In case of Tsunami, vulnerable people must shelter from it by themselves under difficult conditions. Other people's help is essential for them to evacuate as fast as possible. Considering transportation methods is one of the most important issues against a disaster. The purpose of this study is to compare transportation velocity and to obtain fundamental data, evacuation supporter carry vulnerable people by using transportation instruments. We carried out running experiments with three kinds of instruments, (A) a rollator, (B) a transport chair, and (C) a wheelchair. A rollator was installed assistant equipment (Patent No. 5802342) in this experiment because it did not have transportation function fundamentally. The experiments proceeded in three different inclination lanes; steep slope inclination average was 12.99%, gentle slope 6.77%, and flat 0%. Each lane's distance was as follows; steep slope was 100m, gentle 200m and flat 1, 000m respectively. The subjects of this experiment were 31 female students, the age group between 18 and 26. We did pre-questionnaire on individual attribute and ex facto questionnaire on physical burden to the role of evacuation supporters. Every vulnerable people's weight was adjusted to 62.04kg with dumbbells. Every subject watched the video of the Tsunami to image the situation and do practical experiment before the trials. Each trial was video-recorded to measure transportation velocity and observe their movement. Average velocity of (C) a wheelchair was 0.91m/s, (B) a transport chair 0.85m/s, and (A) a rollator 0.77m/s in steep slope, (C) 1.28m/s, (B) 1.14m/s and (A) 0.91m/s in gentle slope, (C) 1.87m/s, (B) 1.58m/s and (A) 1.18m/s. In the order of transportation velocity was a wheelchair, a transport chair and a rollator in every inclination. According to questionnaire, the subject with experience taking part in sports before made a better record than whom without such experiences. Physical burden in gentle slope and flat with a wheelchair was least but then a rollator was added loads. There were few differences in three instruments in steep slope. Especially a rollator had big physical burden within three of them and difficulty to handle. However, as a result of this experiment, rollator's average velocity was faster than that elderly people walk with a rollator under own power. Therefore, evidently having help from evacuation supporters more efficient than pushing it by themselves for elderly usually uses a rollator. Finally, the study presented here clearly demonstrated that making use of transportation instruments such as a wheelchair, a transport chair and a rollator with evacuation supporter's help enable vulnerable people to run away from Tsunami swiftly. We propose that vulnerable people should deploy transportation instruments against a disaster.
The previous study explored the current barrier-free status of accommodation facilities in Japan, focusing in particular on the arrangement condition of barrier-free accessibility for wheelchair users. However, it is believed that barrier-free conditions and future issues also vary depending on building types such as traditional inns and hotels. This study thus aims to analyze and examine building types and barrier-free arrangements for people other than wheelchair users in order to understand environmental arrangement issues more individually and practically. Analyses of the results of the countrywide investigation on accessibility in accommodation facilities led to the following two points: · In traditional inns, there is a particular issue in the height of outlets and switches from the floor. However, many hotels provide no sliding doors. This difference largely depends on the type of guest rooms, i.e., Japanese- or Western-style. · With respect to accessibility arrangement for guests other than wheelchair users, there remain issues such as installation of handrails and consideration of the height of switches and fulfillment of auxiliary dog tools. This study first separated accommodation facilities into traditional inns and hotels to investigate barrier-free arrangement rate of each type of buildings. In traditional inns, it is found that there is a particular issue in the height of outlets and switches from the floor, and that many hotels provide no sliding doors. It is also found that issues in the arrangement of an environment in which disabled people other than wheelchair users and elderly people can stay comfortably, such as installation of handrails and consideration of the height of switches and the fulfillment of auxiliary dog tools and devices that send a message via vibration or light. Future research should focus on the characteristics of individual guests to investigate an accommodation environment for mentally disabled people and developmentally disabled people whose utilization rate of accommodation facilities was demonstrated to be high in the previous investigation.
Recently more baby rooms where people can breastfeed, give formula to their infants, and change diapers are being provided in commercial facilities and public spaces. The government and local organizations started to set the guidelines for planning and designing baby rooms, but these didn't show specific policies and have not been examined by researches. Therefore, there are a number of non-user-friendly and uncomfortable baby rooms in many facilities. The ultimate objective of this series of papers on the study of baby rooms is to formulate a set of clear guidelines on the planning and designing of baby rooms. As a first step, this study put its focus on diaper changing zones. Some factors, such as scale, arrangement, and equipment of baby rooms are discussed. Observation surveys on user behavior were conducted in three commercial facilities in 2014. In addition, four types of surveys were investigated so far. The guidelines should be examined in consideration of all analyses based on those surveys.
