This paper aims to clarify actual condition of permanent housing supply in Banda Aceh Municipality two and half years after Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004. The paper focuses on two different case study areas there, namely Deah Glumpang in the suburban area and Peulanggahan in the central area. In both areas UN-Habitat was a main donor in terms of permanent housing supply. It adopted community based approach to manage construction process of permanent houses. UN-Habitat had to face and deal with different demands and problems between the two areas. On the other hand, in both areas, one thirds of the households were renters who moved into the sites after the disaster. It is notable that the market for permanent housing had been already formed in the central area. In August 2007, not a few permanent houses were modified by extending spaces, especially in the central part. Kitchen placed open-air to keep necessary space inside the house caused problem for many households. There were four patterns of space utilization for kitchen inside a house as opposed to more or less uniform space usage pattern concerning other daily activities such as sleeping, dining, prayer and reception of guests limited by the minimal specification of standard housing.
This study aims to examine the types and characteristics of Bale bale, and to identify Bale bale as a common space in a high-density environment on Lae Lae isle, Makassar-Indonesia. With the aid of 62 questionnaires, a field survey of 225 Bale bale was undertaken in November 2009 and September 2010. The following are the main findings of this study: (1) The owner can put their Bale bales anywhere on Lae Lae isle and they can move their Bale bales from one place to another, including neighbors without permission. (2)Bale bale is classified into five types, namely, siring, terrace, yard, roadside, and seashore. (3) The Bale bale takes either of two forms: prototype and hut shaped. (4) The direction of the Bale bale prototype is either one way, facing the street, inside, and on the house's sides. The direction of the hut-shaped Bale bale is toward the house, toward the street, and toward the sea. (5) The roadside Bale bale is used more often than the other types. Sitting and chatting are the most frequent activities performed by islanders on the Bale bale. Sleeping, eating, , and repairing boat machines are mostly done by Lae Lae islanders on roadside and seashore Bale bales.
This paper analyzes an environment sharing system from a field survey of 225 Bale bales (Endai-like furniture) in Lae Lae isle, Makassar, Indonesia. Bale bales are owned by individuals and used by entire households. However, 1) Bale bales are sometimes moved to better environments not only by owners but also by neighbors. 2) Whether or not they have their own Bale bales, many islanders use the Bale bales of other families located in comfortable environments (for example, the seashore, a street corner, or a public square) far from their homes. 3) Not only relatives but also neighbors and visitors are permitted to use each Bale bale on the island. By following these customs and rules, islanders can share a good environment on their high-density island.
Toyama-style day care service was established in 2003, which declares that every center offers appropriate services for everyone, regardless of their age or disability, in a homelike atmosphere. General intent of this research firstly lies in establishing a overview of the current conditions of these centers in Toyama Prefecture through questionnaires. Moreover, through an observation survey analysis, users' social behaviors in centers are sorted. Results are as follows: 1) Centers mainly offer day care service to the elderly while it's policy is “care for everyone”; 2) Not only newly built but old buildings were used. While staff office/kitchen is seemingly connected to the main common space in both types, some have difficulties to observe users because of the layout of rooms or furniture; 3) As easiness of entry into and staying at public spaces relates with users' behaviors, planning of room layout and furniture arrangement should be considered for Toyama-style day care centers; 4) Expressions of users' behaviors widely vary with users' disabilities and characteristics so that relationship between their behaviors and space composition was hardly found.
In this paper, we first address actual situation of a childcare environment. Secondly, childcare environment for different basic conditions, defined by management style, building planning and location, is addressed. Finally, relationship between childcare environment and children's activities are presented, which leads to clarify issues of each basic conditions. The results are as follows. 1) Number of children, management style and building planning of school-age childcare centres were diverse in japan. 2) Six types of school-age childcare centres, obtained by analysing children's activities, showed significantly different features of childcare environment. 3) Problems of childcare environment under different basic conditions were shown.
