The structure-borne sound caused by water piping systems connected with pumps influences on the sound environments in rooms of hotels and apartment houses etc. The application of lhe theoretical system using the characteristics of noise and vibration sources as the input data would be useful for the prediction and control of these structure-borne sound. The establishment and application of the system are connected with the studies on many unknown points. The first, it seems to be necessary to know the characteristics of noise and vibration sources. Then, the investigations on the method to measure emitted sound power and transmitted vibromotive force from source to piping system are carried out. From these results, it is concluded that these methods are applicable to the prediction of structure borne sound caused by water piping system, and contribute to choose appropriate sources aiming at the noise reduction and to declare the source characteristics.
The objective of this paper is to clarify the effect of spectral power distribution of different fluorescent lamps on the human brightness perception in a building interior. The following psychological tests were conducted : The warm white, daylight and 3band-type fluorescent lamps were used as lighting sources. The 22 subjects compared lit environments of a pair of rooms. One was lit by daylight fluorescent lamps and the other room was lit by the warm white or 3band-type fluorescent lamps, respectively, at three luminance level : 100, 200 and 300cd/m^2. After the subjects judged the brighter room, they adjusted one side to get equal brightness with the other. At that condition luminance data of two rooms were recorded. Ratios of luminance by the compared lamp to that by daylight lamp were calculated. For all subjects, the ratios 1.22 and 1.03 were determined for the warm white and 3band-type fluorescent lamps, respectively, to obtain the equal perceived brightness at luminance level 100cd/m^2. The ratio decreases with a rise in luminance level.
This paper describes the results obtained from an experiment using a simulated window in an environment test chamber that is assumed to be an actual office. Total of 120 conditions with the window luminance ranging from 2000 to 20000 cd/m^2 and with the window size in solid angle ranging from 0.021 to 0.970 sr were tested. The objective of the experiment was to find a method for evaluating glare from windows with a wide applicable range of source size. The formula which was brought by the experimental results has the exponent of background luminance with a parameter of source size. This formula was examined against the data from our previous experiments conducted in actual room spaces. 0ur glare formula predicts subjective response more rationally especially in the case of large light source than the existing glare indices, since it takes the effect of total amount of light incident on the subject's eyes into account.
This paper presents an algorithm of ray tracing, including a method of interreflection calculation. Using a geometric method, a surface light-source configuration factor is calculated precisely. In addition, this algorithm is able to calculate direct and diffuse intensities of specular reflection which have an influence on interreflection. First, the direct intensity of a light source at a sample point is calculated by ray tracing. The diffuse intensity is calculated by solving interreflection equations. Next, by executing ray tracing at all pixels on a screen, their direct intensities are calculated. Finally, the diffuse intensity of every pixel is calculated by interpolating sample-point intensities, and adding them to the corresponding direct intensities. As a result, this algorithm brings about realistic color representation.
In the previous study, the vertical temperature inside a large-scale air-supported dome was calculated, using multipleregression analysis. The result showed that it was accurate. And in this study, the thermal load was calculated with the actual temperature instead of the estimated one, and compared the result with the heat extraction rate by cooling tower. It was confirmed that the result was accurate. This study indicates that if solar radiation, outdoor air temperature, humidity and wind velocity, meteorological data and the interior heat generation from lights and people are obtained, the vertical temperature distribution and thermal load inside a large-scale air-supported dome can be calculated with accuracy. Results show that about 90% of the cooling load was concentrated in the living zone within 5 meters of the ground level while the remaining 10% of the load on the non-air conditioned zone. The thermal absorption and radiation of long wave in air space, from floors, walls, furniture and exhibit, was calculated with Hottel's function. It appears that the air space has some thermal absorption and radiation. It was confirmed that a boundary 5 meters of the ground level was formed, and the thermal load was absorbed in the lower air layer and rejected in the higher.
This paper describes a method to calculate an exergy-entropy process associated with the evaporation of water, one of the important phenomena used in building environmental control systems, and a result of simple example calculation is discussed. We classified the exergy of humid air into "warm", "cool", "wet" and "dry" exergies. According to this classification, a certain amount of liquid-water in humid air as its environment contains "wet" exergy and either "warm" or "cool" exergy. The amount of "wet" exergy is generally much greater than that of "warm" or "cool" exergy in typical air-condition processes. It was found that the evaporative cooling is a process that consumes the "wet" exergy of water to produce the "cool" exergy. A numerical example showed that the "cool" exergy produced is about 8% of the "wet" exergy.
