This study investigated the symbiotic housings in recent 30years selected from three major architectural magazines in Japan (488 cases in total) and they were sorted according to era, region, designing technique, and type of dwelling. Then representative types of the housing complex were selected for the further investigation of their actual conditions of resident's lifestyle and feelings, associated with collecting their observations by questionnaires and interviews. Consequently, some distinctions between the council house and private housing were revealed and the designing techniques for the symbiotic housing need to be improved more suitable for the resident's lifestyle and their habit. Moreover this study revealed that, in order to sustain the function of the applied techniques, the better balance with surrounding conditions and their management and maintenance were required. Thus, the post design process and method described in this study is to be considered essential for the cyclic improvement and development of symbiotic housing in the future.
Based on the interviews with the visitors to the prototype of apartment room in 2003, the relation between the selection and its reason of living room interior decoration is analyzed by the Association Rules. The conclusions are given as follows. The procedure of selection the living room interior decoration is based on the coordination between the plain and decorated interior step by step. It leads to the balance point between them. Although most of the interviewees hope that the living room interior decoration be plain, there are differences in the attitude to exhibit their daily life, which is hidden from the image of simple interior decoration.
The purpose of this paper is to suggest a new method for reconstruction of old public housing. It emphasizes the use of private funds by special purpose companies and leads to reconstruction of housing following the demands of residents, such as guarantee of houses for elderly people, keeping of the quality of environment, and establishment of intergenerational communities. This is different from the rebuilding with public budget, because it reuses the houses that exist now and meets the various demands of residents.
This study aims to figure out the use of existing "un-built" lots in large detached housing estates in suburban area of Ibaraki prefecture. The results can be summarized; 1) 56 projects which were provided through Development Permission in Ibaraki Prefecture have 32,410 lots in their development area. 5,897 lots (82%) of them are "un-built" lots. 775 lots (13%) of "un-built" lots are utilized as parking lot, and 280 lots (5%) are utilized as flower or vegetable gardens. And the other 32 lots (1%) are used as the mixture of parking and garden lot. 2) The frequency of use of vacant lots has some relation to the conditions of their town block land use. The first necessary condition for utilization is that "un-built" lots are mixed with old detached houses. The second one is that new housing construction is not active in their town block. Especially it has a pronounced tendency to be utilized when the component ratio of "un-built" land in a town block is fewer than 30%.
In this topic, the utilization characteristic of the service (accessory) spaces of Yoyogi National Stadium was surveyed. The analyses revealed and considered as planning factors: Organizations that held events were diverse. The number of persons who used the accessory spaces and the kind and area of rooms used differed by event. In general, the numbers of users per area was larger in non-sport events than in sport events, and the area used per room and the numbers of users were also various. Thus, architectural planning should be made with careful consideration on accessory spaces for non-sport events such as using movable partitions instead of building fixed walls. Also, locker rooms (lounge) for participants (performers) should be better planned between the center court position and the position for the stage on one side of the arena.
The purpose of this paper is to find out the utilization of sitting spaces in Sugamo Jizo-Dori shopping mall. Therefore, we conduct the fixed points observation survey and the questionnaire survey of visitors in Sugamo Jizo-Dori shopping mall. The results are as follows: Not only those who visit the temple but also the shopping mall visitors use the sitting space of Koganji Temple; There are differences between the visiting purposes and behaviors in shopping mall of the neighborhood visitors,and those of the other visitors; It can be said that the visitors who sat in the sitting spaces of Koganji Temple tend to drop in at many shops, and the sitting spaces of Koganji Temple is useful for the activation of the shopping mall.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the actual condition of the care house through questionnaire and interview, and suggesting current demand in an existing facility improvement by analyzing residents' behavior in the common spaces at the facility. Findings are as follows; 1) Change of services bring about problems both concerning physical and social environments, especially regarding residents' relationship. 2) Among all common spaces, passages support the residents' daily life the most. Therefore it is important that the space between passage and private room, can be used and expressed freely with residents' own items, and that sight lines are properly considered
This research verified whether the public multipurpose hall with the variable mechanism functioned according to the purpose and uses it in 9 halls. And following knowledge was obtained in designing the multi-purpose hall in future. Like the combination of variable reverberation and variable proscenium arch, variable mechanism with the clear space and purpose are effective. It sufficiently considers actual operation and growth of users, when the variable mechanism chooses. The manual of the setting of the variable reverberation device is made, and it is possible that everyone make the good sound space.