The guidelines on diaper changing zones in baby rooms taken from our analyses are as follows: 1. A diagram which can calculate proper number of changing stations correlating to the number of uses per hour was developed. Definitely there are many factors relating to it, but it is useful to grasp the number of changing stations easily as an indication. 2. The arrangement should be examined considering not only changing stations but the location of stroller parking, temporary storage spaces for baggage, and trash bins in relation to the changing stations. A model plan of a diaper changing zone has been drawn based on this policy. 3. The layout of hand-wash basins, height and weight in meters, drink vending machines, and others such as visual acuity charts are shown. Among them, hand-wash basins are necessary in baby rooms, but the others are not always required to be equipped. Designers or facility managers should investigate the balance of user services and fundamental function: changing diapers. 4. Diaper changing zones should be located taking into account the connection to other zones, such as breastfeeding zones and rest zones. 5. To maintain safety, the most important thing for baby rooms is to prevent falls from the top of diaper stations. Close layout between diaper stations and trash bins is also effective from the perspective of safety in that people can throw away dirty diapers without leaving the stations their babies lie on. 6. Not only mothers, but fathers, siblings, grandmothers and grandfathers also have access to baby rooms. Therefore baby rooms should be designed to match the needs or preference of various people. For example, overly sweet decorations or pink colored walls should be avoided, providing a sofa where elderly people can sit and rest may be desirable. But, as experts with deep knowledge on children suggested, baby rooms responding to all kinds of needs are not always necessary, the essential point is to design sufficiently balanced rooms, based on both users' and facility managers' points of view.
These guidelines are the first ones based on the research that clarifies the behavior of users; it will be practical for both designers and facility managers. Accordingly, it will contribute to provide user-friendly and comfortable baby rooms, and finally, it will benefit the quality of life of infants, children and their parents. A further study of the guidelines on other zones such as breastfeeding zones and rest zones should be investigated, and ultimate guidelines on baby rooms will be formulated comprehensively based on all our studies.
In order to grasp the influence of difference in environment of convalescent rehabilitation wards on the activity of patients, many patients are selected with nearly the same Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores from two different wards (Ward S and Ward H). In Ward S, which was mainly adopts by consolidate with private sickrooms, unit-type space design. In Ward H, adopts by traditional, multiple-bed sickrooms designing. The activity of these patients in the two wards was measured and compared using the Activity Recorders (ARs). The findings obtained in this study showed that the space and facility design of wards would affect how patients spend their time when they are out of their private rehabilitation times. Compared Ward S to Ward H, there was a difference in the amount of time per stay in the sickrooms. In Ward S, the length of time per stay was longer than that in Ward H. Therefore, indicating that the private sickrooms were more stable places of stay than the traditional and multiple-bed sickrooms. The different space design of Ward S and Ward H may affect the daily walking behavior of patients. However, this investigated result showed that there is almost no difference in number of daily walking steps for patients between Ward S and Ward H. For patients’ exercise intensity of Ward S and Ward H, this study indicated that Ward S is more effective than Ward H in terms of generating patient’s activity when they are not in their private rehabilitation times. In summary, we obtained these findings in this study regarding the two convalescent rehabilitation wards run by the same corporation. There is no great difference in the time ratio of programs provided by the two hospitals for their patients. There is no great difference in terms of the number of daily walking steps for patients between Ward S and Ward H in this investigation study. However, the different of space design affects the exercise intensity. Generally, there may be prompted activities which will increaser the amount of activities of patients for the private sickrooms in the convalescent rehabilitation wards. In our investigation study stage, both wards investigated in this study are pioneers of rehabilitation, and even Ward H, which has a traditional space design, has devised various ways such as by creating a variety of shared space to stay. Therefore, we cannot rule out the possibility that there would be greater differences between the two wards, unless the traditional rehabilitation wards (Ward H) has no attractive with facilities in public space, or has the same facilities with sufficient space of sickrooms as Ward S.
