perceived shapes and visual impressions.Focusing on the value of [T0-0] in [a. No side], the relationship becomes weaker when any of the side lengths is 300 mm or more.Also, it was found that the comfort was improved when the thickness was 600 mm or more.
Focusing on the sum of the side lengths in A [1, 8], long patterns tend to have weak "relationship" and short patterns tend to have "relationship". In B [2, 8] and C [3, 8], the weaker the relationship, the better the comfort. In D [4, 8], the relationship is strong. In F [1, 3, 8] and G [1, 3, 6, 8], comfortable is good.
From these results, it was suggested that the space could be variously divided according to the side length in the U shape partition. We found that the side length in the U shape partition has the effect of providing a comfortable and attractive space while preserving privacy.
With global concern regarding the aging population and an increase in the number of single-person households, there is a growing need for monitoring methods for single-person households. Our research group has proposed a new type of living system, called the “Biofied Building”, in which a robot works in conjunction with the living space to support the physical and mental health of the residents.
Previous studies have proposed a system to monitor the physical health of residents. The role of the robot in these systems is to acquire appropriate information about the space and the residents. In such a situation, decisions about the robot’s waiting position are an important factor affecting data acquisition for later analysis. The robot’s activities must be conducted in a way that does not disturb the residents’ lives. These methods can be widely used to determine a robot’s waiting position, with consideration of multiple conditions. In previous studies, the following four conditions have been used to determine the robot waiting position:
1) There is an appropriate distance from obstacles.
2) Areas in which the resident’s walking frequency is low.
3) Location information about the resident can be obtained.
4) There is an appropriate distance from the resident.
However, due to the constraints of conventional methods, optimal waiting positions often cannot be determined because the residents’ whole walking history is reflected in the potential field. Furthermore, the appropriate distance from the resident is typically determined on a trial-and-error basis and the effects of individual and environmental differences are not considered.
In addition, robots are expected to play a role in communication in the monitoring of mental health. However, there has been little research on the positional relationship between residents and robots in the living space, and an architectural planning approach has not been applied for determining robots’ waiting positions and movement paths for communication with residents in daily life.
The purpose of the current study was to quantitatively clarify the optimal positional relationship for communication between residents and robots, considering individual differences and environmental factors, and to propose a method to estimate the robot’s optimal waiting position for communication between the resident and the robot in a living space. Furthermore, to solve the problem of being unable to determine an appropriate waiting position, we created a repulsive potential field based on the probability of choosing the next walking path, which is predicted based on the resident’s current location, instead of using the resident’s total walking history.
We first conducted an experiment to extract the factors that affect the personal space for communication. As a result, we revealed that the distance to the wall behind the robot and the resident’s posture (standing/sitting) affect the interaction distance. Thus, personal space descriptions can be generalized using these two factors.
The validity and versatility of the proposed method were tested using a simulation. The proposed method reliably estimated an appropriate waiting position of the robot, and achieved safety with a high probability of avoiding collision. Compared with a method that did not use behavioral patterns, the current method revealed the usefulness of considering residents’ behavioral patterns. In future research, we plan to investigate differences in dialogue distance between a wide range of age groups, and to examine the adaptability of the proposed method for living spaces with multiple people.
This paper aims to clarify the planning issues of the mixed housing complex in Beijing, China, which consists of Private-owned Housing (POH) and Public-rental Housing (PRH), focusing on the behavior and setting location.
Based on the rapid development of the economy, which brings on the issues of a growing rich-poor gap, to prevent the issues getting worse that poverty leads to slums, the Chinese government built a new residential system. In brief, to construct the Public-rental Housing for low-income people in the Private-owned housing complex, prospect to the mixed residential environment and decrease the issues caused by economic disparities. While the previous research was focusing on the construction cost and the housing complexes' location on the urban scale, this paper concentrate on the aspects of residents' behavior, clarifies the characteristics of the action, provide suggestions of the planning method on the mixed housing complex.
Firstly, we classified the site plans of all the mixed housing complexes selected from the government agencies into 8 types, depending on the spatial forms and traffic line. It found out that only a few samples have the potential to create or promote interaction among residents. Based on this result, we picked up three housing complexes from 3 different types that the residential share the outdoor space, also the traffic line and the amenities types are different. And then, we used the behavior mapping method to record the residents' behavior, the form of the behavior scene, and the location. Regarding the identity of resident, we did a brief interview or by observation. Therefore, we get three groups, only Private-owned resident's group (POr.), only Public-rental resident's group (PRr.), and the group that combined by the two kinds of residents called the MIX residents' group.
At last, we get 7455 behavior, which classified into 9 behavior patterns, the direction of the behavior form classified into 9 patterns. And then, we use the component of behavior pattern and form pattern as a behavior setting, lastly, 46 behavior setting patterns founded. Then we analyzed the difference between these three groups.
The results are as follows:
1) The behavior typological in the POr. and PRr. are similar, but there are differences in composition.
2) Regarding to the behavior setting, greeting, recreation, chatting, three behaviors have the same tendency in POr. and PRr.. The MIX mainly existed in the behavior setting of recreation, chatting, and baby care. These settings can be the common contact point of both residents.
3) About the behavior settings' location, the problem found out that it is in the same pattern of behavior setting, the location site of POr. and PRr. is different. The former was concentrated in POH residential zone and common space zone while the latter was concentrated in PRH residential zone only. Therefore there is little overlap on setting location between POr. and PRr.. It also found a tendency that POr. participated in the PRr.s' recreation setting while it occurred in the PRH residential zone.
From these results, we suggest the planning method of mixed housing complexes that provides more occasions of encounter frequency among residents to increase residents' interact. Moreover, the planner should pay attention to the tendency of enhancing interaction, for instance, provides a variety of space options that allow the resident interaction in stages.
The Mizhi ancient town is located in northern Loess plateau, a dry and cold area. These cave dwellings were built during the period of the Qing dynasty till the Republic of China, which are well preserved and still used as residential area. Now, with the change of social system and the devel- opment of economy, one house built for one family has become a place where many families living together. In this paper, we try to figure out the current use and the renovation process of these houses.
Through the data collection, interviews, measurement and case analysis, the following conclusions can be drawn.
1. In 1948, because of the Land Revolution, the homes of the some richer families were allocated to the landless and homeless citizens, and gradually the pattern of multiple families living together. In the past, each building of Siheyuan had corresponding functions, but now a family is composed of one room. After 2000, due to the development of the new town, many aborigines of the old town moved to the new place, while on the other hand, the low rent of the old town attracted a large number of families from the countryside. According to the surveys from the residents, we found out that three-quarters of the people living there are tenants while the rest are owners. Most tenants choose to live in this ancient city not only because of the decline of the rural schools but also their desiring for better education on their children.
2. A unit consists of several rooms and one courtyard, where people’s private activities are usually carried out in their own rooms, such as cooking, studying, sleeping, resting, eating and so on. A common water supply is set in the courtyard, hence the laundry and drying are usually done in the courtyard. Usually, toilet sets up in the corner and generally, the courtyard and toilet are cleaned by each family. Courtyards can be divided into 5 categories according to the way they have been used. They are 1. only owner living, 2. one owner living with other renters, 3. multiple owners living with multiple renters, 4. only renters living, 5. mixed type. They also assisted each other in the yard by cleaning and maintenance.
3. The expansion and renovation of the residences were mainly done by the owner households between 1990 and 2008, in order to improve the living environment such as kitchens and flush toilets and obtain rent. In addition, a small number of cases were seen in which the house was divided into several parts including the courtyard.
4. Because the space of Yao-dong can not be subdivided, it is used as the minimum unit of living space. In the cold region such as Mizhi city, Yaodong with thick walls of earth and stone has good heat preservation and because the space is highly independent, it is suited to use as one room. The stable structure and independent space units of Yao-dong are suitable for nuclear families in the modern society.
In the ongoing reform of the social welfare corporation system, strengthening of the ﬁnancial discipline and governance of social welfare corporations is required. As part of this reform, it is necessary to clarify the surplus assets that is calculated by excluding the cost of daily operations, future large-scale renovations and rebuilding, from the owned asset. Therefore, it is strongly required to estimate the cost of construction and the large-scale renovation for the facilities operated by social welfare corporations. The purpose of this research is to clarify future rebuilding costs and large-scale renovation costs of these diverse welfare facilities for social welfare corporations to operate facilities efﬁciently.
