Application of two-microphone tube technique and acoustic intensity technique to evaluate normal acoustic impedance of locally reactive porous sound-absorbing boundaries is studied. Based on measuring results by using a tube or a wall of full-scale model, uniform mean value of normal acoustic impedance is given for the whole absorbing wall surface ignoring local slight difference. Simulation analysis for the floor impact sound of the full-scale model is executed and compared with experimental results to verify that this modelling is accurate enough for practical application.
Recently, the research field of human - sound environment system tends to be diverse including community noise, neighborhood noise and the newly advocated concept of "soundscape". But the study field seem to be confusing for lack of a framework by which studies in the field could be described totally from one viewpoint. With the framework, the direction and significance of each study could become more clear. In this paper we construct a framework for description of human-sound environment system by assembling findings from cognitive psychology. As examples of application of the framework, we make descriptions on some topics of sound environment.
This study represents compilation of the results of experimental examinations regarding methods for improving the performance of floor impact sound insulation for heavy impact source in light-weight steel frame ALC-type dwellings. The primary factors examined include the number of steel beams and mounting method, ALC plate joint treatment method, sound-insulating ceiling specifications and vibration isolating support method of walls of room below, and we verified the effects of each through vibration tests. We thereupon measured floor impact sound for specific floor structures taking these verification results into account and stipulated cross-sectional specifications for the floor, ceiling and lower-floor walls with the performance of floor impact sound insulation for heavy impact source in the range of L_H-65-L_H45.
In the previous report, every 5% of average sky luminance distribution of the accumulate frequency of occurrences was obtained by every 5 degrees of solar altitude. The luminance distribution of the average sky was classified into five categories of the clear sky, the near clear sky, the intermediate sky, the near overcast sky, and the overcast sky, However, this method can not be applied when the sky, luminance distribution is not measured. It is necessary to develop a method to estimate sky luminance distribution based upon other data gained easily in order to provide sky, luminance distribution as the basic data of the daylighting design. The relation between the quantities concerned the daylight and the classified sky luminance distribution was examined, Finally the value of horizontal global illuminance multiplied optical airmass and divided by extraterrestrial illuminance was selected as the index shown the correlation with the sky luminance distribution.
This paper describes the results of the wind tuunel experiments concerning the effects of separation distances on flow fields around the twin high-rise building models and on concentration fields in the cavity region. From these experiments, the following conclusions are drawn, 1)The primary effect of the upwind building was to retard flow separation on the top and sides of the downwind building when the separation distance between the twin building models was less than a building height (L/H<1.0). 2)The separation distance did not influence the reattachment length and cavity area behind the downwind building. 3)The flow separation on the top of the downwind building occurred when the turbulence intensities in the z direction were equal to those in the x direction. 4)The higher cavity concentrations appeared in the downwind building than those in the isolated building. It was because the mean velocity and turbulent energy in the cavity of the downwind building decreased in comparison with those in the cavity of the isolated building.
When the Marker and Cell (MAC) method is applied to analyze three-dimensional flow problem numerically, small time step (Δt) is usually taken to avoid divergence of the computations. However, taking small time step often results in consuming large amount of computational time. Therefore, a possible large time step should be selected provided that it ban give a convergent solution. In this paper, the equations determining the time step are derived based on the Von Neumann's stability condition for the threedimensional finite difference equations obtained by central difference, upstream difference, and Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinematics(QUICK) schemes. The proposed equations are adapted to determine the time steps for several flow problems and it is verified that they give reasonable and convergent results with reduced number of iteration calculations.
A 3-D CFD code with staggered grid system based on generalized curvilinear coordinates has been developed in order to put an analysis method of turbulent flow to practical use. Two cases of validation have been carried out by LES of channel flow using orthogonal and nonorthogonal ( skew ) grids. First case uses an orthogonal grid and second case uses a skew grid. Mean-velocity profiles of two cases show almost the same distribution as that of the logarithmic law. However, the profile based on the skew grid in second case shows an asymmetrical distribution with about 3% difference between upper side values and lower ones. Fluctuation velocity components and Reynolds shear stress in the first and second cases correspond very closely each other. It is confirmed that the use of such a slightly skew grid does not have severe influences on the behavior of calculated turbulence.
A turbulent diffusion of gaseous contaminant near a building mode] is predicted by Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the aid of the composite grid technique. The results using a composite grid show better agreement with the experiment than does the case using a single grid. However, some discrepancies from the experimental results are observed in the results of the standard Smagorinsky model using the composite grid. These discrepancies are improved remarkably by using the Dynamic Mixed SGS model.