The purpose of this study is to grasp the number of theatres in recent Italy and their geographical distribution mainly from the viewpoint of seating capacity. By using data of the original database which was based on an existing database, "teatro e dintorni", and additional data, following results were obtained. (1) The number of theatres that are in activity are about 1,400; (2) The number of theatres on a population basis are comparatively balanced at regione-level; (3) There are a few facilities that contain multiple theatres; (4) The seating capacity of 70% of theatres are not exceed 600; and so on.
The purpose of this thesis is to clarify architects' thoughts on the relationship between technological aspects and design aspects of houses with building construction as main concepts. Firstly, conceptual descriptions on building construction were extracted from contents of each theory, and were classified into two aspects of technology and design. Secondly, based on practical descriptions on building construction, we modeled constructive diagrams in order to show the relationship between the whole and the parts of a building. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between design themes and constructive diagrams. Then we found that the distinctive tendencies of architects dependent on methods to construct the uncompleted whole by which outlines of houses' form are not absolutely determined.
This report is to illustrate how contemporary Japanese architects make frameworks of concept in their design theory through studying of 'dual concept', a set of notions that is one of a strong type of a rhetorical text, in their articles. That is why we can find her/his important idea and context for Architecture in it. Firstly, the content of each dual concept was considered, and some descriptions about background context were extracted from each theory. Then contents of dual concept was classified into several categories based on two different levels; from background context and from a viewpoint of duality/classification. Secondly, two types of form about dual concept was considered from the text of articles. One is the form of each dual concept itself. Another form is about the stance of architect for dual concept. Finally, the relationship between two levels of content and two types of form was compared in each dual concept and analyzed totally.
The present study examines the influence of environmental factors on distance/depth perception through a series of experiments conducted along underground paths located around subway stations. Each of 31 subjects, accompanied by an experimenter, was asked to walk along the paths that had different environmental features. Each subject was asked to estimate the length and depth of the path, and to rate the overall atmosphere of the path. The results of the experiment generally support the hypothesis that such pathway design features as spaciousness, number of turns, brightness, will influence distance/depth perception.
The main aims of our research are to restructure the region planning methods for agricultural community with sustainability. On this paper, we aim to figure out the social and economical infrastructure condition in rural area, and set up the indicators which represent the capacity of living conditions on agricultural community, and correlate those indicators with geographical conditions. Using the census data in Japan, we got results as follows. 1. Analyzing the census data based on the living condition indicators, we break agricultural community condition down into 9 patterns. 2. From correlating the 9 patterns of agricultural community condition with geographical condition, distribution of the patterns are varied according to district of eastern Japan, western Japan, Hokkaido district and three major metropolitan areas.
The main aims of our research are to restructure the region planning methods for agricultural community with sustainability. On this paper, we aim to figure out variable factors of time-series behavior of agricultural community from 1970 to 2000, and correlate those factors with geographical conditions. Using the census data in rural area, we got results as follows. 1. Time-series behavior patterns of agricultural community: Changes of agricultural community and regional economy are presented as "a degree of dependence on agricultural industry" and "a proportion of farm houses to the population in rural area". 2. The difference from district: From correlating time-series behavior patterns of agricultural community with geographical condition, distribution of the patterns are varied according to district of eastern Japan, western Japan, three major metropolitan areas.
This paper aims to analyze the spatial characteristics of Extended Pedestrian Spaces (EPS) in the old district of Macao. IACM planned various EPS to provide small open spaces not only for tourists but also for local people. They are considered as an adaptation of the spatial concept of Chin-Dei introduced by Portuguese. Focusing on formation and function of the connections between EPS and adjacent streets, the spatial characteristics of EPS is identified as coordinative among the complex urban functions. This indicates the effective types of small open public space to adjust the mixture of functions for the high-dense city.