In this study, various surveys were carried out to analyze the work style in local government offices, and the office planning that best fit the work style was considered. The principal component analysis was carried out to clarify two axes explaining the work style features, which are “mobility” and “interaction.” Thus, the following four work styles were classified ; (1) “collaborator”, (2) “constituent”, (3) “soloist”, and (4) “individual”. A mapping survey was carried out to record workers' actions, which are their movements and conversations. And, results were analyzed according to classified work styles. The findings are as follows; 1) In the office where active communications of workers are needed, the desk of “collaborator” and “constituent” workers should be separated to allow activities. 2) The desks for “collaborator” and “soloist” workers should be arranged at the periphery of the office to provide for the work with high mobility. 3) The desks for “individual” workers should be arranged in the center of the office to enable concentration of the work. Thus, this study concludes the office planning that best fit the classified work styles has potential effectiveness for activating the organization.
The form of the window, the ceiling, the wall and other elements in the inner space of buildings make the atmosphere of the spaces.This study focused on the psychological effects of the window.The purpose of this study is to analyze the psychological effects by form, size and the position of the window.It uses the window of actual buildings as a model and compares psychological change which is given different form of the window.As a result the evaluation structure in space which has different form of the window gets four factors as openness, impression, form and sentience.Furthermore, four factors shows how effects on the psychology by any forms of the window.
In this study, authors aimed to obtain applicable indices of anticipation in a curvilinear street space in relation with the curvature and percentage of its inner wall. Authors tried to identify maximal anticipation position and strength using scale modeling. Results showed that anticipation is influenced by the opening width and the percentage of inner wall. It seems to increase in a curvilinear street with thin vertical openings in the inner wall. In a curvilinear street with vertical openings in the inner wall, it is 1.7 higher than in a street with a blank inner wall.
Formative process of “Higashimachi Machikado Hiroba” was specified by analyzing development of residential management system in the neighborhood unit of Senri New Town, conducting the interviews to the key persons. Outline of the findings are as followings; 1. Number of intermediate groups between local government and organizations for managing apartment complex, increased from the second period to the fourth one. 2. Intermediate groups have been solving the residential issues such as making groups, physical improvement, making rules, and managing events, by collaboration with other groups and key persons, especially during the fourth period. 3. “Higashimachi Machikado Hiroba” was actually established by the key persons with their experiences and human links, which were accumulated through their management of the residential environment. 4. “Higashimachi Machikado Hiroba” gave opportunities of establishment for new groups, which solved residential issues outside the neighborhood.
This study is intended to clarify the vocabulary of architecture and urban design by analyzing the critical reviews in Sapporo Urban Design Awards. Critical reviews are described as composition of objects in evaluation and evaluation basis. As the results of classifications, objects in evaluation are classified into 30 categories of spatial elements and activities. And, evaluation basis are classified into 18 categories. These two aspects of reviews, objects and basis, are combined and form critical units. By analyzing of meanings, the differences of critical units are identified among the classifications of spatial types, architecture, open space and activities. its tend to be pointed basis in norm on the architecture, basis in utilities on whole and part of open space, and basis in matching and expression on part of objects. Typical forms of critical reviews have some kind of basis and objects, and some have hierarchical composition of objects and basis.
1)The purpose of this study is to show the development process and the resident participation of rural revitalization activities that NPO-Kanakura-School has kept progressing on from 2000 to 2011. 2) The activities of NPO-Kanakura-School have been arranged chronologically and analyzed from the inside factors and outside's of Kanakura village. 3) As a result, the clues that made the activities possible have been investigated in this study, as well as, practical community management of the village in depopulated rural area.
LIJIANG old city was registered in the world cultural heritage of UNESCO in 1997. The important element composition of the city is waterway space and places for supply of water. Therefore we investigated waterway space and places for supply of water, and got some characteristic of the waterway space. We summarize the result in the following. There is a strong axis to DRAGON MOUNTAIN. There are three waterways at old city entrance, and divided into a lot of small waterways in the down stream, and drained into a field. The waterways were polluted by act for supply of water. A form of waterway space and places for supply of water is divided into four types each. Therefore there are various street spaces.
This study aims to clarify how the villages in the plain field on the lower reaches of Yasu River, Shiga Prefecture, had formed. Especially, the arrangement of the farmhouse in Nojiri Village in the middle Meiji period and the composition of the block based on the Jyori-grid system are focused. As the result, its relations on the road access to site and the location of waterway are decided, and the residential area is composed of some blocks ,and the model scale is 1/2 × 1 “cho”, and the uniformity is composed of the sites where the farmhouse is regularly located.
