Purpose of this study is to verify the progress on community activities at huge-scale condominium Citia which has the various common facilities and community support system, based on time serial research. In the Part1,this paper reports the process of 5 years after moving in. As an effect of community support system,activity participants before the moving become the leader of community activities. The various common facilities are utilized for the activities. In 3 years after the moving, total of activity-sponsorship-groups and activity-following-group increased up to 70%. The progress on community activities is remarkable.
This study is a case study about Barrier-Free Housing Remodeling (BFHR) of 100 housing in which the disabled live in Seoul, Korea. The disabled are classified into 4 indoor walking types: (A) Walking alone, (B) Walking alone on their knees, (C) Assisted walking, (D) Impossible to walk. There is a purpose as finding out what they want to do for BFHR first．The result shows that there are two different priority for BFHR as to indoor walking types:[ (1) For moving: (A) Type-(1) Preventing slip, (B) Type-(2) Reducing the stepped, (C) Type-(3) Putting handle], [For using space: (D) Type -(4) Providing aiding equipment].
There have been developed into 10 gathering places for senior citizens in Suwa-Nagayama, Tama New Town, in the west of Tokyo, of which Fukushitei, an NPO found by the local people, is the most characteristic. The utilization of Fukushitei has been discussed in the former study. This research studies the significance of both the existence and usefulness of Fukushitei for its users, who are senior citizens of Tama New Town, and the neighborhood by analyzing life styles of the users there. Through the hearing approach, 48 regular users of Fukushitei are studied. All 48 people live in their own houses and are able to manage their daily lives by themselves. Most of them go out everyday, among them are few need assistance from their family members, relatives, or helpers. All kinds of life styles are discovered from the 48 people: Some people go out only to Fukushitei; apart from where they go no where and do nothing fun with either their friends or neighbors. Others are so active that they go to different places making different friends, and are engaged in amusements or voluntary work. Their activities are analyzed, classified and discussed.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the relationships between Children's combination and Classrooms Grouping in Combined facilities of kindergarten and day nursery. The results are summarized as follows: 1) These facilities are classified mainly two types. In one type, day nursery and kindergarten are managed independently. In the other type, they are managed respectively. 2) Classrooms for kindergarten and those for day nursery are grouped by the facility type and the age. The architectural methods for grouping are five kinds, especially inserting space such as entrance, hall, and etc., between two different classrooms is mostly used.
The purpose of this experimental study is to conceptualize urban space from the perspective of cognitive linguistics, and to clarify the connection between concepts and behaviors by means of a walk-through survey of two street networks having different configurations. The results are summarized as follows. (1) The conceptualization of urban space from the perspective of cognitive linguistics is encompasses the four concepts of street network, physical elements, time, and atmosphere. (2) Urban space cannot be conceptualized solely through the environmental information acquired through exploratory walking of streets, but rather through the environmental information to be found in the internalization of the four concepts, in particular in how physical elements relate to each other within the street network. Differences in street network structures have the following characteristics: (i) in the case of a grid network of streets, the physical elements are conceptualized in relation to the street network structure, but when the street network is monotonous or homogeneous, it is difficult to conceptualize as a street network. (ii) In the case of irregular streets, the physical elements are not only conceptualized in terms of the street network but also in terms of atmosphere. On the other hand, it is difficult to connect the concept of time with the other concepts, making time it difficult to draw conclusions from this one concept.
The aim of this paper is to verify, through the experiment, the effectiveness of the two discussion methods developed by the author for students discussing architectural proposal. Method-I (group-I); three 3-student teams discussed three rounds. The members were shuffled every round and each student was given individual viewpoint for discussion. Method-II (group-II); three 3-student teams discussed three rounds without “member shuffle” and each student was given nine viewpoints (same viewpoint for group-A). The major findings can be summarized as follows; 1) The member shuffle promotes discussion based on many viewpoints and also maintains student's concentration to discussion. 2) The members of group-B (without “member shuffle”) discussed only on limited viewpoints even they were given many suggestions for discussion and presented many ideas in the individual proposal before the group discussion. The contents of each person's proposal were similar.