The objective of this study is to represent graphically the structure underlying and forming our experience of walking around traditional Japanese gardens. Particularly, we pay attention to the spatial schema that gives meanings to physical formation of the elements composing the gardens and the person who experiences them. We propose a method of schematizing the characteristics of the experience of space. In this paper, a schema does not mean a drawing or a description but a frame in our consciousness, and we assume that people should perceive things through their schemata. By extracting the schemata of cozy garden sequences of that landscape, we would like to find out how we understand our experiences through the schemata we have about the gardens. Moreover we wish our study can be useful to design the cozy space by applying the schemata extracted from gardens to other space designs, such as building designs and urban designs, not only garden designs. The summary of the research method of schematizing is as followed: First, we experienced some cozy places, took still pictures and motion pictures in our experience, and made narratives describing what we can feel there and how it related our body as well as consciousness to the key elements organizing the space . We grouped the narratives by KJ method and make sentences of each group. We assume that these sentences represent the schemata of cozy space sequences of landscape. Then we make two rules in order to represent schemata graphically from sentences by using kinethetic image schemata which is proposed by George Lakoff. One rule is to separate sentences into several scenes. Finally, we represent each scene by graphic figure (Rule-1). The other one is to adapt words to kinethetic image schemata (Rule-2). The following results were obtained: First, we experienced 9 gardens, and made 31 narratives. Then we grouped the narratives by KJ method and made sentences of each group. Finally, we applied the Rule-1 and Rule-2 to sentences of each group, and we represented each sentences by graphic figures. I ascertained that the extracted schema could make us be conscious about the next scene when we experience the new space. In conclusion, we represented the characteristic of the experience of space as a nuclear schema and ascertained the effectiveness of the schema.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the various development of counterpart assistance (CA) in the post-disaster reconstructions of Wenchuan, Yushu and Lushan Earthquake, by analyzing the decision making, reconstruction organizational structure and funding. We found that: throughout the time span of the three earthquakes, various forms of CA were adjusted to fit in the specific disaster affected situations. It was concluded as various development, which also deduced the important points for CA, which are the rational decision making by governments, the suitable implementation pattern, the moderate involving process of CA providers, the applicable scope of CA projects and amount of CA fund, the thorough fund supervision, and the realization of autonomy of local governments.
The Fijian traditional wooden house known as “bure” is a vernacular architecture locally developed in Fiji islands, which had been built with communal work in each village throughout the country and which building skills and knowledge had been passed down from generation to generation. In the course of modernization, bure has given way to housing in Western in the latter half of the twenty century. It means that they have missed opportunities to transfer the indigenous building technology to the young generation and are at risk of losing a valuable culture of Fijian traditional wooden house. In these circumstances, indigenous Fijians especially elderly express their hope to preserve the building tradition of bure which symbolizes Fijian culture. Furthermore, recognizing the possible use of bure in terms of tourism or disaster response, its value has begun to be re-evaluated. Under these circumstances, “bure construction project” was carried out in collaboration with Center for Appropriate Technology and Development (CATD), a governmental vocational training school, with the purpose of providing a learning opportunity for their young trainees. This paper aimed to record and examine the indigenous building technology of Fijian traditional wooden house through this project as well as based on a series of field surveys in the villages which still had bure and literature reviews. According to the previous studies, the architectural style of bure was classified into four types by plane and structure: houses with straight sides and rounded ends and an arched roof (Tongan type) (Fig. 3-1), rectangular houses with a main post in the middle of each of the short ends (Fig. 3-2), rectangular houses with no main posts (Fig. 3-3), and rectangular or square houses with a center pole (Fig. 3-4). The bure constructed at CATD belongs to the type of Fig. 3-3. Its construction process demonstrated the traditional design methods including utilization of body based units of measurement. Seven body based units for measurements and actual size based on the lengths of a Fijian adult male was recorded as shown in Fig 5. According to the interviews, the dimensions of bure were customary determined in each village which resulted in variety in size of existing bures (Fig. 6). Table 2 lists the building materials used for the bure construction at CATD. Due to the location where CATD is in coastal area, mangroves were used for structure while different hardwoods were used in the mountainous areas. The building materials vary depending on the availability of the natural plants. It took eight people approximately one month to construct one bure. Table 3 provided a detailed construction process and amount of effort and time expended. This study clarified the architectural style of bure and its traditional design and building technology based on the detailed record of a construction project as well as the interviews and a series of field surveys. This also revealed that it reflected the locality since the building materials and construction methods reflects varied from place to place. In the future, there is a need to carry out a further research for the systematical and comprehensive understandings of Fijian traditional wooden house.