The present paper discusses the effects of factors on psychological responses where a personal air-conditioning system with non-isothermal fluctuating airflow was applied, and design method of task air-conditioning system from the viewpoints of energy saving and thermal comfort. The effects of factors on psychological responses were examined by many experiments in a simulated office room. The nominal supply air velocity, supply air temperature differential, and vane-swing period of the personal unit were considered as factors with sex of subjects. Voting were conducted as thermal comfort and evaluation on surrounding environment. The nominal supply air velocity range of 1.0〜1.5m/s, supply air temperature difference of 5℃, vane-swing period of free between 10s and 30s, were also proposed for maintaining moderate thermal comfort.
The heat transfer coefficient on the liquid side needs to be known in the analysis of a packed tower in which the liquid has thermodynamic properties different from those of water such as in a heating tower. The object of the paper is to clarify the relation between the liquid side heat transfer coefficient in the packed tower and the thermodynamic properties of the liquid used. An analysis was made for water and ethylene glycol in an experimental apparatus using a small size crossflow type racked tower. Results show that the coefficient of kinematic viscosity is widely different between water and ethylene glycol amang many thermodynamic properties, and that almost all of the difference in thermal characteristics of a packed tower is due to the difference in the coefficient of kinematic viscosity.
The purpose of this investigation is to examine the relatioship between a-waves range of the continuous brain waves (CBW) for 10 subjects and the scale value (SV) of the subjective preference for the reverberation time (T_<sub>). The most pieferred T_<sub> of the 10 subjects was centered on 1.2 s for the music piece used. Accordingly, we represented 1.2 s of the T_<sub> signal for comparison with the two less preferred, 0.2 s and 6.4 s in running pairs for recording CBW, respectively. Then, the effective duration (τ_e) of the autocorrelation function of the α-wave was analyzed. The values of τ_e form the left hemisphere of the subjects all over show a significant agreement with the SV of the T_<sub> on the (0.2 and 1.2 s) pair with few individual differences. It is remarkable that the individual preferences for 6.4 s in comparison to that for 1.2 s correlate well with the individual ratios of the τ_e of 1.2 s to the τ_e of 6.4 s also in the left hemisphere.
Grasping subtle differences in human mental state reflected in subjective statements is important to precisely evaluate environmental conditions in which occupants express various feelings such as satisfaction and pleasure. The purpose of this study is to propose and assess a word-choice method for grasping precisely the human mental state in the evaluation. The conventional rating-scale method and the proposed word-choice method are compared by means of a series of experiments on thermal evaluation. Results of the study showed that the words used in the thermal evaluation were distinguished in terms of not only thermal sensation but also comfort, and that the word-choice method would be effective for expressing differences in human mental state.
At present mainstream of Malaysian housing is supplying the standardized house type. But, the society is multi-ethnic condition, so residents have various living cultures depending on their ethnicity. This study examines the actual living condition and use of living space in housing estates. The case of the mixed-ethnic residential area in Johor Bahru metropolitan area. The study is based on field works carried out in '93 and '95, mainly residence spacial using for 19 households in typical housing estate in suburb of Johor Bahru city. Findings are as follows; 1) Spacial using in standaidaized house is reflection of each ethnics living culture. Particurally, cooking and religeous spacial using are different of each ethnic. 2) Most of residents renew by their needs whole of house space, the original house design with no character is modified reflect the owner's ethnicity. There is no relation between type of house possession, and housing cost.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the orientation system of holy places and the settlements in Lombok island, Indonesia. Kemaliq is a holy place for the waktu telu, indigenous muslim in Lombok island. Pura is a holy place for the Bali-Hindu. In pura people pray to the north or the direction of Mt. Rinjani. In kemaliq people pray to the north, different from the orthodox muslim who pray to Mekkah (the west). In the Balinese house in Cakranegara, sanggah, the holy space, is located in the north-east area. In the village Taniung, sanggah is in the north-west area. Sanggah is related to the holy mountain. In the Sasak villages in the northern part of Lombok island, the layout of settlements is related to Mt. Rinjani. We can find that the orientation of buildings in holy places and the settlements in Lombok island is related to the holy mountain.
In the present study, we have investigated the arrangement of houses and rooms of urban independent residences built from Meiji Era in Fukuoka city. Conclusions : (1) The houses and rooms of samurai residences of Fukuoka-clan have been arranged in a style so called "front facing". Two zashiki-room (front and back) have been arranged tandem. (2) Urban independent residences in Fukuoka city frome the Meiji Era through the Shouwa Era before the world war II had zashiki-room facing the same direction as the front entrance of the land independent of its direction. In addition, these houses inherit the characteristics from the samurai houses.