Spatial structure of the voids in inner blocks is investigated by recording the physical condition and interviewing to residents or owners of buildings to obtain the memories about transformation of passage and passing ways in the central area of Prague. Outline of the findings are as followings; 1. The unit of space voids and its system are identified due to difference in the height and width. Openness of the system has depends on the shape of passing ways. 2. Typology of Openness is classified to ten degrees by combination of possibility for walking through and accessibility to the tenants beside the voids. Surrounding sites of inner open spaces tend to be opened by reorganizing passing ways, while other voids are linked by small improvements and usage of the doors. 3. Period's transition from Communism to velvet revolution, openness used to be adjusted by doors in easy way, while buildings are reconstructed in order to improve the linkage to adjacent site without flexible way at present.
The aim of this study is to do the research on the spatial structure of the old villages of the Meiji era in Ishigaki Island. The process of this research is as follows. (1) Materials such as old maps and aerial photos have been collected, analyzed and classified. (2) The restorations of the old villages have been made by using the results of the consecutive field works and the materials written above. (3) The restorations have been analyzed and classified. (4) Change of the spatial composition of the present village was analyzed from Meiji Era.
This paper aims to verify the regeneration projects of the neighborhood around the Ohio State University in the United States (OSU) implemented by non-profit organization founded by OSU. The followings can be pointed out forward community-based development with university and community partnership in Japan. 1. To share the contemporary roles and the mission of university concerning about the social contribution to a local society. 2. To develop the organizational structure for partnership in order to implement the regeneration projects steadily. 3. To authorize the development plan administratively in order to enhance social involvement widely. 4. To establish the university's policy and organizational structure for social involvement, and to assess its results from the viewpoint of the benefit to both of local society and university.
The Analco neighborhood is located in the buffer zone of the newly regenerated historic centre of the city of Durango. It has suffered from deterioration and an indifference that became more evident when the work for regenerating the core zone of the historical centre started. In order to be able to propose an efficient strategy for rehabilitation, it is necessary to research an area that has not been thoroughly studied previously. Based on the results of different analysis made of the neighborhood, it was possible to know that the Analco neighborhood started as an independent Indigenous town that later was absorbed by the city of Durango, and due to the activities performed there the blocks in the neighborhood and the historical centre of Durango are different: the blocks shapes and sizes are influenced by the natural irregularities of the land, the combination of the block sizes, plot divisions and architecture, which gave as a result the existence of perimeter block inner spaces. Furthermore, the family ties of the owners of the plots in the neighborhood could be a crucial factor for the future use of those spaces.
Avoidance behavior in a station square is a key point in walking space research. In order to enhance walking space, we should discuss people-to-people avoidance behavior extensively. In this research,we analyzed the correlative factors of avoidance behavior distance and built an avoidance behavior distance model.The results were as follows: 1. Direction and time period are very important correlative factors of avoidance behavior distance. 2. Under some given conditions of time, direction, speed, density and characteristics of the square,we can build a model of avoidance behavior distance. 3. Eighty-four percent of people's estimated avoidance behavior ahead time is 0.25s-1.50s. 4. The reliability of behavior prediction decreases as the duration of the interaction increases.
During a period of uncertainty in the real estate market and an economic recession, urban development projects in Japan have not advanced steadily. Under such economic conditions, public-private partnership in urban renaissance projects has come to play an increasingly important role. This study aims to identify how to build a good consensus between public and private sectors in the process of town planning decision making. Therefore, we have analyzed the recorded minutes of the meetings between private sector and public sector stakeholders concerning an urban renaissance project. The results are as follows. 1. The private sector and the public sector reached agreement on issues related to town planning decisions by repeatedly exchanging draft planning studies that were based on their respective positions. Agreement between feasibility studies, such as on the cost burden (including that of running costs and management), seemed to be the last issues resolved. 2. The results of correspondence analysis suggest that, for the issues involved in negotiations, initial differences existed between the positions of the private sector and the public sector. This suggests that they reached a point of common agreement on the contents of negotiations by mutual adjustment in the end. 3. The advisory company who worked with the primary contractor on town planning decisions and feasibility studies seems to have played an important role in the process of consensus building between the private sector and the public sector.