This study investigated organic compounds in a cleanroom air and those on silicon (Si) wafer surfaces using gas chromatograph (GC), GC-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure ionization MS (TD-APIMS). As a first step, organic compounds adsorbed on the surfaces of Si wafer were qualified by TDAPIMS. Furthermore, quantities of organic gas species in the cleanroom air were measured and contributions of cleanroom materials to the airborne organic species were evaluated Organic species outgassed from wafer carriers were analyzed by the head space method. Through the analyses of GC and GC-MS, we attempted to clarify whether cleanroom materials were emission sources of organic gas species in the cleanroom.
In this paper, we described the contents of several trials in the idea of planning method, that was shown us by many books in Japan in ear]y Taisho era. The point of the contents or several trials is presented as fol lows; first the fundamental thought or planning was named 'family-centered', and secondly the family-centered theory on planning method was formed on the one hand, and was beeing formed on the other hand, as the result that the principle or planning method was added to some planning methods.
In this paper, in order to realize the implications for residents of the mixed-use of residences and services, we investigated the life style of residents in the central area of Taipei. The results are as follows : 1) the residents in the central area of Taipei have a wide range of the services available most of the day; 2) they have a wide choice among these services during specific hours; and therefore the central area of Taipei is not only an area for production, but also an area for living.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the relation between evaluations of living conditions in renewed public housing and prior expectations for the renewal program, based on a questionnaire submitted to residents of H.U.D.C. housing estates. The results are as follows; 1) Residents evaluated dwelling units as private space much better than public exterior space. 2) Although residents are not satisfied with the individual factors of the public space, they approve of the present layout of residential buildings as a whole. 3) They would have wished to participate in the renewal program to some extent. However, light participation does not generally produce significantly different results.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify meaning of regional environments for elderly people by means of comparison of behavioral environments in housing complex area and those in town area. The method of this study is an interview with elderly residents in these areas about places to use, routes to pass, and communications they have in the area in everyday life. The findings are as follows. 1) Behavioral environments of elderly residents in two areas are quite different. 2) Opportunities of diverse communications and accessibility to places influence the quality of regional environments. 3) Two models of behavioral environment are found, those are intention-determinant model and action-inductive model. 4) Especially for the elderly, their behavioral environments are strictly regulated by the regional environment they live in.
This paper, based on the survey, verify what size catchment area of community library is, and modify the past paper (the fifth report) presented as a model of an egg type, considering the result of recent public library activity which is making rapid progress. As a result, in addition to the model of catchment area of the past small library in the city, we present the models of middle and large scale library which are divided according to the number of open stack books, and also the unique model of catchment area of the town library.
The study's aim is to clarify the paradigmatic characteristics of the exterior composition of multistory buildings in the urban context. Materials are analyzed in three levels of exterior composition; expression of building surface, expression of circulation core, and expression of geometry. Comparing the whole composition of the buildings, four independent rhetorics are structurized; transparency of the interior compositional system, frontality and solidity by the condition of the site, geometry of the surface and the whole and independency of the part and the whole, which show the structures differentiating the exterior composition of the multistory buildings according to the inner conditions such as accumulation of slabs and circulation core.
To extend the life span of buildings is useful to reduce Life-cycle-CO_2. It is useful to cope with environmental disruption which is getting serious year by year. There are some reports on the investigation of life span of buildings components so far. In this paper, we surveyed the actual state of change and maintenance of building components, and tried to estimate the life span of building components applying probability of survival to theoretical distribution.
This study makes clear the effects of floor square and ceiling height on the sense of volume and impression of interior-space. Subjects experienced the experimental space (wider floor square and lower ceiling height), and experienced the compared space (the same volume of the experimental space, smaller floor square and higher ceiling height), and answered the sense of volume and which space was felt yuttari^*. The results were summarized as follows: 1) The volume of the space of high ceiling height was felt bigger than that of the space of wide square. 2) The results of the feeling of yuttari showed three tendencies. A) The feeling of yuttari was not felt in the space of lower ceiling height (under 2100mm). B) If the difference in floor square of two spaces was 30% or smaller, the feeling of yuttari was felt in the space of bigger volume. C) If the difference in floor square is bigger, the feeling of yuttari was felt in the space of wider floor square. *The Japanese word "yuttari" includes loose, spacious and feeling of easy.
The Band Historic District is one of the 11 historic districts registered by the Metropolis of Shanghai, a historical and cultural city. This paper aims to analyse the process of changing the Band Skyline and its visual character, the meaning and humanistic value of the Band Landmark. Basedon these parameters we propose the historic townscape conservation policy and guidelines.
This basic study is proposing an effectual method of valuing the public policy about securing resident population in Tokyo central-city; considerable decrease of population. When the residents change their land-use, we think that the project pattern is chosen and have an influence on living continuation, analyzing a main cause about choice an enterprise. So we calculate the income by simulation among the project patterns, we clear that it is a conclusive factor at advantage of choice an enterprise.