In this study, questionnaire surveys on facility construction costs and large-scale renovation costs were conducted for social welfare corporations nationwide. Responses to the questionnaire surveys were obtained from 2,943 corporations and 5,294 facilities.
First, the results on the facility construction costs and the funding status are summarized as follows. Regarding the facility construction costs, it rose from 1975 to around 2000, then dropped after 2000, but rose again after 2011. Concerning the funding status, the subsidy accounted for approximately 60% of the total construction cost until around 2000, then since 2000 it has gradually decreased to about 40%. This tendency is particularly true in the facilities for the elderly people, and for example, the current ratio of subsidy for the construction cost of the special nursing home for the elderly is lower than 30%. This means, especially for the social welfare corporations that operate facilities for the elderly people, when rebuilding the facilities in the future, higher construction costs and reduction of subsidies must be taken into account compared to when the facilities were initially constructed, which lead to an increase of corporations expenses. On the other hand, the ratio of subsidies is not reduced in facilities for children and people with disabilities.
Second, the results on the large-scale renovation are summarized as follows. 62.5 ％ of facilities carried out the ﬁrst large-scale renovation approximately by 15 years after construction. As for the timing for the large-scale renovation, outside walls and rooftop waterprooﬁng were performed in the 11th to 15th years, followed by electrical and air conditioning equipment in the 16th to 20th years. The accumulated cost of the large-scale renovations was 62,258 yen / square meter for a building about 40 years old, which is cheaper compared to other types of buildings such as university libraries and classroom buildings. Accumulation processes of large-scale renovation costs were classiﬁed into three types: "Low-cost", "Intensive", and "Continuous". Though there was no difference in the cost spent between the Intensive type and the Continuous type, the satisfaction for the large-scale renovations was higher in the Intensive type than the Continuous type.
From these results, it is expected that facilities operated by social welfare corporations will be used longer than before due to the difﬁculty of raising funds for rebuilding. In that case, intensive large-scale renovations are required in order to perform satisfactory large-scale renovations. Since there is a possibility that a shortage of renovation costs will lead to malfunction of the facility, it is important to consider the facility operation not only at the time of rebuilding but also from the long-term perspective, including the subsequent operation.
In previous research, the paper analyzed establishment process, the building form and location characteristics of elderly welfare facilities for the Social welfare councils in Yamaguchi prefecture, which manages the welfare facilities. And the actual situation was clarified that the Social welfare council advanced facility establishment independently in undeveloped mountainous area after 2000, as the existing buildings were converted in cooperation with the local government, organization and residents. On the other hand, the paper couldn’t analyze about the cooperation method with the local government, organization and residents and the facilities establishment methods by the Social welfare council.
This study is a follow-up report and aims to clarify the conditions that elderly welfare facilities could be established in four old towns of Shimonoseki City, based on an analysis of establishment process, building form, building and repair costs and repair contents. In addition, this paper considers the condition and prospect for establishment and management of the elderly welfare facilities by the Social welfare council in mountainous areas. The Shimonoseki City Social Welfare Council, which is independently developing several elderly welfare facilities in mountainous areas, is the study’s subject.
The Shimonoseki City Social Welfare Council, in consideration of requests of the old town unit’s residents, and in cooperation with the local government and residents, worked independently on low-cost elderly welfare facility development by utilizing private houses and day care facilities. And, the conditions for advance of facility establishment by Social welfare council are as follows.
1) Continuation of facility management by the old town unit can continue facility establishment and management delicately by taking consideration into the request of local residents in the municipalities where a merger was carried out for on a large scale. In addition, it can keep the function as the consultation service of community welfare by the old town unit, and it affects the degree of easiness of cooperation and understanding for welfare activity with local r
2) The social welfare council has a strong connection with local governments and residents, and has the basic condition that is easy to get the cooperation of them from the beginning of establishment. Using this condition, establishment of day care facilities which converted a large-scale private house and multifaceted facility management based on the idea of "the area symbiosis home" were realized in the Kikugawa Social Welfare Council. Afterwards, a ripple effect to an approach of the Social welfare council in neighboring areas was accepted.
3) The social welfare council has the advantage that is easy to get the cooperation with local government and residents. So, it is effective method in development of plural facility establishment by themselves that facility establishment is advanced utilizing the lands and buildings owned by the local governments and residents, because it can reduce initial and running cost of the facilities. In addition, it has the advantage to only return to an owner when the facilities are abolished. Therefore, possibility of facility establishment and the management is suggested in the mountainous areas where the abolition of a vacant house and the nursery school increases by a population decrease. And initial cost can reduce by using subsidy when the Social welfare council bears the repair cost or building cost.
This study aims to understand whether medical record/X-ray film storage will be eliminated or not if electronic health record system (EHR) is introduced in hospitals or clinics. Questionnaires were distributed to 684 facilities which were newlybuilt/extended/rebuilt from 2003 to 2012 in order to see the effect of additional medical reimbursement for PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) established in 2008.187 replies and additional on-site interviews to 6 facilities brought us the following results;
1) Over 60% of built/extended/rebuilt hospitals/clinics has introduced EHR since 2008 while small hospitals with 20-199 beds are slow to introduce; 2) Even though EHR is introduced, it looks a bit hard to eliminate medical record storage because some hospitals have decided to keep all paper medical records for future medical lawsuit, it is difficult to scan all existing paper medical records and some original signed/stamped paper documents must be kept according to the law; 3) X-ray film storage is being eliminated as films are easily scanned rather than paper medical records, however, the thereby-obtained vacant room tends to be used as another storage again because many of them have no windows or air conditioner; 4) Many large EHR hospitals have their medical record storage in their own site while others have off-site. 5) Place of medical record/X-ray film storage is near administration office or inconvenient place to access. 6) Size of each storage is seemingly proportional to the number of beds among of EHR facilities; 7) One of the biggest concerns was that nearly 90% of hospitals/clinics put backup server on the same floor of the main server room. As we suffer from flood these days, backup system must be deeply considered again.
In this paper, a model describing pedestrian behavior was constructed, and estimated using the behavior monitoring survey data (behavior data), which was conducted on a university campus square. We analyzed behavioral characteristics and factors of various choice behaviors. Specific results are as follows.
(1) First, we conducted a pedestrian behavior monitoring survey on a university campus square using multiple video cameras. In order to convert the pedestrians' position coordinates on the still screen extracted from the video images into position coordinates on a two-dimensional plane, a novel method was developed based on the neural network model, and detailed pedestrian behavior monitoring survey data including attribute information was created. Using this behavior data, we performed a basic analysis on the pedestrian behavior, and clarified the characteristics of pedestrians' destinations and selected routes.
(2) Next, we constructed a multinomial logit model that describes the behavior of selecting canteens as a destination, the behavior of selecting a place to stay at the campus square, and the behavior of selecting routes when moving. Each model was estimated using the behavior data, and good description accuracy was confirmed for each model. The estimated parameters of each model showed that the floor area of canteen has a strong effect when selecting a canteen, the positional relationship with the shortest path affects the choice of staying place, and that the resistance of walking distance is affecting route choice. Furthermore, by estimating models for each group size of pedestrians walking together, it was shown that a group with larger number of pedestrians select a canteen with the larger floor area of canteen due to the possibility of available chairs and tables.
(3) Finally, we integrated the models and simulated the pedestrian behavior to estimate the pedestrian behavior in the entire university campus square. By comparing the frequency of traffic in each passage based on the behavior data, it was shown that the behavior of pedestrians in the entire square is accurately estimated by the pedestrian behavior simulation.
The future development and issues of this model are summarized as follows. Although the model constructed in this paper was able to describe the behavior data of the specific university campus square, it has not been verified yet whether it can be applied to other university campus squares. If the season or weather are different, the behavioral characteristics are expected to be significantly different. It is our future work to study the applicability and expandability of the models by increasing observation data. Furthermore, in this paper, destination points other than the canteens were directly estimated from the selection ratio obtained from the behavior data without modeling. It is necessary to extend the models to a simulation that can describe more detailed pedestrian selection behavior. Finally, the current model does not consider the interaction among pedestrians (such as overtaking, avoiding, and passing). It is necessary to improve the model so that it takes into account the influence of other pedestrians.