Urbanization and change of lifestyle deprive children of their chance to participate in community activities. This paper analyses the structural relationship of factors of children's participation and their health factors focusing on community safety and parents' attitude toward community activities. A questionnaire was conducted to elementary and junior high school students and their parents in Kume Area, Matsuyama City where residents are earnest over various activities for community safety. In conclusion, it is suggested that children's participation has significant relationship with their physical and mental health and that they feel sense of community if they feel safe in the community.
In this study, we examined the possibility of public space management according to collaboration with community-based development organization between university. Our target is the meaning of town-gown collaboration and role of university and community organization in such case. The analysis result is in the follows. 1. In the first time, there were only maintenance program. After that some soft-program were carrying out which are improving quality of public space, there were produced the synergistic effect, and increased the private investment. 2. By proposal and consulting, it is easy to actualization of action plan and receiving funds which can be carried out many programs. 3. There are organized responsibility of roles which is mutual supporting system, because of UCD acting the part of activities of which can not work out only university, and university play part in supporting using university assets.
This study examined nine major textbooks in urban planning through a text mining approach. 127 important terms were identified from the textbook indexes, and the degrees of similarity between pairs of the terms were computed through the analysis of the pattern of co-occurrence. Based on this similarity measure, the important terms were classified into four groups, each explaining (a) basic concepts and methods of urban planning; (b) the development of urban and residential environments, particularly new towns; (c) the maintenance and assessment of residential environments; and (d) connections to other related domains such as laws and regulations, economic frameworks, national land planning, or planning history. In textbooks published after the year 2000, these terms were explained in a more interrelated manner, especially in the context of detailed micro-level planning and in relation to the concepts of diversities, urban restoration, public participation, and city shrinkage, which reflect recent societal trends.
This study analyses structural problems of the newly created administrative districts due to the recent municipal merger, through the structure of housing market areas as daily life areas. The following results were found: 1) The number of municipalities reduced in half due to the merger between 2000 and 2010. 2) The population in each city has increased because of the merger of small municipalities into bigger existing or newly created cities. 3) 30% of merged municipalities contain fractions of more than one housing market areas, and the half of the daily life areas had significant influence by the merger. 4) South western parts of Japan have more merged municipalities than big cities and some parts of eastern Japan.
This study is about the group home and care home with public housing, are targeting the large number of osaka public housing. The results are as follows; 1) 90% of the total is the use of a care home. 2) Initial costs and rent is cheaper, less of a burden for users. 3) Interaction with residents can be expected. 4) Can be used in small-scale renovation. 5) It is desirable room with a floor or elevator. 6) There is opposition from residents, be resolved in consultation with the description.
This paper explores housing situations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Many people, who were affected by the disaster, were homeowners living in single-family houses. There is therefore a major task to rebuild owner-occupied housing. In the Tohoku region, people's aspirations to home ownership are strong. However, there are numbers of older people who cannot rebuild houses. Moreover, many families, who lost houses due to the tsunami, had not yet completed mortgage repayments. It is thus assumed that the government and municipalities will be prompted to implement housing programmes oriented towards providing both owner-occupied housing and public rented housing.
Researching the building documents of Kimura house in Hashimoto city, in terms of wooden materials, clarified followings; 1. According to 7 estimates of Kimura house, before the building contract, a lumber company provided the estimate after the owner ordered building a house to the constructor. 2. Matsuyama (lumber company) provided lumbers for frameworks and Okamoto (tile dealer) provided used lumbers for roof truss. 3. The total cost of building Kimura house was 2065.02yen and the lumber cost was 1062.42yen which accounted for almost half of the total. 4. The lumbers for Kimura house were locally supplied from 8km area around Hashimoto.