The original lifestyles in traditional Bhutanese houses are at risk of disappearance due to ongoing rapid modernization. This study aims to understand the spatial organization inside traditional Bhutanese houses through an empirical survey in Paro, Western Bhutan, on the uses of rooms and their names in local Dzongkha language. The research objects were seven traditional houses located in two communities, Chuba and Atsuo, located about seven kilometers north of the urban area of Paro, which is the second-largest city in the western part of the Kingdom of Bhutan. An on-site survey was carried out in the two villages to record the local Dzongkha name and the use of each room. In addition, the basic patterns of spatial organization and the use of each room/space were clarified and classified, and the following information on the characteristics of traditional houses in Atsuo and Chuba was ascertained. 1) The spatial arrangement of the traditional houses is different on each floor. The first floor is a non-residential space, which used to function as a barn for livestock and is now used for purposes such as storage. The living space is above this floor, and the top floor is a drying and storage space for the harvest. 2) The basic spatial organization of the main floor is, in order from the entrance, an intermediate space (Bako in Dzongkha), a living room (Youkha), and the Buddhist family chapel (Choshom) with an inner altar room (Tshamko). The main floor of three-story buildings is on the second level and that of four-story buildings is on the third level. 3) Common among the houses is the fact that the living room (Youkha) sees the most diversity in use and is regarded as the central space of life activities, while the Buddhist family chapel (Choshom) is the spiritual center of the house. The window side in the living room (Youkha) is the primary place for the view, sun and wind, and traditionally had precedence. The layout of the Buddhist family chapel, in which two rooms are joined together with the outer sanctum placed at the room entrance side and the inner sanctum placed at the far end, indicates its significance and high sanctity. 4) The ways of recognizing spaces find their expressions in local Dzongkha names, which differ from room names in English, thus reflecting the difference between cultures. Some names in Dzongkha (e.g., Bako, Youchu and Jabyong) express the placement of the space in the overall spatial organization rather than the room functions, as is the case in English. Also, Dzongkha room names for storage areas differ according to what is stored (e.g., Phung for food storage, Mithu for rice storage and Satao for fodder storage). These spaces/rooms do not have exact English translations, and it would be irrelevant to apply existing English room names to them. This should be noted for understanding the spatial organization, actual use and original characteristics of each room/space in traditional Bhutanese houses, which fostered Bhutanese people for a long time and engrave wisdoms on how to and what is to live in harmony with the environment.
Hollowing-out in the center of local city is progressing because of the depopulation and the population outflow to the periphery of the city and there are many vacant lots such as parking or that is not used. Connected vacant lots are appeared according to the increase of vacant lots and there are relationship with adjacent building. And the combination forms the sparse urban environment in local cities. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to clarify the composition of connected vacant lots in the center of local city of Utsunomiya, Tochigi prefecture by considering the configuration of them and adjacent building. It is meaningful in considering the way urban landscape with vacant lots and the way the building is built. Firstly, the configuration of connected vacant lots is analyzed through the number of adjacent road and polygonal vertexes. As a result the characteristics of the configuration of vacant lots such as the characteristic that corner plots in the block, the connection of faced roads and fragmentation of townscape were analyzed by the number of adjacent roads. Also the four patterns of connected vacant lots were led by the combination of the vertexes in the side of buildings. According to these points it is found that there is the tendency that if the number of adjacent roads is very small, the number of the vertex decreases and the form of connected vacant lots becomes simpler, and if the number of adjacent roads is large, the number of vertex increases and the form of connected vacant lots becomes more complicated that contains the land of irregular shape. Secondly the elements of adjacent building are analyzed and it is also considered whether these elements are settled up assuming vacant lots exist. Firstly, the combination of low and middle height consists the most of part when the combination of the height of the buildings is analyzed. Also the boundary elements such as pilotis , gardens, or balconies are analyzed. As a result it was found that the boundary elements of the buildings and external spaces are appeared as the part of the townscape because of the emergence of vacant lots and there is the tendency that when the new building is built assuming vacant lots exist, the spatially continuous elements such as pilotis or balconies are settled up in the border between vacant lots and the building. Finally, the characteristics according to the configuration of vacant lots such as the characteristic of connected vacant lots with simple configuration that face large-scaled building, simple configuration that face contrastive elevation surface of the low building and complicated configuration that have the continuity by the opening and the pilotis of middle-to-low building are revealed as the characteristics of the typical composition that has the common combination of the configuration patterns of connected vacant lots and the elements of adjacent buildings and the context of the emergence. From the above result, it was clarified that the relation between vacant lots and buildings is produced depending on the configuration of connected vacant lots in the city block of local city. It shows that the urban environment that is particular to local city is formed and it is considered that it gives effective view point when the use and application of connected vacant lots is examined by the side of configuration and the element of adjacent building or when the way to build the building that faces vacant lots is examined.