Bldg. 98-107 of Huifengxincun Community is the first experimental project based on the Open Building Theory in China. It was designed by Professor Jiasheng Bao from Southeast University at that time and finished in 1985. The base building (so called ‘support’) and fit out (so called ‘infill’) in the project was separated during the construction, so that the project owns much more flexibility than other housing at that time.
In the last thirty years, researchers seldom made investigation on the community, so that the residents’ data and renovation history were missing. Besides, after thirty years of use, many problems occurred in the community, such as water leakage and common spaces not well-maintained. The author made the investigation on Huifengxincun Community three times in 2018, in order to collect the residents’ data and renovation history, find the existing problems, and find out ways to improve the living condition in Huifengxincun Community.
Based on the three-time investigations, renovation history of 46 families was arranged, in which nearly 2/3 of them renovated the house by changing the furnishing and the plan of the rooms. The examples of water section change, however, seem to be not that much. Moreover, most of the families only made the renovation once throughout their living history. Examples of two dwellings combining into one can be seen in the community, and the function change, especially for the houses facing the street on the ground floor, are also seen in the investigations.
Because of the improper management in Huifengxincun Community, some of the residents made unapproved reformation. Besides, the maintenance problem seems to become one of the great factors that stop younger generation moving in. As a result, how to deal with the maintenance problems need to be discussed. In spite of the problems, the construction details that are easy for renovation are proved to be effective for the residents to adjust their unit layout to the changes of the family structure and the changes of their lifestyles. In order to improve the living condition of the community better, the regular investigation on Huifengxincun Community is expected in the future.
Isolation Hospitals are one of the important hospitals in modern Japan, but there are many things that are unidentified about buildings form because there are few old buildings and reference documents. This paper tries to clarify the conditions for the planning of early Isolation Hospital by analyzing the contents of 21 practical books for infectious disease control (written by health official instead of architect) published from the Meiji era to the Taisho era.
The summary of the conclusion is as follows:
1) Conditions of planning early Isolation Hospital could be classified into building site (9 items), block planning (4 items), plan of hospital room (11 items). 2) In terms of building site, convenience for transportation was more important than quarantine at the late Meiji era. 3) The site was partitioned into clean area and contaminated area in the late Meiji era. Management in the hospital was strengthened by establishing a traffic disinfection station at the boundary between these two areas. 4) The ward plan of pavilion type appeared at in the Taisho era. 5) Open spaces, gardens and playgrounds for the patients were recommended. 6) Beds on wooden floor were recommended not to reduce the work burdens of a medical staff, but to keep the hospital rooms clean. 7) The main circulation of isolation wards was located on the south side of the hospital rooms and sub circulation for nursing and care was located on the north side of the hospital rooms. At the end of the Meiji era, glass was used at Shoji (sliding door) on the south side of the hospital rooms.
The Shikoku pilgrimage route consists of 88 official temples and numerous other sacred sites located around the island of Shikoku. There are some accommodation options for the pilgrims. However, there are only a few choices for low cost accommodation. Zenkonyado is an accommodation where the local residents or homeowners welcome Shikoku pilgrims to stay overnight for free or at a low cost. This is based on Shikoku Pilgrimage culture called Osettai.
The aim of this paper is to clarify:
1) The characteristics and problems of the housing spatial layout and management of the Zenkonyado;
2) The needs and the challenges of the pilgrims; and
3) The future direction of the Zenkonyado.
Methodologies used are:
1) Interview with the owners of the Zenkonyado;
2) Measurement of the space and the equipment; and
3) Survey questionnaire for the pilgrims.
The study found that for Zenkonyado:
1) Converting unoccupied houses is effective as it allows full use and utilization of unused rooms and facilities;
2) Socio-cultural exchange was made easier and more convenient for pilgrims and Zenkonyado managers to take part in;
3) Safety and privacy of the managers and the pilgrims are ensured; and
4) A number of aging managers and the changing manners of pilgrims, who stay in Zenkonyado, are some of the issues that could possibly make continued operation of the accommodation difficult.
This study focuses on the Rikaisen, a unique alley typology in Iida City, Nagano Prefecture, based on the perspective that the generation of pedestrian activities by utilizing Rikaisens in downtown Iida is an effective measure for the future creation of a unique downtown full of attractions. The revitalization of downtown Iida is an urgent issue for the city, as a new station for the linear motor train will be opened in the outskirts of Iida in 2027. The purpose of this study is to define possibilities and challenges in utilizing Rikaisens and their surrounding buildings for generating pedestrian activities along Rikaisens, and to explore utilization measures and possible implementation processes.
The research on Rikaisens is conducted through review of previous studies and literature, questionnaires to residents focusing on utilizing Rikaisens, interviews with people in charge in public and private sectors, and field surveys of the space along 24 Rikaisens in the downtown. Through these researches, the study reveals the following: Regarding the legal situation, a Rikaisen is not regarded as a road defined in the Building Standards Law, which causes multiple planning restrictions for the utilization of Rikaisens and adjacent properties; Regarding residents’ attitudes toward utilization of Rikaisens, in general, many residents are positive, but some neighbors on Rikaisens have concerns and oppositions due to the original purpose of Rikaisen as a disaster prevention passage and the development process with the provision of private properties; Regarding activities relating to Rikaisens, although the city has begun to take a positive stance on utilization, private organizations are confronting stagnation of utilizations due to economic deterioration as well as legal, social and institutional restrictions; Regarding spatial situations, the space along Rikaisens are diverse with various characteristics and does not hinder daytime walking, but on the other hand, Rikaisens are separated from adjacent lots by building walls and fences and with limited residual space except for parking lots, in addition to having a poor nighttime environment.
The study defines possibilities and challenges in utilizing Rikaisens and their surrounding buildings based on these findings. Regarding the possibilities, the study defines 1) positive recognition and evaluation of Rikaisens as well as expectations for downtown revitalization by residents, 2) growing city officials’ momentum of utilizing Rikaisens, 3) day-time environment on Rikaisens suitable for utilization, and 4) presence of vacant buildings and underutilized properties as opportunity sites on Rikaisens. On the other hand, regarding the challenges, the study defines 1) neighbors’ concerns about deterioration of living environment by utilizing Rikaisens, 2) legal interpretation of Rikaisens and form of adjacent lots that restrict the utilization of Rikaisens, 3) limit of utilization of Rikaisens only by private organizations, and 4) lack of spatial integration of Rikaisens and their surrounding properties and shortage of destinations on Rikaisens.
Finally, the study concludes possible measures and implementation processes for utilizing Rikaisens as follows:
1) examining possible measures of generating pedestrian activities according to the situation of each Rikaisen
2) revising the legal interpretation of Rikaisen,
3) implementing phased development processes from temporary to permanent utilization and building consensus with residents, and
4) promoting improvements, utilization and operation methods through the collaboration between the public and private sectors.
This study focuses on the public contribution of Tokyo’s special urban renaissance districts to culture, and aims to assess the current status of proposals for cultural contribution.
Chapter 3 analyzed raw plans in order to deconstruct this current while focusing on changes to upper-level plans. Despite the diversification of proposals due to the impact of social conditions, such as Tokyo being selected to host the 2020 Olympics, we clarified the reality that, of the conventional building types, even those that cannot be identified as cultural facilities have been evaluated as such.Chapter 4 assessed the current status from a hard and soft approach, using a comparison of raw plans and the completed construction, along with interviews with the operators. Although the construction was completed without large changes to use for application, its cultural contributions could not be sufficiently planned due to time lags in urban planning. Chapter 5, the final chapter, emphasized individual uniqueness from the perspective of those exposed to the culture, then discussed the importance of the continuity of this uniqueness. Cultural elements were gathered through field surveys as clues.
Special urban renaissance districts are evaluated on a project-by-project basis, but many proposals are not fully determined at the drafting stage, and some systems have been revised, making it possible to make changes after deciding on city planning. I fear that there will be more ambiguous cultural contributions and unjust volume easing.
On the other hand, in the urban area where redevelopment is advancing, all companies have come to use culture strategically, and with the consciousness of continuous as "group" from "individual", the driving force for people to go to the city is born from the special zone Things are expected. At that time, unpredictable elements, such as public art and commercial environment design collected in this study, that have fallen from the raw plan can be one of the development indicators for the business.