Authors have been conducting the field research under the title ‘Origin, Transformation, Alteration and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial cities’ since 1999. Focusing on the Spanish Colonial urban process and formation in Cuba, authors wrote several papers through the analysis of the colonial maps AGI (The Archive of the Indies in Seville-Archivo de Indias de Sevilla) collected. We pick up Habana, which was the capital of Cuba and one of the 14 walled Spanish colonial cities, as a target city in this paper. Habana is thought as a prototype of early Spanish colonial cities. This paper clarifies the formation process of Habana Vieja (Intramuros) based on the analysis of historical maps and street pattern and block size.
Urban parks and green lands are the one new urban infrastructure created by war reconstruction plan. New parks and green lands were aimed to reserve open spaces in urban areas and to create modern format of urban parks. In Sendai city, former military lands are located as circular form that surround the central district of the city, which leads to the hypothesis that these military lands contributed to create the green circular belt in Sendai, by being converted into parks and green lands, cooperating with the government policy about parks and green lands after the war. To prove this hypothesis, this study analyzes the spatial converting process of former military lands into parks and green lands in the cities enforced special urban planning law that was out of the green regional system, from the pre and post war era to the high economic growth period. And this study also aims to reveal the transition of the plan and spatial characters about how parks and green lands in the central district were created and related to the existing parks. The study method is to analyze the spatial characters of the five parks and green lands located in the central district, by reproducing the planning and transition maps.
The purpose of this article is to obtain the optimum urban form when compact city system is formed. This article assumed that the hierarchical district centers and transportation system are formed according to the stage of life needs. As a result, the optimum urban form that minimizes travel costs shows the following characteristics. First, it has a population density decreasing by a stable fraction with distance from the district centers. Second, the urban area is determined by the ratio of vertical travel cost to horizontal one and the distance between district centers.
The effect of the allotment garden includes an environmental preservation, an educative effect, and a community function. The purpose of this study is to clarify the user's characteristics and the effect of allotment garden. In this study “the community farm YUI” was opened as a mean for the regional community reproduction. The main conclusions are follows. The main applicant for use in the allotment garden are men who are 50 years old or more . In the choice of the allotment garden, a use charge, a distance from home, and an agricultural guidance were the major factors. The effects of allotment garden are the effect to live for, effect of agricultural understanding, and the effect of exchange between participants.
Taking Weipo village (Laojie) near Luoyang, as part of research works exploring how to conserve the traditional houses, in this paper we focus on the changes of uses and their physical influences on the houses. We make clear the detailed process the extended families have become nuclear, the ownerships have been divided and what changes have been added to the original houses. And we find that the traditional order not only have been lost, but the changes also resulted in deterioration of living conditions, moving to new houses, and decline of the center of Laojie nowadays.
The purpose of this paper is to collect the research material for urban planning from the analysis of the composition, impression and attractiveness of urban scenery based on the variation of viewpoint heights. In this study, authors analyzed the sketches that subjects drew in a limited amount of time. Sketches represent an effective method that reflects the instantaneous perception and impression of the urban scenery and the city image. The results of the analysis showed that the attractive urban sceneries are different depending on the viewpoints heights and have a strong elationship with the visual composition.
This study examines legal interpretation of the alley space of Kyoto. What kind of situation is the small alley where a traditional landscape is left in by a current law. In the site connected to the alley, a building is often impossible. A purpose of this article is to consider update possibility by examining what kind of correspondence is taken when the application to the city is considered to be it in road contact failure. The width of the alley often does setback to become 4m, but the narrowness that is one of the qualities of alley will be in this way lost in future. Safe inspection is necessary to promote technique to maintain a small alley.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the relation between population distribution and locations of facilities that replace the functions of houses in terms of spatio-temporal behavior of people. Among the functions, meal was focused on. In terms of both energy and cost, the study compared the case that residents use facilities with the case that they do not, and determined areas where it is advantageous to use the facilities by using GIS. In the more advantaged areas, the proportion of single households and that of the population aged 30-15 were slightly higher than the others.
To think about land management system in unplanned settlement, this study clarifies the whole picture of land problems in residential area. Using survey data from community leaders, we found out the following 3 trends: (1) It's suggested that land problems are attributed to limited effectiveness of land registration. (2) Especially in unplanned settlement, on one hand friction develops between customary system and modern system, and on the other hand, residents use these systems as they choose for different problems. (3) To build sustainable land management system in unplanned settlement, it's important to establish appropriate relation between those two systems.