Landscape Law, enacted in 2004, promotes the re-shaping of urban space by providing legal support to control the design of development projects and is highly expected. This paper, taking the pioneer case of Portland, Oregon, aims to explore the actual method of identifying design issues of proposed development projects under a legal system. The conclusions are as follows: 1) The phase of identifying design issues by municipal planner in writing staff report is critical for accessibility, creativity and efficiency in implementing design review process. 2) Crafting design guidelines which has flexibility respecting designer's creativity and concreteness make it possible to identify the problem is important.
Renovations of the historical buildings as the core of community planning develop in many cities. In this study, we pay attention to the two renovations of historical buildings managed by local residents themselves, which aims at sustainable community building and we explain those process. In order to explore this study, the following activities will make a renovation the starting point of the pregnant community planning: (1) Lay the basis of daily community planning, (2) renovates the historical buildings as a part of community planning, (3) government to support renovators such as financial aid, (4) cooperation of government and residents.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify how historic buildings in Iwafune-gun remain and to understand appearance character of those buildings. This is to make a basic report for expected district designation and establishment of design guidelines. Major results are as follows: 1)2885 historic buildings were counted, 2)Murakami,Shioya,Senami,Ogoto,Ebie,Sarusawa show high remaining percentage and large number of historic buildings, 3)The form alike town houses in Kansai region only appears in Murakami and Senami, 4)Today, Yokoyatype of town houses is the majority, but in the past, Tateya-type was likely to be the majority, (5)There are common characteristics in facade design along some roads and in some areas.
In recent years, the management environment of the local homebuilders has been changing. There have been demands that they should grasp the reality of cost management. However, it has hardly ever been examined, because their methods are tacit knowledge in their business. This paper aims to understand the actual conditions of cost management in the homebuilders through the examination of the actual data on the cost management in the small scale building works. First, we obtained the documents on the cost of building works concerned. Secondly, we input the necessary information into a spread sheet program. Finally, we analyzed the change of the amount of all expenses in the itemized statements of contract price presented to the clients.
This paper traces the factors from which establishment time differed at each elementary school by verifying the time background of the old in-the-city and old rural district in Kyoto at the initial stage of Meiji era. The time when feudal land ownership was dissolved was remarkably different from within Rakuchu and without Rakuchu. The gap between Rakuchu and Rakuchu mainly caused the gap that the Bangumi-elementary-school had the high rate of new building while the Guntyu-elementary- school had the high rate of temple diversion.
This research clarifies how a historical investigation method of Shindenzukuri restoration was established at the painter studio in the 17^<th> and 19^<th> century. A historical investigation for Shindenzukuri by painters in the 17th century was limited to the Imperial Palace and partial architectural elements. In the 18^<th> and 19^<th> century, a historical investigation method of restoration that quote architectural elements drawn in the various picture scrolls of the 15^<th> to 12^<th> century was established. The architecture drawn in the various picture scrolls of 12^<th> to 15^<th> century was collected and sorted out by painters to be used as historical materials.
Kaichiro USUI is a designer of modern tea rooms, and the some he designed for OKOCHI VILLA and Ichizo KOBAYASHI's SOKU-AN let us recognize importance in modern times. After World War II, he designed OMOTESENKE' branch office which is a base in Tokyo of OMOTESENKE, and enlarged OMOTESENKE residence in Kyoto. So he is also important as a Designer who present OMOTESENKE after the war. But, up to know, there has been no study about the whole life work of Kaichiro. The purpose of this paper is to settle the fundamental basements for the futures studies about him. In this study, by first piecing out Kaichiro's texts, plans, and interviews with someone who related to him, we want to make synthesis of his skill as a Sukiya-shi. By listing up his architecture, we understood the where it spread in the different regions, and the approximate proportion of the tea rooms in his all work.
The main points of this paper are as follows: - 1. This paper aims to compare Western style mill erected in Keio years with local sugar manufacturing at Amami Oshima islands as an example of various architectural and technological analyses. 2. The local sugar manufacturing building and technology both in Edo and Meiji period at Amami Oshima islands was quite inferior to that of Western style mill in Keio years. 3. The sugar manufacturing at Amami Oshima islands accomplished technical development from Edo period to Meiji period, but the buildings and technology of Western style mill in Keio years was far apart from the technological development at Amami Oshima islands. 4. Because of no technological relation with the local manufacturing the Western style mill in Keio years seemed to be erected as a pilot project or test for the British merchants. 5. Probably the Western style mill erected in Keio years could be established in the cooperation of the Satsuma clan with the British merchants.