One of the future issues based on the above is the reexamination of the administrative support system. For example, the above-mentioned revision of some systems will not only enable changes in applications after the city planning decision, but will also provide incentives other than volume bonuses for elements that can be added after the city planning decision and that can bring continuity. It is necessary to consider aggressive countermeasures to solve the problem of the time lag between the current urban planning and cultural contribution studies.
To recover after the Great East Japan Earthquake, each local government conducted several surveys of the victims' intentions regarding housing recovery, and tried to grasp the latest intentions of the victims.
However, there is no study that clarifies how the intensions changed concretely after most of the reconstruction projects are completed and the final intentions of housing reconstruction became clear across project and time.
This study, which follows on the previous one clarifying the intention changes throughout the city, aims to reveal the intention changes by the initial intention and the reconstruction result. As a result, the authors find bellows. Firstly, regarding the transition of recovery method from the initial intention, the final intention tends to differed depending on the recovery method. Whereas 70% of households recovered by “Disaster restoration public housing” intended same methods from the beginning, the numbers for “Collective relocation project for disaster prevention” and “Housing reconstruction on their own” are only 30% and 50% respectively. It is thought that the reason why there are differences how the households changed their intentions is bellows. For “Disaster restoration public housing” households, they tended to have low economic performances. Also, for households intended “Collective relocation project for disaster prevention” and “Housing reconstruction on their own”, these methods are similar to some extent so that there are intention transitions between each other because of changes in social and institutional circumstances. In addition, the households that initially answered “No answer” showed a different trend in housing recovery from those that initially answered so that it is important to consider them separately.
Secondly, regarding the transition of recovery method from the reconstruction result, while only 20-30% of households that reconstructed by three main methods intended the same methods from 2011, half of them were “No answer” in 2011. Among them, “Collective relocation project for disaster prevention” wishing households made decision quickly relatively, while “Disaster restoration public housing” wishing households took a long time do decide. It is thought that is because of the project institution and characteristics of households etc.
Thirdly, regarding the transition of recovery place from the initial intention, the authors reveal bellows. Regarding households from “Ofunato city”, because half of them stayed in their pre-disaster area, 70-80% of them recovered in the same area before the disaster. However, households from “Outside of the city” tended to stay in “Inland area” or “City center” and more than half of them could not make decision until around 2016. As a result, most of them recovered in “Inland area”, “City center” and “Outside of the city”. From this, it can be seen that early focused care is necessary for them to make decision.
Finally, regarding households recovered in “Inland area”, the ratio of households from “Outside of the city” was remarkably high, and some of them positively chose there to carry out “Housing reconstruction on their own”. In addition, since the percentage of households who stayed in “Inland area” temporarily was also high, it can be inferred that the final intention was influenced to a certain extent by the temporal residential area mainly for household from “Outside of the city” without a sense of land. It is also characteristic that their decision-making speed was slow, though they have hardly changed once the intention was decided.
As of 2015, the relative poverty rate of children in Japan is 13.9%, which is higher than the average of OECD countries, and researchers have pointed out that the problem of social inequality is getting worse. Therefore, it is important to clarify what kind of urban formation is for children to acquire their individual capabilities.
Thus, we focus on the Children’ s Cafeterias, which provides low-cost meals, heartwarming time and activities that can raise children’ s awareness of capabilities. Recently, their number has been increasing and there are 3,700 Children’ s Cafeterias in Japan, although we can find few detailed reports on their locations which are not determined by the government but by their managers. Thus we conducted survey and interview on the officials of local governments and managers of Children’ s Cafeterias in order to understand the tendency of their locations and the necessary measures to supports the Children’ s Cafeterias.
We interviewed officials from eight local governments in Tokyo Metropolis. As a result, some municipalities regarded children's cafeterias as regional base facilities with child care support functions and others as support activities for children with necessity. Of these, the latter municipalities were targeted. Therefore, we selected Adachi, Edogawa, Ota, Taito and Toshima wards as the target municipalities. In these municipalities, this research conducted survey on the officials and the managers thorough the questionnaire and the interview.
In addition, we analyze the location characteristics of Children’ s Cafeterias by referring to land use zones, roadside land prices and the estimated rates of relatively poor households.
Most of the managers pointed out that they are concerned about the rent or facility usage fee and they are dissatisfied with the present locations. The analysis by Akaike’ s information criterion showed that most of the Children’ s Cafeterias locate in the commercial area in terms of land use districts. However, the roadside land prices of Children’ s Cafeterias are lower than those of the surrounding area. These results suggest that the Children’ s Cafeterias are indirectly lead to the locations convenient but with inexpensive land prices outside of the main street. The result of the analysis by the distribution of relatively poor households showed that the districts without Children’ s Cafeterias, which are 800 meters or more to the nearest Children’ s Cafeterias, have higher rates of poor households.
The process of modernization and rise of modern cities have caused the dismantling of intermediate groups in our society. As a result, self-identity became reflexively formed, forcing individuals to make a variety of choices about their lives. It is becoming important to go beyond the traditional relationships, and to seek "reflexive cooperation" that can build relationships beyond these barriers. A prime example of reflexive cooperation is offline meeting where participants are recruited via an electronic bulletin board. This recruitment information details a desperate need for human being in the same situation as oneself. As such, the nature of the participants and the purpose of holding them can be seen as projecting a partition of majority and minority, from which we approach the nature of reflexive cooperation. Clarifying the conditions of such reflexive cooperation means to seek the environment for social inclusion, which can provide insights for urban planning.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the diversity of “reflexive cooperation” by social minorities, and its difference depending on population scale, by focusing on offline meetings as cases which the partitions of majority and minority were projected. There were two investigations and following was obtained:
1) The types of reflexive cooperation by social minorities
Firstly, by extracting and categorizing the narratives of the participants' characteristics from the information of offline meetings in the Tokyo metropolitan area, it was found that there were nine factors that defined the image of the participants: Age, Sex, Place of residence or territory of origin, History of immigration, State of mind, Characteristics of the body, State of kinship or state of love, Employment status, and Hobby or interest.
Secondly, by extracting and categorizing the narratives about the purpose of the event, it was found that there were seven motivations for reflexive cooperation. By analyzing the relationship between participants and motivations, it was found that there were five directions of reflexive cooperation: Cooperation to build relationships on local or thematic, Cooperation in resolving alienation caused by the characteristics and changes in the work environment, Cooperation with the theme of migration experiences and hobbies, with the aim of escaping the usual interpersonal roles, Cooperation to escape from relationships that are rigid due to one's age, mental, physical, intimate, or work environment, and Cooperation that organizes itself as an escape from the local, family, or love that no other cooperation can satisfy.
2) Difference of reflexive cooperation in number depending on population scale
Thirdly, an analysis of relations between information about offline meetings and population in county seat locations revealed that the number of reflexive cooperation increases in proportion to population, and that the watershed on whether a variety of reflexive cooperation will try is between cities of 1 million and 400,000 people. It turns out that this depends on whether the participants attempt reflexive cooperation on: History of immigration, State of mind, Characteristics of the body, State of kinship or state of love, and Employment status.
In conclusion, cities with less than 400,000 people must take measures to include social minorities who face the partition identified by this paper in a different way than the spontaneously organized offline meetings. Considering the limitations of both anonymity and planned inclusion, such as "a place for community," is an urgent task for today's urban planning.
This study aims to clarify the locality in modern changing landscape.
Research area is Minami-shinchi, Chusyojima, Fushimi, Kyoto, which was developed after 1925 without any masterplan. Its landscape can be described as cluttered landscape. On the existing buildings of various ages and designs, there are so many signs of repair or renovation left. It is a serious problem how to evaluate the locality in such a cluttered landscape in change and to propose the method of conservation.
Research objects are 11 shops in 10 buildings in Minami-shinch. I did design survey of these shop buildings and did life history interviews to shop owners. Through the survey, the history of buildings was clarified in detail, especially when/why/how/ they have been changed by owners. Through the interviews, I made an chronological table of these changes and it is clarified that all of these shop buildings have renovated or repaired partially several times. And these changes were done in order to manage the changing situation of owners’ life or business. Through the design survey, I clarified how the building at present has been created by these changes in detail with plans, elevations, and pictures.