The foundation details of the project system and the development processes of the facilities construction are put in order for “The project aiding establishment of area close assembly plaza” of Yamaguchi City. The relation between the contents of conversion of existent building and the method of fund-raising and the characteristics of the management by the regional organizations are explained. The construction of the system that opening and management of the facilities are supported by the administrative, non profit organization and area organization is effective and the expansion of the system that precise improvement is carried out is important.
Regional characters of Danish Nonprofit housing organization are analyzed on following 4 aspects. 1. The proportion of Nonprofit housing to all dwellings is almost 20%, and it's growing. 2. Social characters are the strong determinants for the rate. Especially the rate of owner-occupied house, motherless/fatherless child are strong. 3. There are over 600 nonprofit organizations. They especially are distributed over the south region. 4. There are 52 administration organizations that can be categorized into ‘whole country type’, ‘south spread type’, ‘capital focus type’, ‘area spread type’, ‘neighborhood type’ and ‘interior type’. The administration organizations administer throughout the capital region and self-management organizations are distributed over Jutland at large.
The result of the survey of the research material becomes it the plasterer in the future. The content of the plasterer construction of the Meiji era period is considered. It makes comparative study of the Meiji era period and the plasterer finish of the present age. The plasterer term of the Meiji era period is converted.
This paper aims at explaining the construction process and use characteristics of day service facilities for old people in depopulating rural area by the use sphere analysis of regional nucleus facility and small homes reused a traditional timber house. The regional nucleus facility with satisfactory equipments is placed on the facility for the old people who hopes special rehabilitation or bathing and on one side the small homes were arranged in disperse by placing it on the home to provide the service for the old people with low care level. The correspondence to general increase in demand, shortening of pick-up time by sharing use sphere and the fulfillment of old people's choice branch of day service menu become possible. The trial to build the partnership of facility use by combining the nucleus facility with advanced function and small welfare homes is evaluated as an effective method to secure the amount and quality of welfare service.
The subjects of this study are Gôgura-syo existed in Echigo province in the Edo period and six Gôgura-syo plans were analyzed. An important role of Gôgura-syo was to store the rice collected as tax from Shogunate's estates during wintertime, and this role resulted some specific spatial structures whose focuses were protections from storms and snow.
This thesis deals with the fire fighting policy recorded by ‘yoriki’of Kyoto magistrate office at the latter term of the Edo period. The Result of compare with record by‘dousin’in Kyoto magistrate office, it was clarified that the range of the fire fighting is a whole town, and the magistrate had command of firemen. In addition that, this thesis clarified that the‘chobuninzu’is the same fire fighting men as ‘choubuninnsoku’, and the light disposal of the person who caused it with a fire, and the procession of ‘sakibann’ had the ‘ryukotusha’.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the realities of Heian revivalistic style of the court-noble's residence at the early modern period. In this paper, the residence of the Konoe-family especially were taken up and the history of the residences at the early modern period was confirmed. The shinden had the Heian revivalistic style since the latter half of the 17th century. But this style wasn't complete as the Heian revivalistic style, and the feature hasn't changed after conflagration Tenmei. It may be inferred that one of the background of this fact was that only the Kigo-Jinzaburo-family took charge of the construction as a chief carpenter.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the spreading process of the legends about architectural remains of Juraku Palace, Fushimi Castle and Toyokuni Shrine. As a first step, this paper examines what is written about the legends in the topography of Kyoto in the late seventeenth century. In some topographies, there were mentions about the tenshu (main keep) of Fushimi Castle that it had been moved to Fukuyama Castle. There were also stories that, at the destruction of Juraku Palace, its buildings had been moved to some places, but not with their specific names. Stories about the legends as such are told already, but these were not yet paid much attention at that time as in the later period.
This paper, following the previous articles, aims to clarify the spatial order of various edifices, existing within the principal sector of women's quarter in the Edo castle, called Ohoku Goten-muki, by taking notice of decorative components, generally phrased as zashiki kazari, during Kyoho-Manen eras. By focusing the arrangement of the interior design and then the style of the everyday life in the sector, as a result, the most prestigious interior-arrangement in the shoin-style, in which tokonoma, chigaidana, tsukeshoin, and chodai gamae were displayed as a set, was employed for the reception room, Gotaimen-jo, within the public edifices after Koka era.
