This study aims to examine the roles of a support organization in a privately developed rental collective housing project, "Kankanmori", focusing on the concept of "community of practice (COP)". Engaging in joint activities and discussions, the resident group developed a set of shared knowledge and value as practices for "collective living with collaboration and pleasure". The support organization played a role in cultivating the COP by giving support according to the autonomy of the COP and the timeline of the design and construction.
The objective of this study is to clarify actual conditions on the renewal procedures of the building agreement and make effective functions for building up residential environment through neighborhood participation by application of the agreement. In this research, it was found that, even in areas where the building agreement had been concluded by the developer, agreements in many of the communities had been renewed with the residents placing high evaluation on the agreement. Furthermore, it was clarified that various measures were established according to the actual status of the communities by varying the contents and areas subject to the agreements. And then the basic conditions were examined to promote neighborhood consensus for operating the building agreement over a long period of time. The conditions according to the reasons of concluding the agreement or according to environmental conditions of the community were argued to be the keys for promoting neighborhood consensus for the agreement.
As the sequel of a series of the study, this paper analyzes the arrangement of the multistory apartment building in Taipei City. The main conclusions are as follows. 1. The unit of building can be classified into 6 types. The majority pertain the Staircase type. Since the late 1980's, the Hall type has become the main stream. Along with that, the numbers of unit for the standard floor tend to decrease. 2. The building form can be classified into 5 types. The majority belongs to the Board type, and the second is the Point type. Since the 1990's, however, the Point type has gradually decreased at the public housing and the private housing tends to increase. 3. Most of the building layout is the Parallel type and the Independent type. However, since the 1980's, the Parallel type at the private housing and the Independent type at the Public housing have largely decreased. Meanwhile, since the 1990's, the common space has become one of the major features of the large-scale multistory apartment building.
Clarifying the process of urban formation and characteristics of living environment in old town of Ayutthaya, this paper discusses the form of townhouses in Thailand. The research this paper is based on tries to compare forms of shophouses in Thailand with those in other regions of Southeast Asia and southern China. The previous paper clarified the typology and its transformation of shophouse in Ratanakosin area in Bangkok. In this paper, authors selected Ayutthaya to consider the formation of urban tissues and its transformation. Ayutthaya is well known as a World Heritage Historic City with many ancient monuments. One of major focuses of this paper is what and how the townhouse was introduced in Thailand. The paper is composed by historical analysis of the process of establishment and development of Ayutthaya and considerations on block formation and typology of shophouse. Analyzing the characteristics of housing conditions and form of house plan, the paper suggests that shophouse in Ayutthaya is gradually changing to modern form.
The purpose of this study is to investigate cognitive distance generated by ascending and descending stairs. After ascending or descending stairs (5 spots), subjects estimated each distance of stairs. We concluded as follows; 1) Cognitive distance generated by ascending and descending stairs was estimated longer than physical distance. 2) Cognitive Distance of stairs depends on the spatial conditons (configuration and width) 3) Children estimated cognitive distance generated by descending stairs shorter than by ascending.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the expansion of behavior and living territory held at each space of elderly inhabitants of "Care retirement house". The results of the analysis are as follows. 1) The place formed by various activities in room were fully understood and classified. 2) Features of living activity related with programs held at common space and other activities were clarified. 3) To act in outer space, inhabitants choose each facility and place. The effects to those acts and territories by environments of location were recognized. 4) Features of expanding territories were differ by each acts, seemed they had four qualities; staginess, selectivity, development and attachment. Points written above classified whole activities.
This paper aimed to perceive the relationship between corner planning and nursery program which influenced by children development. We investigated the changing of furniture layout in 2 kindergartens and a nursery school using corner planning for a year. The investigation involved 10 nursery rooms consist of children between 3 to 5 years for the 3 schools. The results were: 1) Nursery room consists of several corners (play corner, living corner, teacher's corner), storage spaces, and blank spaces. 2) Nursery program consists of a long-term program (program for the year) and a short-term program (monthly and weekly program). In long-term, teachers decide the outline of corner planning at the beginning of the year. In short term, the details of corner planning surch as kind, location, size, arrangement of furniture etc. are determined according to the change of children's activities on children development. 3) Corner planning made by teacher is based on development of children. Several independent corners are set up by teachers at the early stage. At a later time, They are connected gradually based on the change of children's activities.