There are 36 changes on the researched buildings in total. And there are 21 changes inside shops, but most of them are partially. Many changes are on the floors or walls with painting or wallpaper, which can cover and change wide area easily and cheaply. And there are 16 changes on the façade of the buildings. Most of them intend to change whole the façade, but original part and changed part(s) can be seen in all the buildings. Some were renovated to billboard architecture but the original roof can be seen, some were changed its 1st floor to open the shop but its 2nd floor for living space were not changed, and some were changed again partially to open the new shop.
As a result of these two surveys, I clarified these changes based on owner’s effort and ingenuities to manage the changing situation of business or life in their limited budgets. And that is the locality of this changing landscape in Minami-shinch. Therefore, cluttered landscape or buildings with many signs of changes can be evaluated as authentic in the folksy area with frequent changes of the situation of life or business of residents.
In recent years, public space has been re-evaluated as an important component of urban space that supports vibrant and rich life, and its role has also attracted attention in the context of informal settlements in developing countries. In regard to informal settlements, which have no legal development control, it is natural to assume that public space, or any surplus space, is easily lost due to development pressure. However, various public spaces that are formed and maintained are rooted in people’s lives; in fact, they serve as “living rooms” for people dwelling in small houses, and as a stage for people’s lives, economic activities, and interactions with a community. Thus, understanding the roles and functions of public spaces is important in improving the living environment of informal settlements.
The question addressed in this study is what roles public space plays in people's lives in informal settlements. This research aims to clarify the characteristics of residents’ interaction in public spaces in order to examine the social functions of public spaces, taking the case of Mukuru Kwa Njenga, one of the major informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. In the field survey, the types of public spaces in Mukuru Kwa Njenga were identified, and the study areas of focus were extracted. Then, a questionnaire survey was conducted on 189 people in 70 groups in public spaces, and the characteristics of residents’ interactions in each study area were analyzed from the perspectives of scale, proximity, and degree of neighborhood relationship, mixture, and economic activity.
It was found that street space is almost the only public space that can be used on a daily basis in informal settlements. In addition, some characteristics of residents’ interaction in such a street space are revealed: there are many small groups (scale); residents within short distances occupy the majority (proximity); some groups are based on neighborhood relationships and some are not (degree of neighborhood relationship); both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups in terms of gender, age, place of origin, ethnicity, and religion exist (degree of mixture); and residents’ interaction is strongly linked to economic activity (degree of economic activity).
Furthermore, comparing residential streets and the main street, the former are characterized by a place for heterogeneous interaction that transcends gender, place of origin, ethnicity, and religion, while the latter has the character of a place for homogeneous interaction. It is considered that this is because people with different attributes such as hometown, ethnicity, and religion live in a mixed manner, and the residents’ interactions based on neighborhood relationships take place beyond attribute differences in the residential street. However, the main street, which is not as tied to neighborhood relationships, serves as a place where homogenous interactions establish and maintain relationships between people of the same hometown, ethnicity, religion, family members, and so on, while accepting visitors from a distance.
In conclusion, we found that the public space in informal settlements functions as a place where social relationships between residents are created and evolved, and that the characteristics may be influenced by habitation patterns.
The management of sub-contractors and material suppliers is vital for building construction management which requires a great deal of workers or materials. However, it is difficult to find an appropriate data source for investigating this management information itself, particularly time sequential data. The Shimizu Corporation (“Shimizu-Gumi” in the post-war era) has stored approximately 3,000 construction reports from the post-war era (1923–1941), in which the types of businesses of the sub-contractors or material suppliers is recorded, such as carpentry, plastering, and supply of lumber or cements, among others. The aim of this paper is to investigate the actual condition and the changes introduced in the process of the management of sub-contractors and material suppliers by Shimizu-Gumi in the post-war era. Shimizu-Gumi has been one of the largest general contractors in Japan since the 18th century.
The authors recorded the types of businesses of house construction (510 records) and office construction (360 records). Up to 30–36 types of businesses are recorded in each construction report. The authors calculated the “appearance rate” and the “average number of businesses.” The “appearance rate” is the percentage of the construction reports which recorded the name of the target type of business in the total construction reports. The “average number of businesses” is, on an average, how many times the type of business is recorded in one construction report. In some cases, a type of business is recorded more than once in one construction report.
The findings are as follows:
1. In house construction, there are 47 types of businesses where the appearance rate is more than 5%, while there are 52 types in office construction, among which 43 types are common. The types of businesses in which the appearance rate is high are carpentry, plastering, and scaffolding, among others. The type of business in which the appearance rate is low is mainly supply of materials, which deals with finishing materials.
2. In office construction, the comparison between wooden construction and non-wooden construction (reinforced concrete, steel, etc.) revealed the difference in the appearance rate or changing process, such as the appearance rate of tiles increasing first in wooden office construction and then in non-wooden construction.
3. The appearance rate increased or decreased in several types of businesses. Some of these changes corresponded to previous studies, such as the increase of “tobi-doko” (the integration of tobi, scaffolders, and doko, earth workers) or the increase of tiles and decrease of bricks.
4. There are approximately five types of businesses in which the average number of businesses is more than 1. In the business of metal doors, according to one construction report, data regarding workers (sub-contractors for construction) and material suppliers are recorded.
In future studies, the authors will investigate the names of the workers or companies recorded in the construction reports. This will elucidate the selection of workers or material suppliers by the general contractor, the difference between workers of material suppliers in house construction and office construction, and the changing process of types of businesses by the same workers or material suppliers. In addition, further analysis is required to establish whether these findings can be applied to other general contractors or other types of constructions.
In Osaka City, more than 20% of old private houses over 50 years old are destroyed every five years. Considering the historical and cultural value of old houses, they should ideally be maintained and inherited, however, it would not be sustainable if the owners or the governments are forced to pay the cost. Converting old houses into private home rentals may open new avenues for use of the unused buildings by discovering their potential values. The loss of old houses would be curbed if owners realized that converting old houses, which have low value as residence due to their age, inferior performance and location, to private home rentals would improve their marketability.
We derived the relationship between building attributes and room rates for detached old private home rentals with traditional appearance estimated to be over 50 years old (quaint old home rentals) and for detached private home rentals without traditional appearance (non-quaint old private home rentals), using a hedonic approach.
It is assumed that private home rental’s room rates consist of location, land value, size, distance to the nearest station, the level of concentration, and the level of presence of traditional designs. Two groups of hedonic price models are constructed, one for quaint old private home rentals and the other for non-quaint old private home rentals.
By comparing the obtained hedonic price models, we discuss the relationship between market value and building attributes of quaint old and non-quaint old private home rentals.
In the case of quaint old home rentals, the higher the level of existence of the traditional design, the higher the room rates, and in the case of non-quaint old home rentals, the closer the distance to the nearest station and the higher the roadside land price, the higher the room rates. In the real estate market, the older and the worse location a property is built, the lower the value is assessed. In the case of quaint old home rentals, even if the size and location of the houses are inferior, the higher the level of traditional design remains, the higher the room rates. A potential market value was found in the private home rentals converted from old houses that had lost those market value as residences. The significance of this paper is that it contributes to the free-will stock utilization toward the maintenance and succession of the existing old houses.
The author has been examining the transition of the Western nail prices during the Meiji era and the transition from the Japanese nails to the Western nails. And, I pointed out that the Japanese nails and the Western nails were used together in the late 1877s. According to the analysis of the Yokohama-syokyo carried in the Chugai-Bukka-Shimpo, started from 1876, I found that "Nail rods", "Iron nails" and "Nail irons" were imported during the Meiji 10s to the mid-Meiji 20s. As a result, "Yotetsu-Kokusan-Kakukugi" (= Domestic square nail using iron imported from the West), was produced by "Nail irons", and the price of "Yotetsu-Kokusan-Kakukugi" was reduced in the early 1980s. On the other hand, in the latter half of 1907, I showed that imports of "Yotetsu-Marukugi" (=the Western nail) increased sharply, and the so-called “combined period” was used, in which both square nails(=Japanese nails) and the Western Nails were used. The business conditions section was used for this discussion. This column was useful for knowing price changes. However, the import amount could not be known from this column. The purpose of this article is to clarify the trends in the import quantity of nails in the early Meiji era, using the description in the Yokohama Mainichi Shimbun, which shows the import and export situation in Yokohama in detail.