Purpose of this study is to clarify the formation process of Article 26 of the Construction Business Law: System of Chief Engineer for Construction. Conclusion of this study is as follows: 1. Sixteen prefectures are known having ordinance to control contractors before WWII. Osaka was the first prefecture which had it enacted 1895, but in many other prefectures, it was mainly after the Urban Building Law, enacted 1920. 2. Some in both civilians and officials of Building Administration needed enactment of the system of construction engineer, but it was not. 3. Character of the system was tentatively incorporated in the system of Kenchikushi in the draft of the Building Law by the War Damage Reconstruction Institute 1947. 4. System of Chief Engineer for Construction in the Construction Business Law, enacted 1949, was expected to be reformed through examination work of the character of the system of Kenchikushi in the Kenchikushi Law for Architects & Building Engineers. 5. Finally, it was determined to separate the system of construction engineer from the system of Kenchikushi. These two systems have been individually developed.
The architectural features and the meaning of the gallery of Sant' Agnese fuori le mura, examined based on the author's survey and historical sources, are as follows: 1) The colonnades, the cornice and the interior surface of walls of the gallery have different characters of plan from those of the aisles. 2) Two stories, which have no stairway to connect them, were divided clearly by various architectural meanings. 3) The pilgrims entered the ground floor and venerated the sanctuary above the saint's tomb, while the gallery was used by nuns. 4) The choice of images of mosaic and the height of vault of the apsis have strong connection with the nature of the gallery of Sant' Agnese as middle space between the earth and the God in heaven.
In the facade of Palazzo Rucellai, pilaster system is filled up with bugnato liscio and bifore, traditional elements of Toscana civil architecture. This selection, contradictory to the innovative use of the pilaster system, not only reveals the Rucellai s obedience to the Fiernze tradition and alliance with the Medici family but consists, for Alberti, of indispensable condition for the acceptance of architecture to the society. This apparently eclectic synthesis, derived from Alberti s rhetoric theory, is traceable also in Tempio Malatestiano and S. Maria Novella, and related to the renovative vocabulary and terminology of "De re aedificatoria" and his theory in behalf of the modern Italian language.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the theories of body culture for Le Corbusier and Pierre Winter, his collaborator, and the relation between them and their architectural theories. This paper deals with Winter's theory in the 1930's. He insisted the necessity of harmonizing body with the laws of nature by respiration. Therefore he proposed as follows. 1. Study respiration by body culture. 2. Construction of the surroundings suitable for respiration. The surroundings are the time schedule of all day including laber, the quality and the quantity of air and the place for body culture.
Housing studies in Japan was born as a new branch of science when "new universities" were founded. It stemmed off from home economics that was introduced to Japan from Western countries in the Meiji era to exclusively study the "shelter" (as opposed to food and clothing) aspect of homemaking. The previous paper outlined how the concept of "housing/dwelling" in the field of home economics was formed in modern Japan under a great influence of the "housing concept" in American home economics. Koichi Sato and his fellow architects took initiatives in the housing education in the Japan Women's University in late Taisho era and the Showa era. After the university restarted under the new system, a new academic area called "housing study" was created by bringing about house designs that have an architectural design planning philosophy that provides practical vocational education. The university now offers the architecture course. Nevertheless, there has been no discussion up until now about the housing education in the university looking back at where it started. This paper dates as far back as the origin of the housing education at Japan Women's University, focuses on the beginning of the housing education as one of the universities that deal with housing study as part of architectural education, and discusses how the housing concept in the home economics in the United States was incorporated by Hide Inoue, the founder of the Faculty of Home Economics of Japan Women's University, through surveys and analyses of the literatures related to housing in the American home economics.
