From the results of questionnaire survey subjected the people suffering from articular rheumatism in Sweden and Japan, it become clear the following 2 aspects. 1. Evaluations of physical functioning aspects quality of life were common in both countries, on the other hand, evaluation of pain aspects quality of life were differ in Sweden and Japan. The Score of Sweden was severe than one of Japan. 2. About housing arrangements, subjects in Sweden had a higher level of performance of physical environmental improvements, namely housing adaptations and use of assistive devices. However, in terms of equipping of handrails/ bunisters ,performance levels were higher in Japan than in Sweden. I presuppose that the subjects in Sweden who had severe pains introduced physical housing arrangement, while subjects in Japan who had slight pains don't introduced physical housing arragements.
This paper revealed the spatial characteristics of Mundra which is one of Kutch port cities, Gujarat, India. To discuss the urban structure and the group form of the neighborhood blocks of Mundra will be fruitful by comparing with the urban formation of port cities of the Persian Gulf and the East African coast in the Indian Ocean such as Muscat, Zanzibar, Monbasa, and Lamu. We carried out intensive researches on the urban formation, the community distribution and the space formation of neighborhood block in Mundra. Regarding the urban formation, the street based neighborhood blocks called fadia, sheri, deli, gali are the basic urban units. Basically, each neighborhood block has been formed by the group habitation of the single caste community. The inland cities of Kutch generally have darbargadh, the walled and fortified stronghold of the local landlord, there is no darbargadh in Mundra. The darbargadh in Bhadreshwar is not the fort of the landlord but only the residential block of Jadeja, the ruling caste of Kutch. The above mentioned spatial characteristics apparently express that Mundra is not the stronghold of particular landlord but the open port cities which allow the people's free access.
The purpose of this study is to make clear what kind of effect medical treatment environment has on end-of-life care. We selected the long-term care ward of downsizing care with private room for a case study and carried out the survey for elderly family. The results of this study are as follows. 1) The length of end-of-life care is about a month. 2) Because of the physical condition aggravation of elderly, the number of times that family stays at the long-term care ward for the end-of-life period increases. 3) Family in hope of a private room increases to have an individual relation for the end-of-life period. 4) It is often that elderly and family stay in a private room for the end-of-life period. However, there is the family who uses public positively while judging physical condition of elderly. 5) A constant medical treatment is performed for the end-of-life period, but most of elderly family determine palliative care as end-of-life care.
There are many weak people when the disaster in Japan. It is said that the Nankai earthquake is generated in the first half of this century and the government directs the guideline of tsunami refuge building as one of the escape facilities. It will be necessary to examine the ideal way of a concrete diversion plan to assume shelter of weak people in the future. This research is the conduct that a feature of weak people and individual needs are extracted, and investigated the maintenance situation of tsunami refuge building in Aki City. We examine the evaluation of tsunami refuge building in the tsunami disaster area and a concrete maintenance matter.
In this research, we tried to clarify how low vision people walk and use their visual ability, as well as environmental elements which specially used by low vision people. Eight low-vision persons and eight persons with no visual impairment are asked to walk through an eye-clinic, wearing eye-mark recorder. Their walking behavior and eye movement are recorded and compared. The results are as follows: 1) Low vision people walk longer distance and with slower walking speed. 2) Low vision people tend to see edges on the floor with high contrast. 3) People with normal vision tend to look at what are at the destination using peripheral visual field, whereas low vision people see closer place. 4) Environment with high contrast is useful for low vision people. 5) Surfaces which make up edges should have certain width for perceive for both tunnel-visioned and low eyesighted people.
The aim of this research is to propose the earthquake damage risk evaluation method of external wall in detached houses, based on the result of the past experimental studies. Moreover, the validity of the method is verified by applying the technique in build-up areas. Fragility curves for buildings and the layer deformation capability of external wall were used to evaluate the damage risk of external wall by earthquake. Moreover, the external wall damage risk in three build-up areas was evaluated based on this method. Consequently, the risk of external wall damage in old build-up area is high.
In Tsushima Island, characteristic wooden buildings are distributed. They are constructed with pillars called 'HIRABASHIRA' which section is formed rectangular. HIRABASHIRA is used at three types of building called 'HONYA(house)' 'UMAYA(stable)' 'KOYA(storehouse)'. We investigated and compared the building method of these three kinds of buildings. HONYA is made with big frame and is opening. UMAYA is made with many thin frames but is also opening. KOYA is made with big frame and thick board, and is very closed. By comparing the details of these structures, it has predicted that the technology used at UMAYA is simple and old. As a result, it has realized that the structure of the buildings are different depending on purposes of use and design. And that HIRABASHIRA continues being used owing to old production organization.
The aim of this paper is to test, through the experiment, that the result of problem solving discussion can be improved by introducing individual work stage in the beginning. The authors adopted “The Moon Survival Task” developed by NASA in United States to the experiment. The 30 minute experiment was carried out with two groups of three 3-student teams: teams that introduced 15 minutes individual work stage before 15 minute discussion (on-team) and those that made 30 minute discussion without individual work (off-team). The major findings can be summarized as follows; 1) The on-team achieved more accurate team answer after the discussion compared with the off-team. 2) The individual answer of on-teams, submitted after the discussion, also became much more accurate than those for off-teams. 3) These differences in two groups are caused by the difference in the level of the consensus achieved through the discussion, though the length of discussion-time for on-team is only a half of that for off-team.