The main problem of Japanese day care centers for the elderly is an institutionalism with group treatments. On the other hand, Denmark is known for its care services for the elderly, based on individual needs. The purpose of this paper is to examine chracteristics of space use of Danish senior centers in Aarhus (L.C). On-site observations were held in 6 L.C. Conclusions are as follows. 1. Services -lunch, physical training and activities- are provided independently in L.C. Therefore, users can choose services as their needs. 2. There are various patterns of situations according to each room in L.C. And as a whole, L.C. is an aggregation of various situations. In contrast, Japanese day care centers' typical situation is a mixture of group and individual activities in a room. 3. Tendency of users' purposes to come to L.C. depend on where they are located: mainly to use services in suburb and rural area, and to use services or places to stay or talk in downtown. 4. By discussion on qualities of space in L.C. from the point of social contacts, unrestriction of space using and planning consideration-layout and ambiguous division of space-are thought to be important to have various possibilities of social contacts.
Since National Universities in Japan were incorporated in April 2004, managerial aspect for facilities maintenance and construction of campus has been required. In the former paper, we proposed a calculation method of importance degree on arranging campus facilities by multiple concerned persons' view. The purpose of this study is to develop a classification method of campus facilities characteristics by their importance degree and satisfaction quality. This paper describes the proposed method by using importance degree obtained by our former research and Attractive Quality and Must-be Quality judged by graduate/undergraduate students of Kumamoto University. We found out effective facility items for arranging each campus complex by the case study on Kurokami north and south campus of Kumamoto University.
The purpose of this paper is to reveal the design characteristics of dwelling units in super-high-rise residential buildings by comparing with the characteristics in mid- to high-rise residential buildings. Then following results were obtained from statistical tests and principle component analyses. 1) There were significant differences in the dimensions in vertical cross section designing caused by structural reasons, and in the distributions of room areas in plan designing caused by the lighting conditions of dwelling units. 2) Dwelling units in super-high-rise buildings showed a tendency to be worse in design flexibility than dwelling units in mid- to high-rise buildings.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the avoiding space between the human and the robot. In the experiment, the avoiding distance between the human and the robot was measured, while a man tried to avoid interplaying with the independently-moving robot. The characteristics of human movements were verified from results. According to the results, a sight distance does not differ between male and female when avoiding the specific robot we used in this study. It has also proved that there is no difference in a sight distance by interlacing angle. The study showed that the sight distance expands spherically with aradius of 1450(mm) from the height of the robot's eye. The avoiding distance from side ways was calculated to be 610(mm), which is smaller than that of human to human. This value suggests that it requires about 1100(mm) passing by one another, and it is narrow in current housing plans.
This research investigates behavior of wheelchair users in a built environment, and how this environment should be developed to accommodate needs of disabled people best. The concept of this study is based on ecological viewpoints: materials, surfaces, the space and atmosphere they create, and the persons' perception of the whole. It is estimated that a proper balance between the space, the form and the surface is vital to ensure free activities by its users. Besides, it is important places where they can do with intent, for example: watching TV or smoking place. This research is useful to consider universal design, and it is need to research comparatively on ordinary persons.
This study analyzes relationship between spatial components and consciousness. This study compares physical quantities of space components and psychological quantities based on psychological experiments in fields. This study shows reverse-correlations between spatial cognition rates and physical quantities, such as ceiling heights, boundary distances, and eaves lengths. For example, ceiling heights are estimated relatively higher in low ceiling heights. Boundary distances are estimated relatively shorter in long boundary distances. Eaves lengths are estimated relatively shorter in long eaves lengths. This study found eight axes of psychological factors extracted by factor analysis method based on psychological quantities.
This study focuses on finding the territorial configurations in residential area of three villages where refined distinctions of villagescapes caused by extensions can be observed. Analysis of built environment was carried out through the basic research of territorial structure of villager's residential area. Environmental transformations have been continuously taking place under the stable territorial configurations and spatial differentiations in terms of villagescapes gradually emerge out of inherited environmental conditions. The trend of environmental transformation is accelerated with the scaffolding like light constructions called 'sashikake' on which villagers pay little attentions. Environmental transformations are largely attributed to such unconscious remodeling and can be the new typological factors.
This study aims to sort and compute the rates of vacant houses in every 37 villages in Hayakawa Town, and also to clarify 1) the problems of increasing vacant houses, 2) location of each vacant house, 3) current condition of their management such as weeding garden and ventilation inside their houses, and 4) vacant house owners' intention of the treatment of their houses in the future. We made clear that one side in some village there are few vacant houses and have not so many problems, the other side in some village there are so many vacant houses Which village itself will collapse in the near future. We also clarified that many vacant house owners want to reserve their houses but they don't manage them enough to reserve. We have found the demand of new organization in place of owners to manage vacant houses.