By inspecting the Yokohama Mainichi Shimbun, it was confirmed that the import of Yokugi-rui in 1871 was 6t for Kugitetsu-rui and Tetsukugi-rui was not imported in Yokohama. From the following year, Tesyukugi-rui was imported at around 100 tons. On the other hand, the Kugitetsu-rui recorded 321 tons at a stretch in the following year, 1872, 1246 tons in 1873, and up to May in 1874, reaching 1182 tons compared to the previous year. Thus, in the early Meiji period, imports of the Tetsukugi-rui were seen from an early stage, but the quantity was small and growth was sluggish. On the other hand, imports of the Kugitetsu-rui increased after 1872, surpassing the Tetsukugi-rui, and this imported Kugitetsu-rui was widely used as raw materials for domestic Japanese iron nails.
The author has considered the import and price of Western nails since the end of the Edo period, by reading through "Nihon-syoki-shimbun-zensyu", I showed the import situation of Western nails from 1864 to 1873. In the previous article, I showed the price of nails in English paper during this period, and I showed that the earliest nails that could be confirmed to have been imported into Japan at the time were "Nail-rod" and were translated as "kugi-sao" in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to clarify how Nail-rod was imported into our country and the price transition after reading the English paper after the period shown in the previous paper, that is, after 1874. The following points were clarified.
The import of Nail-rod was confirmed until June 1890. In other words, Nail-rod imports are recorded from 1864 to 1890. There were two types of Nail-rod, assorted and small size, and small size was about 20% higher than assorted. The price of Nail-rod was well linked to the price of domestic iron materials in the early Meiji era. The price of Nail-rod has been linked well with the price of Japanese nails since 1874. Nail-rod is a general term for products that are the material for nails, and Westerners continued to use this word regardless of form. On the other hand, until about 1879, the Japanese translated Nail-rod into Kugi-sao and circulated it, from around 1877, it was gradually renamed to Kugi-tetsu.
Butokuden halls were constructed throughout Taiwan while the island was under Japanese rule. The activities of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai which was originally with the aim of reviving Nihon-budo were active in Taiwan. By the 1930s, however, these activities had spread through all of Taiwan. As such, Butokuden halls became larger in both size and number, with those built in Taichung and Tainan and the Hualien Port prefectures being especially large and luxurious. Butokuden halls were also successively built in the branch offices of the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai, which were established in district under prefectures in local administrative districts.
Construction costs were originally covered through a membership fund established by the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai (support money). However, this changed when construction costs soared during the 1930s. At that time, the Butokuden halls were constructed solely through donations, which were not limited to members. In fact, many donations were recruited from the general public and, in some cases, collected through levies (taxes). This shows that Butokuden halls were recognised as facilities that were widely shared by residents. Indeed, local administrations such as prefectures and districts took the lead in construction efforts.
Further, local administrative engineers were responsible for designing the Butokuden halls. Specifically, the civil engineering divisions of Taichung and Tainan prefectures played central roles in designing halls for their own prefectures and districts. At that time, facilities were modelled after the Butokuden hall in Taichung prefecture. While Taiwanese Butokuden halls were originally built with Irimoya-style carriage porches and roofs. In addition, their exterior walls were made with exposed pillars and beams that were accompanied by long vertical windows. Another notable design feature was the implementation of a stay pillar with three corner pillars. These styles and designs were followed by many Butokuden halls that were later built in the districts.
The Butokuden halls which were built in Taiwan by the Dai Nippon Butoku Kai which was established to restore the martial arts traditions, played the role as symbols of Japanese culture and colonial rule. However, this paper argues that the Butokuden halls also served as communal facilities that were necessary for prefecture and district residents. As such, the resulting designs do not carry the same symbolic and spiritual meanings as shrines.
This paper aims to clarify procurement and construction process of East Camp and Rokko Heights in occupied Kobe by the research of official documents in Japan and the United States.
At the start of the occupation, a lot of non-war-damaged buildings built in Kobe in the Taisho and early Showa eras were requisitioned by the occupation forces. For example, they were private residences that were not damaged by the war, built in high-class residential areas and suburban residential areas in Kobe from the Taisho era to the early Showa era.
East Camp was constructed by requisitioning the war-damaged areas that had rejected pre-war commercial clusters. The unit dormitories were laid out in a space structure that utilized the lots created by the land readjustment project of the Meiji period. 61 Quonset Huts made of tin and 64 wooden prefabricated dormitories were constructed, and the officer lived in the latter. 6 unburned buildings in the camp were requisitioned and a church, dispensary and recreation hall were built. On the other hand, the Ono Hachiman Shrine and Kotokuji Temple located in the camp escaped requisition. East Camp was released in April 1953, and the Kobe City relocation land clearance project started, and the project proceeded promptly to establish the foundation of the current commercial business district.
Rokko Heights, which was the DH for the occupation army's family (dependents), had land development as soon as it requisitioned a private house. The property of the Kobe Keizai University (Kobe University) was requisitioned, and 106 houses 225 units were constructed on 228,000 m2 of the current Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, which surrounds the university, and 28 facilities including requisition properties were constructed. The Kobe University, Kobe city and Hyogo prefecture argued against the Kobe Base regarding the construction of DH on Rokko and Tsurukabuto, and proposed other candidate sites. However, the army didn't give in to the nearby sanitary environment and the distance between the work bases (Kobe and Nishinomiya), and used the university facilities jointly for more than five years.
The features of the layout plan of Rokko Heights were curved roads using slope landforms, pedestrian separation by roundabout and cul-de-sac, and secured parking space and Service Area and Family Court. As for the flat type of DH, “B” type was used in Upper Sight and “A” type was used in Lower Sight. The elevation of the slope and the level of occupational position were correlated. In addition, through the survey, authors confirmed the Rokko Heights original "N" type which is slightly wider than the conventional flat type standard. Arrangements based on the standards were also applied to the finish of the outer wall, the form of the roof, and the coating of roof tiles. After the DH area was released in 1958, the entire building, including incidental facilities, was completely removed, and the university facilities were integrated and developed by the negotiation between Kobe University and the prefecture.
In Japan, there were 92 cities which were applied to the Fireproof Building Belt (FBB) aimed to protect buildings from fire by the Fireproof Building Promotion Law (FBPL, 1952-61). Ofunato Town, Ofunato City, Iwate Prefecture was the city of the final application of FBB in December 1960. Ofunato City was a small local city which had 36,000 people. FBB in Ofunato City was located at Ofunato Town which was the central part of this city.
In comparison with other cities which were applied to FBB before Ofunato, this application was unique. Because many of other cities were large cities more than 100,000 people, cities great damaged by WWII, or cities were prefectural capitals. But Ofunato had no reason which other cities had. In addition, the original purpose of FBB was to protect buildings from fire. In Ofutnato, there was no big fire after WWII.
In this study, the author tried to find the reasons and meanings of application of FBB in Ofunato Town by reviewing administrative materials, articles of newspaper, and so on.
After the Chilean Tsunami attacked Ofunato on May 24, 1960, Ministry of Construction (MOC) proposed that construction of embankments and application of FBB were suitable ways as measures of reconstruction to damaged areas. On the other hand, the city government of Ofunato thought relocation urban areas to higher grounds and construction of embankments.
MOC thought that it was difficult for cities in Sanriku Region to relocation urban areas to higher grounds by their geographical features. And, MOC was seeking other possibilities of FBB at that time. Eight months before the Chilean Tsunami, the Ise Bay Typhoon attacked Tokai Region. Reinforced concrete structure buildings were not severe damaged at this typhoon. This experience taught MOC a new possibility of FBB.
When people construct buildings on FBB, they were obligated to choose the structure as a fire-resistive building. At this age, people usually constructed a fire-resistive building by reinforced concrete structure. Therefore, MOC considered appropriate measures to construct reinforced concrete buildings against floods by applying FBB to damaged areas.
Consequently, MOC chose FBB as their measures of reconstruction to damaged areas because they thought that it was able to reconstruct at the sites which they lived and to prepare tsunami in the future. Local governments which were severe finances obeyed MOC’s decision.