This paper focuses on Akira UENAMI's architectural design of the Telephone Exchange Branch of Hiroshima Post Office built in 1928 and Hiroshima Posts and Telecommunications Office built in 1933. We try to concern real images of design activities by Akira UENAMI. In addition, this paper is consisted of 3 chapters as follows; 1) It focuses on various design activities by Akira UENAMI as a staff of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. 2) It points out relations on Akira UENAMI and two buildings designed by him, Telephone Exchange Branch of Hiroshima Post Office and Hiroshima Posts and Telecommunications Office. 3) It clarifies tendency of his works comparing with the characteristics of typical buildings of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications.
The purpose of this study is to find out the urban development of the formation process of Japanese residence area in Dae-gu Korea. The method of this study is to analyze deal in real estate of Japanese from 1903 to 1904. Daegu has had the city surrounded by the rampart from 1736. The central urban in Daegu is located in the area of rampart and the area outside a west gate. Korea was opened in 1876. It was 1893 that Japanese residents entered Daegu for the first time. The settlement corporation of Japanese was formed in 1904. They broke the rampart in 1906. It was changed to the Japanese commercial street and Japanese made the cross road opened in 1909. Daegu developed the center of a physical distribution by constructing new roads. The roads were changed to the Japanese residence area. It was built by the area of the north and east outside of the rampart. After all, the central urban area in Daegu was changed to Japanese residence area from the center of a former city in the latter half of 1900s.
Nukisaki shrine is one of the most important shrines in Gunma prefecture and its foundation possibly dates away back to 531. Shikinen Sengu Ceremony of Nukisaki shrine has been repeated every twelve years since 1590 and the latest ceremony was held from 2004 to 2005. As a result of surveying series of the ceremony the present author found out three points, such as follows: 1)the ceremony is basically managed by administrative organizations and Shinto shrine communities, 2)ceremonial goods dedicated for building Okariden(temporary shrine) are partially ordered to traders, because of the waning of local community, 3)the stations(Tamuro) are selected from houses which are along the road and have adjoining rooms, but it is difficult to find them out.
In Genroku and Houei period, the zone of noble village gradually expanded, because the noble lands increased on the area that was adjacent to the south of "Tsuiji-no-uchi" area, and some vacant areas were created around "Tsuiji-no-uchi" area to provide against the fire. But only at "Tera-machi"and "Ura-tera-machi", adjacent to the east of "Tsuiji-no-uchi" area, noble lands didn't increased. In the meantime, through the 17th the number of nobility who lived in townsman land increased. So shogunate stepped out effort to know the address of them under the request of urban administration in Genroku period. But at the background of this measure, there was the aim to correct the moral of nobility, because of depravity of noble community.
The purpose of this study was to clarify a part of Japan's modernization by retracing the transition in the Portland cement production system. The study examined the resources, including the histories of a several cement corporations, which were left in Onoda Cement Company (OCC). Its focus was on the transitions in the cement production system employed in the cement corporations in the Meiji and Taisho eras and the transitions in the cement production process and the kilns' types and numbers that were found in OCC. The outcomes are as follows: 1) Although thirty-five cement manufacturing companies existed in the Meiji era, only eighteen remained at the end of the Taisho era due to the hard social conditions. 2) In spite of the advent of kilns such as Dietzsch's and Hoffman's Ring kilns, the bottle kilns became popular in Meiji era, and have been replaced by rotary ones since 1908 for its high productivity. 3) The cement production system of law material changed from wet to dry process since 1897. 4) Along with the transitions in kilns, the cement manufacturing process as well as the equipments for firing kilns were improved in OCC. 5) The fundamentals of cement production system was established by the end of the Taisho era, and the equipments before and after manufacturing process were almost the same as the ones that are currently used in general.
This study builds and verifies a house plan generating system imitating organic morphosis and adaptation to environment. This system consists of the space formation system imitating morphosis and the condition adaptive system imitating adaptation to environment. The cellular automata and the genetic algorithms of artificial life are used in both systems. The result of the verification experiment verified that this system operates effectively in the house planning of a general scale, although there are some problems. One of them is that under the tight or complicated design conditions, the efficiency of the best plan generation declines. It is thought in the observation of verification experiments that these problems are improved by the diversity of the space differentiates many rooms, the adaptation of the parameter of genetic algorithms for each design condition, and the change of the plan generation procedure for every layer.