We clarified following three points on the "participating process design" for residents to take leads in management of park/regional environment after making plan by public participation. It will be possible forming a continuous management organization with a leader, and managing by residents, by involving residents with specific requests and examining the management of the park in the planning process. To continue the activities, it is effective to have the spatial elements such as green-area or community facilities producing variety of activities and keeping residents' motivation. It makes new residents to participate in the activity that the administration gives fund to residents to manage these spatial elements so the activity becomes more intentional and public.
The purpose of this research paper is to discuss the characteristics of the modifications carried out on the Trevi fountain by G. L. Bernini during 1641-43. The research paper starts by decoding Della Porta's estimate for the modifications made on the fountain, then discusses the project of the fountain in 1563. The research further clarifies the changes brought upon the fountain's vault during the 1641-43 modifications, by comparing the fountain after Bernini's modifications and its project in 1563.
This is a part of research how technique plan for urban landscape formation should be established. For that purpose, it is necessary to recognize urban charm again to achieve beautiful city that based on historical development details. This study analyzes the evolution details of movement for city beauty in Osaka during the prewar period. Specifically, this study is to focus on: 1) the time series development details assorted with city beauty elements, and 2) the spatial development details, which analyzed by dissecting articles in "Dai-Osaka" that handles issues about city beauty.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of interval between the street lights on an impression and cognitive distance of nighttime streets. The subjects were all women and they estimated two different routes; one was a residential street and the other was a sidewalk of two-lane street. The experiment was carried out at night (8pm-9pm). The subjects walked along those streets and estimated the impression of each street and the distance. The results found in the experiment are summerized as follows; a) the nighttime streets did not make any significant difference on the impression they got, as interval of the street lights was over fifty meters. b) the uniformity of the street lightning improved the estimation of the nighttime street. c) When interval between the street lights was twenty-five meters, the impression of the nighttime street was better in general (ex. safer, lighter, and easier to walk) and the cognitive distance that the subjects felt was shorter.
As a second phase of whole study, in this comparative study on the three different reconstruction projects of the large-scale condominium complex in Korea, we tried to clarify the characteristics and the subjects of owners' activities and decision making. The conclusions are as follows: 1) On the operation of the promote organization, It is necessary to reduce the economical dependence on construction company. And, the promote organization should get enough confidence of owners from the early stage on formation and operation of organization; 2) The promote organization commonly placed main reliance on architect and construction company for collecting information and decision making. It is important to obtain the efficient information through the information-gathering activities independently by the promote organization; 3) Because the diverse intention of owners was not checked enough in the stage of making initial plan, the substantial change of initial plan became necessary. The owners need to build their common conception about the residential environment of the whole condominium scale in the early stage; 4) It is important not only to depend on the questionnaire investigation but also to introduce diverse activities on offering information and grasping owners' intention.
The paper attempts to describe the situation of the homelessness in Finland, and to analyse how the Finnish government and other stakeholders have attempted to reduce the homeless population. Finland successfully reduced the homeless population between the late 1980s and mid 1990s with a massive provision of social housing, as well as the announcement of a quantified policy target in terms of homeless population. A similar strategy was also adopted in recent years. Another characteristics of Finnish homeless policy is that full attention has been paid to not segregating homeless population. There seems to be some lessons that other countries could learn from such Finnish experience.
This paper shows the method of repairing expenses management of public day nursery building. Many useful reference notes and data for the repairing expenses management were clarified by analyzing of the past repairing works and the spent repairing expenses of 40 public day nursery buildings by independent type in Setagaya-ku, Tokyo. The analysis is characteristic of having view-points of the management of service operation costs and life cycle costs.
In this research, we aim to clarify the comprehension and yearning of upper class on Shindenzukuri through the images of "Narrative picture scroll of the Tale of Ise" drawn by Sumiyoshi Jokei in the 17th century. This scroll collected in the Tokyo National Museum was drawn in 1663-1670 and owned by Fushiminomiya Akiko who was the consort of the fourth Shogun, Tokugawa Ietsuna. We found that two types of the architectural images were intermixed in this picture scroll: one is Syoinzukuri style of that time (early modern era), the other is Shindenzukuri revival style of the Heian era. The upper class of the 17th century had understood Shidenzukuri as an image of the fantasy created by the Imperial court culture at that time and there was no historical understanding. However, the Imperial palace in the Heian era was presented in detail in this picture scroll.