In central part of Ofunato Town, there were many private own shops. The shopkeepers hoped to reconstruct at their own sites. Nevertheless, they opposed to construct embankments along the coast area which MOC listed as another measure.
In light with these objections, MOC finally decided to construct embankments only at the entrance of Ofunato Bay, not along the coast area of Ofunato Town. Thus, measures of reconstruction in Ofunato were gradually emphasized FBB.
This application of FBB to Ofunato City urged the revision of FBPL which under consideration. In 1961, FBPL which was mainly aimed to protect buildings from fire was revised to the Disaster Prevention Building Block Construction Law (DPBBCL) which aimed to protect them from not only fire but also various kinds of disaster.
Some studies have claimed that the main reason for the revision of FBPL to DPBBL was that the concept of fire protection changed from linear to areal. But the author clarified that there was another reason of this revision.
Fukuura, Yugawara is the fishing village in Manazuru peninsula. The place has a unique landscape, a lot of stairs, stone retaining walls, narrow alleys and high-density housing. However, due to falling birthrate and aging in this area, depopulation is progressing.
As method, we define stairs and retaining walls as a part of elements on the street. Furthermore, the fishing village on the mortar-shaped slope is selected as a research subject. In such topography, redevelopment is extremely difficult due to complex alleys and the form of topography. To study the relationships between components and the street structure, it is considered important for utilization of the existing street.
The purpose of this study is to clarify (1) the characteristic of shape of stairs and retaining walls by actual measurement survey. Then, it investigates (2) “the route from the road to a house” and “the network of flow line” on the mortar-shaped slope.
Results are summarized in the following statements.
1）a. The dimension of width of stairs is independent from difference in topography and distribution.
b. In the west side slope and the east side, there is an evident difference of the shape of the retaining walls.
2）a. Fukuura does not have a network of flow line using the whole topography of the mortar-shaped slope because the flow line on the west side slope and the east side are independent.
b. The flow line of invading two-wheeled vehicle that connect between the road and a house has an important role for the semilattice network of flow line on the east side slope.
In conclusion, this research suggests possibility of “the flow line of invading two-wheeled vehicle” as a method of street utilization.
In his Sticks and Stones published in 1924 and The Brown Decades in 1931, Lewis Mumford re-evaluated the Chicago school of architecture and also placed it at the beginning of modern architecture. In 1933, “Early Modern Architecture: Chicago 1870-1910” exhibition at MoMA added a formalist overview to the re-evaluation of the school. Furthermore, in his Space, Time and Architecture, “written in stimulating association with young Americans” and first published in the United States in 1941, Sigfried Giedion re-evaluated and reinforced an almost similar perspective. On the contrary, Colin Rowe made a criticism of Chicago frame or of Chicago Construction in his 1956 article “Chicago frame.” Rowe`s critique, however, was made from the same formalist view in a broader sense.
Since the Venice school`s 1973 magnum opus, The American Cities, the analysis of capitalism as methodology has been gradually introduced into architectural criticism about the built environment in America.
This paper reconsiders the characteristics of the Chicago construction from the interlacing perspective of the formalist analysis and the analysis of capitalism in order not to overlook the social and historical context nor to downplay the formal analysis.
The façade of the Leiter I by William le Baron Jenney consisted of masonry and metal networks. The client of the building was a local merchant, Levi. Z. Leiter, who was once a business partner of Marshall Field whose business was rooted in a barter economy. In a barter economy, or a barter exchange, as Marx analyzed in A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, objects/commodities were still strongly associated with “use-value” which is “quality,” while “exchange-value,” which is “quantity,” had not attained free form. In other words, the façade of the building was built in an era in which “objects” were easily associated with their “qualities,” so that the façade of the buildings had the characteristics of this era.
After the tipping point of 1880, the Home Insurance Building whose client, Home Insurance Company, a financial capital in New York, was designed by the same architect and constructed. Financial capital is a capital that erases the traces of things and established the business by planning and calculating it on the numerical basis. The façade of the building was made of metal frame, or the Chicago construction which made it easy to calculate the structure numerically, therefore it was possible to increase the size of the building as well as the façade size according to the capital scale. That is to say, it was a product of the same era as the way the business was.
In spite of these differences, the two buildings’ facades shared the same orientation of letting in as much natural light as possible. This “lighting,” however, went well beyond the level of mere functional “illumination” and could be said to achieve an aesthetic level as a “castles in the air (Jenney).” This treatment of light seems to have a sense of floating and a sense of making the façade look like a skin. In short, these feelings could be seen as giving a “commodity fetishism (Marx)” to the buildings.
On the other hand, this sense was in line with the “discovery of a constantly changing phenomenal outdoor world” which Meyer Schapiro pointed out in 1937. Namely, it was not only correlated with changes in business and capital, and changes in the characteristics of products, but also with the emergence of a new sense of mentality due to the urbanization and of market liquidity of the time.
This paper is a part of the researches to characterize and identify the architectural theory of Jun Itami (1937-2011) through all the currently available articles written by him. The keywords of the subjects were sorted out as a number of items and examined from the viewpoint of hierarchy of composition of the meaning by extracting important sentence. As the first level of his architectural thought, three items of【Joseon period】, 【Korea】, 【Contemporary Japan】were extracted. This paper is examining 【Korea】 consisted by the second level of two items of 《Nature》and 《Human spirit》, 《Village》, and《Architecture》,
《Nature》consists of the third level of three items of [Climate], [Natural Environment], and ［Garden］ [Natural Environment] consists of the 4th level of three items of 〈Mountain〉, 〈Rock〉, and 〈Light〉. ［Garden］, consists of the 4th level of two items of 〈Garden of private house〉 and 〈Secret garden〉.《Human》have not the third level items. 《Village》 consists of the third level of two items of [Relationship with nature], and [To contemporary city]. [Relationship with nature] consists of the 4th level of two items of 〈Integration with nature〉 and 〈Response to mountains〉. 《Architecture》 consists of the third level of three items of ［Private house］and ［Jongmyo Shrine］. ［Private house］ consists of the 4th level of eight items of 〈Coexistence with nature〉, 〈Reflection of life〉, 〈Fence〉, 〈Korean floor heater〉, 〈Connection inside and outside〉, 〈Eye movement〉, and 〈To contemporary house〉.［Jongmyo Shrine］consists of the 4th level of seven items of 〈Relationship with water〉, 〈Roof〉, 〈Eye movement〉, 〈Base〉, 〈Nothing〉, 〈Margin〉, and〈"Theater space"〉.
First, Itami spoke of 《Human spirit》 respect for 《Nature》 based on confucianism, and mentioned the 《Village》 where such people gathered and lived. There, we can see 〈Integration with nature〉 and 〈Response to mountains〉, and the 《Human spirit》was also observed there.
Next, he most discouraged discourse was about 《Architecture》 that was at the center of thought about 【Korea】. He observed ［Private house］ and explained the famous Korean traditional architecture, ［Jongmyo Shrine］ and 〈Secret garden〉.
There, we analyzed words such as 〈Nothing〉, 〈Margin〉, and 〈Theater space〉 that were used in his architectural works. He got what he could use for his own design activities from 【Korea】, and also considered future Japanese architecture by referring to these theories.
Common spaces (hereafter CS) are venues established and operated by NPOs, voluntary organizations or individuals, and open to the local community. An exchange space where locals can freely interact, the number of these venues is increasing in Japan. In recent years, the CSs designed by architects has been widely published in architectural magazines, where these architects unfold numerous ideas about ways to engage with the locality. These ideas are not limited to architectural spaces, but also relate to the users’ activities and the design and implementation process itself. The purpose of this research is to clarify this unfolding new design thinking by analyzing both the discourse by architects through their texts, and the actual architectural configuration, through published photographs and drawings.
As research materials we examined the projects published in the magazine Shin-kenchiku. We selected 58 cases of Japanese architecture containing CSs, both newly built architecture and renovations. To analyze the design discourse, we extracted from the accompanying text of each project the commentaries concerning how the CS engages or connectects with the locality. We analyzed these texts qualitatively using the method of affinity diagram, which is based on the KJ method. The analysis of the building configuration focused on the commentaries, and drawings published. For each case we compiled the information on the local situation, building coverage ratio, connection to the surrounding streets, number of entrance faces, the CS occupancy, and facade transparency. Finally, in order to clarify the overall design thinking on CSs, we created a matrix combining the analysis on discourses and the architectural configuration.