In the field of urban disaster prevention planning, it is important to grasp the characteristics of spatio-temporal distribution of population for considering provisions for human damage by a great earthquake. In this paper, we construct a model that simulates route choice behavior of automobile users on geographic information systems by using the data taken from a person trip survey and a road traffic census. We estimate spatio-temporal distribution of automobile users in Tokyo, and demonstrate some analyses on urban disaster prevention planning.
Retrofitting of existing houses is the most urgent problem. In this paper, we examined financial support system for retrofitting of existing houses. Concretely, We thought about price of the furtherance with care to the following matters. 1. Decision making structure of inhabitants, 2. Suspicion of evaluation only by economic rationality, 3. The evaluation considered uncertainty.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the temporal image-change about the streetscape by the day, by focusing the color among the elements of the streetscape. We choose three streets of around east entrance to Nagoya station in Aichi for the research. At the first, we make the “façade of street” from the photograph taken by the hour, and extract superficial elements of the street from meshing the “façade of street”. Second, we define the tone of color in the superficial elements of the street as the “color” and classify it into 7 types. Third, we set the “material” and the “danction” among the superficial elements of the street into the subject of analysis and analyze the characteristics of three elements and the relation between the “color” and the other. We examine the distributed aspect and the analyze trend the usage frequency of the color and in architectural style within it by each time, appearing in the street. From the analysis of the temporal change in the “color” of the streetscape, we can understand that the color of the streetscape is divided two types into the red-yellow system (red and yellow) and the bule-aqua system (blue and cyan).
This paper aims to clarify the present conditions and the problems of landscape control which is based by the Landscape ordinance of Ishigaki City and the Landscape planning of Ishigaki City. The research methods are hearing , a questionnaire , field works and document analysis. As a result, the effect of the instruction has some benefit and problems. The problems are four points of the following. 1)A difference by the discretion occurs in the example of the scene instruction. 2)A difference by the discretion is not yet stipulated. 3)There is a limit of improvement in the example that became incompatible. 4)There is the thing which dose not catch the design control of Ishigaki City in the thing performed by a private inspection organization.
The Building Standard Law requires site corner-cutoff at each crossing when constructing a building with new road, while it doesn't require corner-cutoff if the site is located onto an existing road (i.e. Construction of a new road is not necessary). This paper reveals the historic reason of this double standard. Before World War II, the corner-cutoff rule for new roads was included in the building line guideline set by the central government, and the corner-cutoff rule for existing roads was included in the local government rules. After World War II, however, the new Building Standard Law was established, under which private citizens can apply for a road construction to the government, and two old corner-cutoff rules were abolished. In 1970, when the new road standards were established, the details about corner-cutoff for newly constructed roads was stipulated, but those about existing roads were left untouched. Then this paper studies following three thoughts on how to resolve this double standard: 1) the corner-cutoff rule should be regulated for all road, 2) necessity to unify regulatory criteria, 3) the exclusion of the corner-cut off rule is also necessary.
There were two types of sales-construction system. One is called ‘direct system’ that was done by the enterprise itself. The other is called ‘agency system’ that was done by the agencies. The purpose of this study is to clarify the difference between these two systems and the reason why the enterprises that adopted ‘agency system’ changed their sales-construction system to ‘direct system’ in the early 2000's. As a result, the former is the business by ‘economies of scope’, and the latter is the business by ‘economies of scale’. The housing market shrunk from the mid 1990's, so the enterprises that adopted ‘agency system’ didn't go well. Therefore the enterprises that adopted ‘agency system’ inevitably changed the sales-construction system
The City of Los Angeles is one of the areas that have the most serious affordable housing problems in the United States. Recently, mixed-income housing has been the focus in the City of Los Angeles in order to improve affordable housing problems. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the development methodology and the effectiveness as a way to supply affordable housing units regarding mixed-income housing in the City of Los Angeles through fifteen case studies in Central City and Central City West as areas of focus based on the following four aspects. 1. A change of affordable housing policy in the City of Los Angeles and the new position of mixed-income housing in the affordable housing policy. 2. Analysis of funds, percentage of affordable housing units, income restrictions, minimum term of restrictions, and geographic location of mixed-income housing. 3. Comparison of mixed-income housing with market rate housing by their assessed value. 4. Evaluation of mixed-income housing by a field survey.
In this study, we aimed to investigate possibility of continuity into resident's voluntary community activity on an old flat by the actual condition of attribute, neighboring, motivation to participate in volunteer. The main conclusion are as following; 1) The person who satisfy about living environment, are slated to settlement, have good neighboring participates the volunteer or use the activity. 2) The people who are just retired and lively work as volunteer. The people who are old and infirm use the activity. 3) Nobody wants to quite volunteer. People who are young or live short have the will to participate the volunteer in the future. As a result, the community activity will continue and develop.