The purpose of this study is to describe the inhabitants' consciousness of the preservation and utilization of outdoor stage "playhouse" in Nagano prefecture. The outdoor stage is divided into two classes, one is active (Area-A)and the other is passive (Area-B), about preservation and utilization. The inhabitants' consciousness was invetigated in Area-A and Area-B from October to December in 1990. The results are as follows; 1)The rate of recognition of outdoor stage was higher in Area-A compared with Area-B. 2) Mainly the inhabitants paid a visit to the outdoor stage at the time of entertainments such as the kabuki performance, karaoke and so on. 3)The oreserved and utilized activities was higher in Area-A than in Area-B, and inhabitants showed a stronger disposition to preserve and utilize outdoor stage in Area-A. 4) In the future the mean needs to pick up inhabitants' interest in entertainments and to make a chance of a visit to outdoor stage at the time of entertainments.
Japanese elementary school buildings has been composed of some classrooms for lecture and some special-purpose classrooms for practice. But there is a marked increase in the number of the elementary schools contain the multi-purpose spaces recently. Although many studies are making on the relation between multi-purpose space and classrooms, little is known about that between multi-purpose space and special-purpose classrooms. Through some observations of the learning activities 16 days in 1993 at the school most advanced in informal education, it is clear that the multi-purpose space takes a part of functions for practice space from specialpurpose classroom.
The objective of this paper is to examine the trade-off of the accessibility versus the level of the book stock in public libraries. As the criterion of accessibility, we adopt the average distance between the usels' location and the nearest public libraries, and the rate of the population who lives outside the area within the threshold distance. As the criterion of the level of the book stock, we use the rate of overlapping index numbers of books. Multi-objective analyses show that if the network connecting the public libraries are introduced, the plan to construct more libraries are more appropriate using a simple model and an actual planning in Japan.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of deterioration of the rural village environment that is influenced by inflowing population. The results can be concluded as follows: 1) In the process of urbanization, the life of indigenous people has drastically changed and in view of the disposal of waste matter in village, illegal abandonment has emerged in many places 2) In indigenous traditional life style, their livestock disposed garbage and excretion, so there was no need to have gaibage pit or toilet in village. Therefore the existence of livestock is important to maintain thc environment of the village. 3) In accordance with increasing number of Han-Chinese, indigenous peoples began to use brick and built brick wall around their houses lbr security. In this process, the places where livestock could move freely were limited and that makes difficult for the livestock to dispose thc waste matter. This study suggested that the building brick wall affected village environment severely. 4) For the future planning of the developing rural area, control of the inflowing population, making rigid policy for agriculture, and maintenance of the public peace and order will be indispensable issue.
This study is aimed at examining what the basic establishments erected for autonomous promotions of rural areas shoud be planed. The followings are clarified in this report. 1. Type of the projects for promoting development is analized by the industrial resources made use of, the aims of projects, and the means to achieve projects. As the result, three types of project are recognized. 2. The basic establishments for projects are composed of three elements; "core", "part" and "satelite". 3. Pattern of arranging establishments can be classified into four types by the ways of advancing projects.
Summing up scores of cognitive evaluations on selected districts shown by dwellers, I get some cognitive sphere maps which are tend to expand area over its own district and overlap each other in urban area. Urban spatial composition can be classified with these spheres. I show the several cognitive sphere maps made on analysis of questionnaires in the urban area in YONEZAWA city and compare with the last data which I have got 10 years before through the same method. 3 aspects are analyzed on fallowings, 1. Cognitive spheres show the decline of centripetal power in the central district. 2. Cognitive density score is mainly based on both the space-use in the district and the distance from the central district. 3. Living environment is able to evaluate as a whole through cognitive density spheres especially in the local and historical city.
The objective of this study is to propose new geometrical methods for analyzing the probability distribution of paths and the quantity of flows in urban space. Regarding a path as a segment which links origin to destination, the middle points of paths are supposed randomly distributed in a two dimensional area. According to the patterns of paths intersecting a convex or circular area and the probability distribution of the length of paths, the equations for measuring the the quantity of flows are obtained using the theory of integral geometry. Proposed methods are tested by examining the traffic volume in Tokyo.
In Tusima Island, houses have traditionally been built by the villagers' cooperative works, using timber grown in their communal forest. Recently because of the depopulation and the change of the occupation, this kind of traditional cooperative management of village lives, that can be evaluated as the harmonious ways to the environmental and historical context of this district, have become diminished, this is a study to clear the system of building "Hrabasira-dukuri" houses, and to consider how to be the local housing and town-planning. As a result, we cleared that the existences of private forest, the knowledge on housing of clients, "Kasei" of village community, traditional artist, enable the system of the self management of housing, and that the depopulation, the variation of employment, and the incoming of other timbers market happens the housing system from directly management to contact construction.