The present study focuses on the residential areas of the 23 Wards of Tokyo, analyzing its structure based on a quantification I theory using the land price. It makes clear how land prices in the 23 Tokyo wards are formed, and the areal structure thereof, generally described as high in the West and low in the East. Land price level formation over a wide area is greatly subject to the geologic land characters, as they determine the land use, forming such land prices.
The purpose of this paper is to obtain basic data and a calculation method of the Life Cycle Cost for the rental office building management. At first, a cash out flow model for 20 years, which is drawn up based on the data obtained from the maintenance records at a certain rental office building, is presented. Then a new idea of LCC definition is derived. The necessory expenses for the tax calculation of the construction cost is the depriciation cost and that of the sustaining costs is themselves. The difference of the tax reduction effect of these are taken into consederation. Therefore, such LCC is in proportion with a minus coefficient to the profit which is the difference between the Net Present Value and the initial investment. Using the cash out flow model, the relationship between LCC and the expected profit, and the influence of the LCC estimation margin to the risk which is brought by the uncertainty of the income and expenditures estimation is analyzed.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the typical patterns of relation between housing plan types and their layout plans, from the viewpoints of conditions of housing lots and resident's housing notions, for the newly built detached houses in local cities. Firstly, this paper analyzes the relations between typical housing plan types and resident's housing notions about layout of each room, and leads the conclusions that the differences of requirements about each room produces the differences of housing plan types in the relation with orientations and shapes of housing lots. Secondly, this paper educes some typical models of relations between housing plan types and their layout plans, corresponded to the differences of orientations and shapes of housing lots and resident's housing notions about housing plan, garden and parking.
This study discusses the architecture of the "Syoushi"(a small shrine). That following become clear through the examination of shrines and temples in Inagi-city.Tokyo. ・In Inagi-city most of the"Syoushi" were built near houses after the middle of the Edo period. ・A11 of the"Syoushi" are under 3 syaku(1 syaku≒0.303m) wide. ・Some of them were built in old style(=simple style), but till the mid-19th century they had same style with "standard size shrine"(they are above 3 syaku wide).
The temporary buildings - the Tsukubashira" (independent post), stage, back stage, space for musiciansused for the "Tsukumai" dance during shrine festivals in Chiba and Ibaraki prefecture have never been studied in architectural history . "Tsukumai"dances are performed m four places today and documents mention another five cases . In this paper I examine nine cases of the buildings in "Tsukumai". The architectural character, use, date, distribution m area and character of design of the buildings in "Tsukumai" are clarified by examination this time.
This papa, traces some of the linkages between poll tax and land tax via the example of the residental district Daimon-chou in Zenkouji-Temple area in the Edo period The Poll tax loaded on a house owner was equal to 12 month labor, and the land tax corresponded with the size of the land which was surrounded by boundary lines. The land was subdivided into some small lots according to the quantity of the poll tax. The paper concludes that the origina1 urban form in the ealdy Edo period was 50 detached town houses on the land with no plot division.
In the Edo era, the Seto inland sea was the main route of the sea transport in western Japan. Therefore many ports were built along the Seto inland sea because of the transfer of travellers and commodities. But, since Meiji-ishin, the transportation was changed and decreased of the route of the Seto inland sea, Now, from the vestigial structures of Aki and Bingo, the center of the Seto inland sea area, it is difficult to know the condition of the facilities relating to sea shipping. This study investigated the condition of the accommodations ( inn , ocha-ya, bansho for travellers etc. ) of Edo era, which are still withstanding now. We expect to announce the real facts of accommodations along the route of the Seto inland sea in the Edo era.
In this study I make clear the spatial condition of amusement quarter in Japanese modern city, paying attention to its autonomic aspect. In this paper I deal with Kobe Shinkaichi as the study material, one of the most prosperous amusement quarter in modern Japan, and I grasp the formation process of urban space and the transformation process to an amusement quarter. So I point the opportunity out to be the physical and artificial emptiness and the history that originates from reclamation of Minatogawa River.
In 1971, Hag Ahmad Youssof Moustafa, former restorer of the First Boat of King Khufu, Ancient Egypt, reported the hieratic inscriptions that were marked on the timbers of the ship by the ancient carpenters. During our research in 1993, he kindly gave us his personal data of all the timbers and in them we find 221 other hieratic inscriptions that were not yet reported. It is concluded that 138 inscriptions out of 221 are the numbering marks constituted of the phyle marks, numbers and additional marks, and indicate the original position of the timbers on which the inscriptions were marked.