Akahama in Otsuchi, Iwate prefecture is one of the areas severely damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (3.11). A purpose of this paper is to clarify how residents used the evacuation places and shelters from emergency evacuation phase to refugee life phase in 3.11 in relation to the transition of disaster preparedness places and the transition of daily gathering places in order to get the suggestion about how to design a disaster preparedness place. In chapter 2, it is clarified that how evacuation places were used in three phases. In emergency evacuation phase, many residents evacuated to an elementary school, but there was flooded and many people got wet. In temporarily shelter use phase, residents could find a printing office near the school and about 140 people stayed there for 3 days. Many residents went to private houses and stayed. 3-chome residents could not find large facilities, so they went to a neighboring village. In refuge life phase, about 80 residents used the gymnasium of school, about 20 residents used welfare facility and 8 households used 2 vacant houses that were owned by Otsuchi-cho. In chapter 3 and 4, transition of disaster preparedness places and daily gathering places are clarified. In chapter 3, findings are as follows. 1) A damage of past tsunami was recorded, but evacuation behaviors or the places where people gathered was not passed down. 2) the understanding that a school was designated as a disaster preparedness place was widely shared. 3) In the late 80's, a numbers of preparedness place increased because of expansion of village. 4) In the late 90's, 1-chome's preparedness place was gathered to a school because a new gymnasium was built. 5) In the late 2000's, local organization decided that Akahama had 3 prepared places in terms of governance after a discussion that Hachiman Shrine didn't have a enough space. In chapter 4, findings are as follows. 1) A school and Community center had been the base of Akahama community. 2) A school had been the base of community, and that's why a school became center of disaster preparedness place in spite that there was not evacuation place during Sanriku tsunami of 1933. 3) A community center had been the base of community and located a little higher ground, and that's why disaster prevention materials was stocked before 3.11. In chapter 5, evacuation places and shelters in 3.11 are analyzed in three phases in relation to the transition of disaster preparedness place and daily gathering place. It is found that in emergency evacuation phase, a school had been known as a preparedness place in spite that in the past there was not evacuation place and gymnasium was located in dead end, and in 3.11 many residents were exposed to danger. In temporarily shelter use phase and refuge life phase, it can be necessary to think preparedness place not only inner village but also wider area, etc. In chapter 6, the following four points are suggested. 1) It is important to think the role of disaster preparedness place in the disaster phases. 2) Changes of a village environment and modernization of daily gathering place influence a numbers and characteristics of disaster preparedness place. 3) The actual condition of evacuation behavior such as gathering places in past tsunami disaster is necessary to be come up for discussion about the disaster prepared. 4) For the occurrence of a gap between evacuation places and disaster preparedness place, residential network is needed for a use of private houses or facilities, and also vacant ones owned by municipality should be prepared for an emergency evacuation.