In this paper, we clarify the transition of the regulation of prefectural official residence in the 1880's and the 1890's. The result can be summarized as follows : 1.In the early 1880's, the government was in financial difficulties because of civil wars, consequently, the prefectural governments were scarcely able to build or repair the official residence at that period. 2.In the situation mentioned above, the government transferred the prefectural official residence from national property to prefectural property at July 1881. And after that time, the government urged the prefectural governments to management of the prefectural official residence. 3.After July 1881, for example Saitama Prefecture had been considering the regulation of official residence through the 1880's and the 1890's, inheriting a governmental thought. And Saitama Prefecture, especially after 1896, had been considering architectural technology for maintaining their official residence too.
This paper considers the topological meaning of people's lifestyles on traditional “UNJORU” houses in the Joseon Dynasty. Up till now, there have been many discussions about traditional houses in Joseon, which mainly focused on the use of space. However, as human's living places in daily life, the home is not just a possession which can be dissected according to principles of form. Moreover, the home cannot be addressed in a logical form of spacious constitution and applications of physical theory. The home is the place where human beings experience relations among themselves and with the environment around them. Discussions of this paper were mostly based on the records of dwelling and lifestyle from this perspective. Besides, records of these lifestyles, such as the boards (tablets), the family successions and the religious rites at that time, were studied. As a result, the master room of “UNJORU”, the place for a head of a family, was expressed as the center of the house by a head of a family recognizing his own existence and positioning. Furthermore, the culture of life which consists of more various elements will be discussed in the next study.
Hue is one of the few ancient capital cities of the south East Asia that established of the Nguyen dynasty 1802-1945, UNESCO acknowledged the complex of Hue Monuments World Heritage 1993.This reconstruction study considers traditional lacquer painting techniques and methods for the Imperial palace of Hue. A purpose of this study is focus on lacquer paintings, materials, restoration and production system for main architectures through historiography reading and analyzing as following Han Nom documents in the Nguyen dynasty.As a result of reading historiography suggests that could clarify and categorized characteristic of the Nguyen Dynasty's painting techniques for main architectures.
Our surveys have revealed 9 churches in existence with vertically-elongated timber-framed structure that are located in the Red river delta area, 7 churches in the PhatDiem diocese, 1 in the ThanhHoa diocese and 1 in the HaNoi diocese. This paper aims at shedding light on architectural characteristics of the vertically-elongated timber-framed structure from the viewpoint of architectural history, by analyzing and comparing with normal timber-framed 46 churches that have been completed architectural survey. Though the vertically-elongated timberframed structure has been limited in number and areas, this manner of structure has architectural significance in considering traditional technics of Vietnamese timber structures.
This study focuses on the changes in Kairyoubanoku (ameliorate house) from 1920s to 1960s. Kairyoubanoku was a new type of dwelling plan proposed by Japanese policy at that time. According to the plan, the house was divided into three parts: a living room in the middle, two bedrooms on the sides. Comparing the Xiuguluan Amis and East Coast Amis, there are some differences because of their location and transportation conditions. In the case of Xiuguluan Amis, due to the good transportation, Han and Japanese easily accessed to the area. Their influences began to appear early and the construction of Kairyoubanoku was carried out already in 1920s. On the other hand, in the case of East Coast Amis, their traditional roof truss existed up until 1960s. This study points out that Amis' Kairyoubanoku was a mixture of Amis, Han, Japanese people's dwelling skill, room proportion etc.. These can prove the complexity of Amis' dwelling type and technique.
In this article, we analyze how columns are used and to what extent they determine the architectural characteristics of the church of San Miguel de Escalada. This leads us to two important features of Escalada. 1. Spolia columns were not necessarily used as substitutes for those made ex profeso, but in fact played a pivotal role at the time of the building's conception, especially from aesthetic point of view. 2. The inherent incongruity between masonry walls and monolithic columns leads to quite distinguishable features where the two elements meet. In the case of Escalada, we can observe a growing interest in keeping the independence and wholeness of the columns adjacent to the walls.