A schematic plan of a cistercian church in the sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt has not been recognised as a scale drawing. Based upon the previous researohes concerning the historical scale drawings, historical metrology and the medieval number symbolism, the author. attempts to prove that this can be a scale drawing. Villard's plan of Meaux cathedral and the plan of Cambrai cathedral drwan next to the cistercian church plan in the sketchbook can be. testified to the scale drawings of the sketchbook. Compared with the scale of Villard's plan of Cambrai cathedral, Villard's cistercian church plan also verifies the scale drawing. Dimension supposed to this plan is confirmed by the medieval number symbolism and the mesures and dimensions of several actual medieval cistercian churches. As conclusion of this paper, the author points out that Villard's church can be exceptionally small and what Villard intended to realize in this plan is a simple plan "ad triangulum" and a symbolic number 28 as the measure of the elementary figure composing the plan.
Delphi, together with Olympia, has been well-known as a classical sanctuary, especially as a place of oracle. The authors surveyed the Treasury of Massilians (ca.540-500 BC) at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia in Delphi during the summer in 1994. The field research was carried out to get numerical and visual information from the viewpoint of construction and planning. The survey could make contribution for new observation of the monument in the viewpoint of building technique, and the result is reported as follows.
In this study Mies van der Rohe's impressive perspectives in the projects for two country houses in 1920s are analyzed and reconstructed in three dimension, and then redrawn by computer graphics. In this process there were found formal differences between perspectives and model photos or plan. Then it is found that Mies was influenced by the Expressionism although controlled carefully, and that he tried to establish the new architectural aesthetics through introducing picturesque architectural composition from the tradition of Berlin Neoclassicism, and concluded that the perspective played a certain role in the formation of design method of Mies.
In this paper, I tried to make clear meanings in ' Presupposed - HARMONIA ' of Le Corbusier's " LE MODULOR " . ' Presupposed - HARMONIA ' has been asked from realization of real ' HARMONIA ' as architect's feeling and between already-known and un-known . Through inquiry of ' Presupposed - HARMONIA ' in " LE MODULOR ", I exracted hidden meaning of words that was characters of principle (arche), purpose (telos), mediation (mesis) . In conclusion , I suggest that these characters are connected with value good.
Architectural Space Montage Technique was thought up by authors. Mentally handicapped children's schema is expected to be represented by miniatures 1 to 50 scale such as units of walls, furniture, people and trees on a white plate 60 cm × 90 cm. We analyse spatial components of works by this method, and investigate that the development of ability for arrangement of spatial components is correlative with the mental age of the subject. Characteristics of works by autistic children and Down's syndrome children are examined. We discussed characteristics of works by mentally handicapped children, comparing with characteristics of works by school children and kindergartener. The analogy of works by a subject is studied , and also the analogy between a work by a subject and an architecture plan of his school is investigated.
Modern Kyoto is planning to convert urban outskirts areas into parks as a method of preservation. During the Meiji era, plans to create a park had been promoted mainly within the picturesque areas. In the Taisho era, the suburban mountain belts, including the picturesque areas, had come to be considered as a park under the urbanizing circumstances. From the Taisho era to the early Showa era, mountains had attracted people's attention as a holiday resort and a green area more than ever. Consequently, the preservation of the mountains became an urgent matter to be conserved for Kyoto.
It is difficult to obtain the practical knowledge of design and to translate it into rules for constructing a CAAD expert system. In order to support the thinking processes at the initial design:, a CAAD expert system framework based on the Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is proposed in this paper. The proposed system has following characteristics: 1)The CBR approach which is suitable to the idea design is introduced in our expert system. 2)Not only the thinking informations, which include the design know-how such as the design drawing,intention and approach, but also the used architecture code are abstracted as the contents of case. The case which is similar to the problem can be presented automatically during the thinking design to bring out the designer's imaginative fully. 3) CBR and Rule-Based Reasoning are integrated into the inference mechanism to improve the inference ability of the system. 4) The problem-solving objects of the proposed system are to support the idea design and to judge the architecture code adaptation of the design. The detail construction, development and realization procedure of the proposed system will be introduced in this paper.
Geometric knowledge is essential to architectural design. Every geometric object used in current CAD/CG systems is primary defined by vertices. But most of geometric objects in architectural design are produced by previously defined objects and geometric procedures. To follow the designer's decision making process, what we have to store in intelligent CAAD systems are the desiger's decisions expressed as procedures which imply the geometric facts, restrictions, and contexts. GDL (Geometric Decision Library) is designed to express architectural designer)s geometric decisions making process naturally, and implemented on Smalltalk environment. GDL constitutes geometric decision tree (network) for architectural design, and reconsideration of geometric decision for a,n architectural design extracts each restrictions, and can maintain total geometry in every state of architectural design process.