The authors define activities included in building construction process of a standard project, make an adjacency matrix using the relationships among activities, and structurize the activities using its reachability matrix. As a result, building construction process is expressed by process models of categories, such as schedule control, cost control, building system design, and so on. These models can clarify how the activities interact one another. Effectiveness of the model is then discussed as tools of concurrent engineering.
In this paper, we made a detailed comparison on corresponding items of "Toki-shu" between "Shoki-shu" and "Shomei" to analyze their substantial characteristics. The results are the following. 1)Both books have several slipped descriptions from their original text. 2)Some descriptions found only in "Shoki-shu" are merely forgotten and deliberately omitted in "Shomei", and "Shoki-shu" made no special alterations and additions. 3) Some descriptions found only in "Shomei" are classified in those which "Shoki-shu" carelessly omitted and in those which "Shomei" deliberately revised ad added in later ages. 4) These deliberate omissions and alterations were made with the systematization of "Shomei" according to the phases in the latter half of the seventeenth century.
This is a study on the original plan and the wall paintings of the Shirosyoin of Ninomaru Palace of Nijo Castle. The results are as follows. 1. The Keicho plan of the Shirosyoin can be reconstructed. The alcove and the shelves were originally on the east of the jodannoma. The jodannoma and the Gedannoma were juxtaposed east and west. 2. The length of papers of wall paintings can be classified into the groups of the sliding doors and the walls in all rooms of the Shirosyoin. 3. Analyses of the paper size and the original plan have unveiled the fact that the panel paintings of the Shirosyoin were executed during the kan'ei era.
From the Taisho era to the beginning of Showa era reinforced-concrete school buildings gave variety to the design of elementary school buiIdings. Take Osaka city for instanse, the abolition of the school district system rapidly promoted the tendency of building reinforced-concrete school buiIdings. The design was not made by official architects in the city office, but by freelance architects. Designing individual freelance architects is reflected in school buildings, which is worthy of attention. The diversity and uniqueness in designing are characteristics of elementary school buildings before the abolition of school districts system. The study made it clear that the existence of freelance architects can never be ignored in describing the history of designing of school buildings.
The Tokyo Hoheikosho armory built many brick buildings in the late Meiji Era and the Taisho Era. As the devastating earthquake called "Kanto Daishinsai" hit Kanto area in 1923, the brick buildings built in the late Meiji Era were suffered heavily. However, the one built in the Taisho Era received relatively light damage with the quake because the structure of the buildings had improved and was more firm. After the 1923 quake, the brick buildings of Tokyo Hoheikosho that were damaged by the quake ware repaired with the reinforced concrete and the repairs gave the building more firm structure. This case shows that the awareness for the fragility of brick structure and the need of reinforcement was already recognized in the Taisho Era.
This paper refers to a few observations on architectural features and historical changes of wakala-s in Cairo, reporting some results based on a field survey of 73 existent examples in 1994 and 1995. Wakala-s in the Mamluks period were constructed rather on a large scale and well-Organized, having a groin vaulted entrance passage-way and a trifoliate stalactite portal, as probably state facilities. From the 16th century onward. under the Ottoman, while the wakala-s remained to have the same arrangement of cells with vaulted alcoves, they adopted some peculiar features like a sgemental vaulted portal and corbelled salients, playing commoner roles ad urban commercial facilities.
The aim of the study is to suggest a logical theory in alchitecture regarding the formation of 'the parts' which is an essential portion to establish 'the whole'. This whole theory is based on the comparison and the analysis of the description of formation in literary works. In the analysis of space description in the literary works, a cluster of sentences forms a paragraphic block which implies the image of space and this hypothetical image of space forms 'the parts' of the whole space. Thus, it was analyzed according to the meaning and implication of the sentences. As the result of the thorough study on three types of the space formation, following is the definition on the relationship between 'the nart' and 'the whole'. 1)'The part' exists by itself with clear and definite meaning, and get 'the whole' which is composed of many parts shows unclear and indefinite meaning. 2)'The part' is attached to 'the whole' which has clear and definite outline, thus having influence on the formation of the whole space. And yet, 'the part' itself has independent meaning and not influenced by 'the whole'. 3)'The part' belongs to 'the whole' and subordinates to 'the whole'. It has controlled and governed by 'the whole' and does not have independent connotation.
In order to grasp the regional structure of remoted islands that holds many problems at present, I classified it by regional characteristic, two characteristics can called a social characteristic and evaluated it. Of the result, so that the center of a population decrease is a small remoted island, or in a distance from the mainland before, near year the tendency is seen by the remoted island that nearly contacts with the mainland. Are for an the next highly of an industry, tendency of getting a sightseeing as to leave the island nearly contact with the mainland, Whether they take clerk with the mainland how to a remoted island industry or not was important and we understood to become an upper important element to prepare a remoted island.