As a result, many discourses emphasized the importance of the preliminary design process, and the post-completion management, such as the involvement of local residents through design and construction workshops. This contrasts to the separation of design and construction in modernism, where the architect’s authorship was strengthened, and the values that considered the completion of architecture as end of the architect’s involvement. In addition, we found many architectural configurations to invite visitors, such as opening the facade, or connecting the interior space to the outside with eaves and engawa. The fact that the new built projects also included an emphasis on everyday life and conventional materials, reveals that even within the freer conditions of new buildings, architects are increasingly interested in local engagement by using their architectural skills.
This study explores similarities between spatial features of architectures designed by Charles-Edouard "Le Corbusier" Jeanneret (1887-1965) and his explorations in early Purism paintings. The study focuses on the fact that Le Corbusier had painted for his entire life. He also stated that his experiments while painting had a huge influence on his architectural works.
Through his Purism paintings, Le Corbusier wanted to stimulate viewers' senses and to elicit subjective responses in their minds. In order to do that, Le Corbusier attempted to suspend the viewer's understanding of the piece by permanently sending it back and forth between two opposite interpretations or between several alternatives. Those methods can also be seen in spatial characteristics of Chapelle de Ronchamp (see: Fujii, Furuya, & Shiraishi, 20193)). Jeanneret stated that "une œuvre d'art doit provoquer une sensation d'ordre mathématique" [art works should elicit a sensation of a mathematical order]. Similarly, he thought that generating the "sensation of a mathematical order" was an important part of his Purism paintings. Through the analysis of Jeanneret's writings and paintings, this paper clarifies which methods were employed to elicit the "sensation of mathematical order" in the viewers of Purism paintings. It is important to understand that this "mathematical order" is not something depicted in the painting itself, but rather a sensation felt by the viewers of Purism paintings
For Le Corbusier, the act of painting was about 'constructing' a greater whole by depicting specific elements in a particular way. First, he would select some commonly recognizable, yet in some ways universal, daily items. He called such items "themes-objects". Then, he tried to elicit the "sensation of a mathematical order" in the viewers by aggregating depictions of those themes-objects in his paintings. There were two types of aggregation. The first one was based on the idea of "les tracés régulateurs" [regulating lines]. The second one was based on positional adjacency achieved through aligning the outlines of several themes-objects. A coherent whole was created by the interplay between themes-objects on the canvas. This interplay is referred to as the "collective form" in this study.
In Purism paintings, achieving meaning through the composition of themes-objects was not important. Instead, the focus was purely on arranging themes-objects for the purpose of eliciting the “sensation of a mathematical order” in the viewer. In Purism paintings, stability and order are usually hard to perceive. "Collective forms" created by Le Corbusier are also relatively nebulous. Their deliberate ambiguity and lack of strong connections enables the viewer's perception of the painting's subject to be suspended between several interpretations in order to strongly stimulate their senses. Because of that, the viewer can start to subjectively perceive the interplay between themes-objects in the painting. Finally, the “sensation of a mathematical order” can emerge in the viewer.
This paper discusses the logic that leads small shrines, which were enshrined in the cities through premodern times, to continue to exist or be abolished in the early Meiji period in which the system of the Shinto shrines was reformed drastically from the perspective of urban history. The actual situation of shrine disposal in Tokyo is inspected diachronically and comprehensively by analyzing the administrative documents of Tokyo Prefecture during this time.
Firstly, the legal characteristics of ordinance No. 37 of the Ministry of Religion in 1876 are clarified by referring to previous studies. This ordinance has been investigated in relation to the shrine merger at the end of the Meiji period as the law that was the basis for shrine disposal. Takishima (2000) revealed that a few shrines were newly registered as unranked shrines in Jinja Meisai-cho—an official register of the government in Tokyo—after this ordinance; most of the shrines were merged with other shrines or were relocated to the precinct of other shrines. The actual situation was that many shrines were already registered as unranked shrines until the ordinance was elected.
In Chapter 3, the process of shrine disposal in Tokyo during the early Meiji period is discussed by interpreting historical administrative documents and referring to several systems concerned with shrine disposal. A total of 105 shrines (45 shrines in the urban area) were disposed of in Tokyo Prefecture from 1873 to 1888. Some of the shrines disposed were ranked as shrines, but most were unranked. These shrines or small shrines by the streets and in private estates were not registered in Jjinja Meisai-cho after 1873, during which time there was wholesale grading of the shrine-ranking system in Tokyo Prefecture.
In Chapter 4, the maintenance and survival of Shinto shrines in the early Meiji period are considered by analyzing the person concerned, the manners and factors of individual cases, and disclosure of the logics and the facts of shrine disposal in Tokyo. The first half of this chapter discloses that shrine disposal in Tokyo was executed in three ways: merge the deity with other shrines, relocate the temple to other places, and change the registration from official to private. The union of shrines by merging the deity or moving the temple into other shrine precincts as subordinate shrines was frequently chosen as a passive method for economic reasons. However, this method was not necessarily equivalent to the physical elimination of shrines, which was recommended by the administration.
In the last half of Chapter 4, it was found that shrine disposal in Tokyo in the early Meiji period had four causes: serious damage to the temple, absence of permanence, loss of the precinct, and improvement of the conditions; by analyzing actual situations, the combination of these multiple reasons led to the disposal of many shrines. Many shrines that were disposed of had serious damage from fires and typhoons, and the loss of the precincts provided the momentum. Fundamentally, Ujiko and believers assessed the permanence of the shrine temple and precinct and selected the method of disposal that was required in special cases of disposal by the administration.
This paper aims to clarify procurement and construction process of Dependent Housing and private dwelling and buildings in occupied Osaka prefecture by the research of official documents in Japan and the United States.
At the end of the war, modern architectures remained in the non-war-damaged areas of central Osaka. Unexpectedly, in Osaka, which became the base of the occupation army next to Kyoto in western Japan, they were requested on a large scale. In the procurement of buildings, the situation of disaster and hygiene and the scale of facilities were emphasized. The use of the requisitioned building was changed as needed, but 25 cases were not released until 1952.
Privately owners have appealed to the Governor of Osaka Prefecture about the situation in which many properties are not returned even if the Treaty of San Francisco was concluded. As a result, the governor requested the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to release privately-owned buildings and private dwelling. The army facilities in Osaka city have been moved from the city center to several "suburbs". The "suburbs" recognized by the occupation forces were Sakai, Otsu, Amagasaki, and Nara.
Former military grounds were requisitioned in the earliest days of occupation for example land around Osaka Castle, Kanaoka Camp in Sakai City. Because of the existence of the former Army National Land in Osaka Prefecture, it was possible to secure a vast site. In Hyogo prefecture, there was no former military grounds near the port of Kobe, lands for private owners were required, and the sacrifice of requisition in each city was different.
The privately-owned requisitioned dwellings in Osaka Prefecture were located in the Hokusetsu area (Minoo, Ikeda) for the 5th Air Force, the suburbs of Osaka City area (Sumiyoshi, Abeno) and the Senboku area (Sakai, Takaishi) for the 25th Infantry Division. The Hamadera residential area and Ueno Shiba residential area, which were formed in Sakai city in the early Showa era, were requisitioned for the largest number of dwellings in Osaka prefecture.
The "Hamadera Park DH" for the 25th division of the 8th army was constructed in Osaka Prefecture Hamadera Park ( in Sakai City and Takaishi City) from Sep. 1946 to Jan. 1948. This was the design supervision of the Osaka Prefecture Special Construction Division as Dependent Housing, and the construction of Obayashi, Zenitaka, and Asanuma groups. The 8th army 323th technical unit also conducted on-site instruction. It was used as the DH of Itami Air Force Base after 1952. Although the release movement was launched against the long-term entry of Japanese people to Hamadera Park, the decision to completely return it was delayed in Feb. 1958 when the return of Itami Air Base was decided.
Consistent and enthusiastic negotiations with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs by Osaka Prefecture have come to fruition. While the relationship between Osaka City and suburban residential areas outside the city remained unchanged during the occupation period, it became clear that the scope of the "suburbs" expanded and the army moved to other prefectures.