This paper aims to clarify the evolution and the spatial hierarchy of various edifices, existing within the principal section, called Ohoku Goten-muki , by verifying the historical evidence acquired mainly from the diversified contemporary drawings. Compared with the drawings which display the contemporary state of buildings' disposition within its confine by adjusting their scale and classifying the edifices in their function, the edifices are reorganized and classified into three groups for convenience to inhabitants, base on a zoning concept. In fact, its southwest side was occupied by the high-class people while its north was assigned to workplace for the maidservants.
We discovered that the drawings detailing the historical structure of the Tower of Three Stories (“Sankai-yagura”) at Kanazawa castle had been bundled together with original drawings for the two-story “Tatumi-oyagura”. These original drawings of the “Tatumi-oyagura” were drawn in order to rebuild the tower around 1839. One of us had presumed until now that the reconstruction of the “Sankai-yagura” had been planned at same time. However, no historical records had been found to prove this. By using the recent discovered drawings of the “Sankai-yagura”, we were able to confirm the drafting process for rebuilding the tower.
Until the pre-modern period in Japan, The technical term "Oji-zukuri" had been used usually as one of names of architecture for shrine. It's described in the Japanese architectural reference book "KIWARI-SHO". It indicates architectural form, but it has other characteristic elements, too. For example, the connection "Moya" and "Kohai" is the most important thing for it, and it needs particular notice to complete that. We need more consideration about it at some points. In this paper, through an interpretation of "KIWARI-SHO", the concept of "Oji-zukuri" is revealed as aspect of technique and expression.
The purpose of this research is to explain the spatial structure of mikura-yashiki on the Mogami River in and out of the Yonezawa domain in the Edo Period. The mikura-yashiki were premises with residences and storehouses where agricultural products for sale were kept. Through my examination, the commonality and differences of the mikura-yashiki were found.
This paper examines the characteristics and functions of historical studies on the buildings of Ise-Jingu in the middle of early modern period. Historical studies have been written down since around Kanbun era(1661-1673). In early times, their subjects are limited to the buildings whose reconstruction projects were planned, but soon studies which cover all buildings of Ise-Jingu were complied. Around that time, there were dispute between Naiku (Inner Shrine of Ise-Jingu) and Geku (Outer Shrine of Ise-Jingu) about the revival projects of Geku, and historical studies which were solely compiled by the priests of Geku until the early eighteenth century include their claim.
We analyzed the store planning by the textbook of it in the Taisho period before the Kanto daishinsai. The results can be summarized; 1. In the early years of the Taisho period, there was proposal for changing to sales system that is displayed goods for sale already, because of improvement of sales competitiveness. 2. The concept of the store-front planning was in the process of making like in after the Kanto daishinsai, but there were not typical patterns in store-front. 3. In the interior planning of store, there was proposal for sales system of semi-western style for provincial store.
This paper explains the relation of Joseon dynasty's road system and Suwon Hwasung city's location. Using historical document and maps, this paper clarifies the characteristics of construction for the Suwon Hwasung city. Samnamdaero was a principal road of Joseon Dynasty that connects the capital of Hanyang and provincial city. The location of Suwon Hwasung city was on Samnamdaero road, And Samnamdaero road pierced Suwon Hwasung city. As well as, the new road was built in Suwon Hwasung city for smooth connection of the downtown and suburban. This construction of road is an example that expresses the location's character of Suwon Hwasung city. This is an important location characteristic of 18 century's new city Suwon Hwasung that was differentiated with other previous city of Joseon dynasty.
Through a study on the architectural design of the “Tours” and the Galeries” constructed at the center of the Esplanade des Invalides when the International Exposition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Art were held in Paris 1925, the followings were made clear : The proposal plan of them was studied with the site planning of the Exposition, and the Galeries empahasized the function of the exhibition, and the Tours reflected the design of the site planning were constructed. The Tours and the Galeries were a fruit which had been considered both of whole-part of the pavilions, because Louis Bonnier had designed the framework of pavilions and Charles Plumet was changed the details of them, carefully.
From the last part of Meiji period, Japanese such as merchant, businessman, worker began to live in Hongkou district, which locates on the North of Shanghai, and by 1930s, it is said that about more than 10 millions Japanese lived there, so Hongkou was called as Japanese Town. And Japanese government built many public facilities, for example, Japanese club, primary school, residence and so on, and almost those architectures are still being used by Chinese now. Due to its historical value, Hongkou is specified as a scenic area of Shanghai. But Hongkou Japanese Town did not officially exist, as the English-America Settlement (International settlement) and the French Settlement. Why Japanese government did not set up “Shanghai Japanese Settlement”in Modern period? And when Japanese went into Shanghai, which districts and what did they focus on? At the same time, what about the city development practiced by the Municipal Council of international settlement? So this paper is to make those problems clear by analyzing the discussion on how to set up “Shanghai Japanese Settlement” between the Japanese Foreign Ministry and the representative of the Japanese financial world and the historical records of the Municipal Council. Through those analyses, it is thought that the background of development of Shanghai Japanese Town during 1890-1910s will be clear.