The honden of Takao Shrine was reconstructed in 1213 and the sengu took place in 1219. Some documents including the plan and the order for woods have been remained about this reconstruction. The purpose of this study is to clarify the style and the origin of the honden in 1219 from these documents. This analysis revealed that the honden had some humble features. We consider that it became impossible to maintain the former style by reason of economy. Furthermore the honden had something in common with Kora Shrine's honden. Therefore we conclude that Takao Shrine was derived from Kora Shrine.
Tohgo Murano is one of the most important architects in modernization of Japan. Shoju-so is his masterpiece by the expression with a variegated detail and various space. In the plan of Shoju-so, it is the feature to have integrated different volume and a style in that design. By analysis of his architectural drawings of Shoju-so's plan, this research examines his design process along a progress chart, and clarifies that actual situation. It is a part of research which clarifies his design intension by verifying design process of Murano.
The focus of this paper is reconstruction study of painting pattern analyze between columns and flat plan of “Thai Hoa” palace. At 1st is characterized by dragon head and extremities, classified into two type water in the mouth or not. 2nd,dragon head and tail take the symmetry axis of the body is wrapped in a spiral pattern is arranged. 3rd,when considering dragon pattern placement, the building borders the central axis plan is placed symmetrically. Dragon is one of the highest prestige, overlapping pattern of spiral structure and symmetry, suggest that the concept of spatial correlation and building decoration.
The aim of the present paper is to clarify the construction techniques for internal vaultings on the main part in early Armenian churches. As coincided with the consequence revealed in the previous article on stone masonry at the vertical walls, it is found out that the chronological differences in form, masonry and positional usage of arch and semidome, which are the main elements for the composition of the vaultings, are regarded as the shifts of the construction techniques for stability and firmness, adapting to the heavy load caused by dome, which doesn't exist in the earlier churches without dome.
This paper will discuss the creation of Edirne Old Palace by the Ottoman dynasty in the first half of the fifteenth century. Although the local Ottoman sources scarcely mention this palace, the travelogs and letters of contemporary European travelers explicate its inner structure. According to these reports, existence of the ceremonial courtyard and the Chamber of Petitions in Edirne Old Palace is proved. Prior to the construction of Topkapi Palace in Istanbul built during1460s, Edirne Old Palace provided the prototype for subsequent premodern Ottoman palaces.
This study suggests that Alberti's De re aedificatoria Liber Decimus had an influence on some contents of the statutes of the “Maestri di Strada” published by Pope Nicholas V in 1452. “Maestri di Strada” were the municipal magistrates who had responsibility for maintaining the public space. The statutes are very important to understand "Roma instaurata" of the Pope. The 1452 edition insisted the importance of maintaining and improving water environment in Rome, especially about the Tiber, and these codes are very similar to the description of De re aedificatoria Liber Decimus.
This paper has examined and made formal analysis of the sketches contained in the 3rd chapter of “Alpine Architektur” by Bruno Taut, especially the sketches titled ‘Das Baugebiet’ and ‘Monte Rosa Bebauung’ and has clarified his design method of utopian landscapes in the Alps. Through the process of classifying form elements and arrangement patterns, three basic types were found and they were scattered over the mountain as aggregate or continuous forms like glittering glass mosaics harmonized with landscapes.
This paper analyzes the activities of Bautista Antonelli in the foundation of a Spanish colonial city, Portobelo, Panamá, and discusses the following three points. First, this paper shows that the city planning and fortification are closely related in the site planning. Second, about the design of a port, this paper reveals that Antonelli's idea was to realize a port with proper environment for workers. Finally, about a new project against Antonelli, this paper concludes the new project was not accepted by the Spanish court because its site was not located for a proper port with low cost.
This article traces the development of public cemeteries in Meiji period Tokyo and examines how they were dealt with in the Tokyo SHIKUKAISEI IINKAI (Urban Improvement Committee) Plan. First, analysis of the development process of public cemeteries in Meiji-period Tokyo through official notices (futatsu) and regulations (hourei). Second, spatial changes in public cemeteries over three decades --ranging from the late Edo Period to the early Meiji period before the release of the SHIKUKAISEI IINKAI Plan and the late Meiji period after the completion of improvement projects. The article reaches two conclusions: 1. There were no "public cemeteries" in Edo period, but grew from the Shinto funeral sites established in the first half of the Meiji period and graveyards based on the Cemetery Regulations (Bochi Toriatsukai Kisoku) to alter the urban space on the fringes of Tokyo. 2. While the SHIKUKAISEI IINKAI Plan added no new public cemeteries, it rather re-appropriated and enlarged existing ones.