The purpose of this study is to see the relationship between the design of Gyoka-fisherman's houses or fisheries and a historical landscape structure in Minami-kayabe district in mainly Meiji-Taisho and early Showa period (1850s〜1940s). As a result, most "Gyoka" had a marine terrace and seashore. The terrace sides were used as a farm or garden and shore sides were used as a drying space for kelps, a processing plant for sardines and a space for grounded boats etc. These fisherman's houses had a "Touri Niwa", an inner court in which people were able to go through from the shore side to the terrace side. And most houses had gable roofs, and the low storied facades faced the Pacific. The sheds to dock boats and to process sardines etc., also gave distinct impression to shore sides' historical landscapes.
With the construction of streetcar line 'Yunokawa-Sen' in early Taisho era, the suburb, in the east area of Hakodate, had been developed. The men who had developed this area in early stage were philanthropists. Most of the residential areas were developed linearly along the road of the former field, which ran at right angles to 'Yunokawa-sen'. The establishment of Housing Unions in Hakodate started just before the peak of the rate of increase of housing areas. 'Hakodate-Jutaku-Kumiai' had a remarkable influence on the development 'Bunka-Mura'. In 'Midorimachi-Dori', dwellings by housing unions initiated the owner-occupation. Moreover the residents of housing unions built up sustainable community as mentioned on several newspapers.
TOTOCHAKAIKI' written by TAKAHASHI SOAN is taken up in this text, and the place where the tea party etc of the upper class of modern ages were held is understood overall based on the description. And the place of the house is clarified there. In addition, mainly about the house in Tokyo city, Tokyo suburbs and the resort areas of Tokyo, the location is classified and considered. This is to know the tendency to the houses of the upper class of modern ages. It is connected with knowing a part of the ideal type of a house at that time.
Purpose of this study is to clarify the formation and development process of the system of architectural agent for procedures required by laws. Conclusion of this study is as follows: 1. Kyoto was the first prefecture which had this ordinance enacted April 1930. 2. Many prefectures had this ordinance enacted especially before and after 1950, when the Kenchikushi Law for Architects & Building Engineers was enacted by the Diet. Eventually, 23 prefectures had it enacted. 3. This ordinance was originally intended to rule architectural agents for procedures required by laws, but from their business experience they began to think themselves of architectural engineers. 4. The trend became more prevalent even after the enactment of the Kenchikushi Law, but the ordinance was curiously repealed with prevalence of the Kenchikushi.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the theories of body culture for Le Corbusier and Pierre Winter, his collaborator, and the relation between them and their architectural theories. This paper analyzes city plannings of Le Corbusier in the 1920's from the view point of body culture. On his city plannings body culture decides time and space of city. The elements are on the rooftop and "au pied de la maison". The space for body culture on the rooftop has refined through designs of urban institutions which Ecole Francaise de Rythmique et d' Education corporelle-salle Pleyel is an example.
Retired Emperor Reigen (1654-1732) had visited to the Shugakuin Imperial Villa 21 times in his last years. He is the son of Emperor Gomizuno-o (1596-1680) who built the villa in 1650s. Retired Emperor Reigen wrote the itinerary about the experience he had in this villa. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the place of the Shugakuin Imperial Villa through his itinerary, as well as to consider the meanings of "villa" and "outing" for him. We use the poems and the descriptions in the itinerary as the materials of this study.
This paper aims to clarify the meaning of the peritia dell'arte in Vincenzo Scamozzi's architectural theory. Scamozzi attached the great importance to four words in his theory. They were scienza, invenzione, disegno, and peritia dell'arte, and were related with the various architectural methods that characterize his architectural theory. In "L' idea della architettura universale" the peritia dell'arte was contrasted to scienza, because the former is experience and the latter is intellect. The relationship of peritia dell'arte and scienza was important to establish the idea that the architecture is scienza, in Scamozzi's architectural theory.
The purpose of this study is to utilize a 3-D virtual reality space to clarify how the presence of a river within an urban space might influence pedestrian wayfinding behavior. Firstly, in creating a 3-D virtual reality experiment system, we studied the operability of the interface for movement and line-of-sight direction displacement within the space. Next, we conducted the same experiments on the pedestrian wayfinding behavior of both the real space of the existing urban district under study and a 3-D virtual space re-created from this real space, and compared the results. To understand how the river space influences pedestrian wayfinding behavior, we then conducted a comparative experiment on the presence or absence of river space in identical streets, using the 3-D virtual space. The results reveal that when a river is present, many people actively try to utilize information about the river, for example by choosing to take a route along the river. In addition, even for people who use routes away from the river, the presence of river spaces serves to provide some clues to their location. Thus, river spaces function as a standard point of reference in the memorization of routes.