By the methods below, this paper have traced the process in which the construction of the Ooi Wharf have formed the framework of the Tokyo Port, and revealed that this framework appears as a three-dimensional cross within the urban space, composed of Sea-route No.1, where container ships travel, and the coastal expressway, which runs through the tip of the Ooi Wharf vertically and runs across Landfill No.13 and the Ooi Wharf. 1. Identify the background of political leadership over the management bodies at the container wharf. 2. Identify that the authority fights have formed the structure of the Tokyo Port and contributed to the Ooi Wharf's shape. 3. Based on above, show that some of the processes in the construction of the Ooi Wharf have influenced the infrastructure planning of Tokyo.
This study is to examine how Toyama, a castle town, harnessed the creeks which flew through the town, focusing on its drainage system. For this purpose, function, structure and construction process as well as storm water discharge of the system are examined. Resulted findings are as follows. 1) Water from irrigation system for farms on the back of the town flew into the creeks and increased the risk of flooding. 2) The major channel of the system was dug to detour the creeks around the town. 3) Storm water exceeding capacity of the major channel resulted floods of the creeks.
“Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras” was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1995 and on the List of World Heritage in Danger in 2001. It is the first site inscribed on the World Heritage List as cultural landscape related to agriculture, forestry and fisheries industry. It is meaningful to study the heritage conservation of this site in order to draw the future vision for sustainable rural community. In this article, the author analyzes the domestic and international policies/discussions for the conservation of the rice terraces. As the result, the author found the following three steps of the conservation:1) Before the inscription of World Heritage List(WHL) (1966-1993), 2) mainly after the inscription of WHL (1994-2000) and 3) After the inscription of the List of World Heritage in Danger (2001-). Each step indicated the process of the participation of the local governments and communities.
The following article is based on the household information from Japanese Colonial Period1905 (Meiji 38th year) to 1945 (Showa 20th year), in combination of literature analysis and historical research method, while the content is to investigate the forestry development of Alishan during Japanese Colonial Period with Japanese “carpenter” as subjects whose census record was registered at Chiayi City. In such a way, we will analyze the ancestral hometown of Japanese “carpenter,” and areas they resided in Taiwan and their activity of life-support in Taiwan, so that we can put forth the migration process of Japanese “carpenter” cluster and how they support their life in Taiwan as well as their impact on Chiayi City. It is found from the study that the number of Japanese “carpenter” registered under building business in Chiayi City during Japanese Colonial Period amounts the largest, higher than the number of any other immigrating races. As learned from the registration statistics of census record, the age of these Japanese carpenters to Taiwan is mainly young and mid-life adults aged between 20 to 35, and they had respectively come from 45 first-level administration “ancestral hometown.” As for Chiayi City, the phenomena of population migration and carpenter clustering were stimulated as of the forestry development during Japanese Colonial Period, and it is noted from the sources of information that Japanese carpenter is found with evident sign of relocating to Chiayi City. Besides, it is also found from the registration content of census record among Japanese carpenters that there is clear record of father and son relationship, brother relationship, and also carpenters from the same race or difference race with diverse nationalities “lodged” at the same household, forming the sign of group symbiosis, and the change has also affected the way of heritage.
This study clarifies the annual change of housing rebuilding and homes sales in three neighborhoods in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina (2005). The percentage of annual change in housing rebuilding is low, however, there is wide gap between neighborhoods in terms of progress of housing rebuilding and home sales, the latter means the turnover in residents. The neighborhood without decreasing blighted properties and with positive vacant lots were found and this indicates the future widening disparity between neighborhoods. The nondecreasing blighted properties will cause deterioration of dwelling environment and residents' difficulties for returning neighborhood.