In order to reduce human casualties, rescue activities by local residents play an important role in the chaotic times immediately after an earthquake occurs because it is difficult to expect the sufficient and quick support by public rescue teams such as firefighters, police officers and the Self-Defense Forces. Therefore, it is necessary to quantitatively understand both the effects and risk of these activities based on the numerical analyses, and concretely discuss how to perform rescue activities by local residents as part of disaster mitigation planning. In this paper, we incorporate the following aspects into the wide-area evacuation simulation model which we have previously developed: (1) people trapped in a building and on a street; (2) rescue activities by local residents; (3) the behavior of people who get over the rubble of collapsed buildings; (4) the difference of the attribute of evacuees. Using this simulation model, first, we demonstrate the effectiveness of rescue activities by local residents in densely built-up wooden residential areas in the aftermath of a large earthquake. Even considering the influence of property damages (such as building-collapse, fire-spreading and street-blockage) and the necessity of wide-area evacuation after an earthquake occurs, it might be possible to reduce the number of casualties by 13.7% in average in case that local residents themselves perform rescue operations. Also, the number of people who die after the participation in rescue activities is less than half of the people saved from the collapsed buildings in average. Next, we attempt to describe the relationships among elapsed time from an earthquake occurrence, property damages, human casualties and people engaged in rescue activities. Although fires still continue to spread after 12 hours pass since an earthquake occurs, the peak of the number of people who are saved from collapsed buildings or engage in rescue activities is about an hour passes since an earthquake occurrence time. Also, it becomes extremely difficult for local residents themselves to find people trapped in a building after five or six hours pass since an earthquake occurs. The effective hours to perform rescue activities are different according to the earthquake occurrence time, the damage state of each building, the rescue ability of local residents, the spatial characteristics, etc. However, the methods proposed in this paper enable us to quantitatively understand the process of rescue activities by local residents in a certain scenario of a large earthquake. Furthermore, we analyze characteristics of places where many people might be dead or trapped on a street. Focusing on the spatial distribution of casualties and people trapped on a street, we can find the following tendencies: (1) the possibilities that casualties occur are higher and the number of those people is more in more densely built-up wooden residential areas; (2) the possibilities that casualties occur are much lower, but the damage scale is more devastating in the areas where the temporal refuges and large-scale housing complexes are located; (3) the possibilities that casualties occur are lower in areas facing on multiple sufficiently wide streets than other areas; (4) rescue activities by local residents result in a bit higher possibilities that casualties occur due to the delay of evacuation, but can contribute to less number of casualties in each area.
This statistical analysis study clarifies the characteristics of housing market areas and its transition on a national scale. It aims to confirm the basics in order to examine the actual and ideal state of supply and demand of housing on a municipality level. The author has clarified through his studies thus far, the formation process of housing market areas during the past 50 years after World War II in Japan. As a result, 550 housing market areas have been identified in 2000. Based on these areas, this paper classifies the transformative process of the composition of household style in these areas by cluster analysis and examines the characteristics of such categories. The index used in the cluster analysis is the ratio of owned houses, publicly owned rented houses, privately owned rented houses and issued houses within the following three representative points. The three representative points are set based on the year 2000 (just before the major municipal mergers), 1955 (when the statistical data started to become complete), and 1980 (a midway point). The result of analytical calculation leads to four (I－IV) large classifications in more than 50 percent of the maximum distance and 10 patterns (A-J) in more than 25 percent of housing market areas. These patterns are classified by the ratio of owned houses and its changes, and are characterized by the transforming ratio of issued houses, privately owned rented houses, and publicly owned rented houses. Large classification I: This classification has the lowest level of owned houses compared to other large classifications. Rented housing (both private and public) is at its highest rate and the ratio of issued houses decreases while the ratio of owned houses increases. There are four patterns (A-D) within this classification. Large classification II: The ratio of owned houses is higher than Classification I, but with little transition. The ratio of issued houses is low with little transition. The ratio of privately owned rented houses is equal to Classification I and the ratio of publicly owned rented houses is slightly smaller. There is only the pattern E (78 areas) within this classification. Large classification III: The total ratio of owned houses and issued houses is far higher than the above two classifications, although it has decreased, the ratio of publicly owned rented houses has increased. Here there are two patterns: F (13 areas) and G (62 areas) depending on the level of issued houses and publicly owned rented houses. Large classification IV: This classification has the highest level of owned houses, although its ratio has a tendency to slightly decrease. This has the largest number of areas in medium to small local areas. There are three patterns within this classification: H (63 areas), I (103 areas), and J (161 areas). These patterns bear the following characteristics: 1) There are very apparent local characteristics. Especially the majority of areas in Hokkaido, which are largely different from other regions and Okinawa, who has a unique composition. Others are divided by the category of Koshin and Chubu regions, which are next to the Kanto region, and many other regions that show the average composition of household style in Japan. 2) They are related to the difference in scale (number of cities within the area and population) and transformation of housing market areas. 3) The scale of these housing market areas reflects the classification of the expansion of area composition (how the municipalities are connected).
PURPOSE OF THIS RESEARCH Elderly Group Living (EDL) is a practice of new habitation style that elderly people share a house to cooperate with each other in order to make up for physical inability. Because of interaction between residents, EDLs have possibilities to improve the level of elder's quality of life. However, there are following questions; which level should they accept about resident's mental and physical depression and could they combine support accepting and resident's independence? Therefore, we focused attention on “Group House SAKURA”. It is the EGL which has the longest history in Japan. Through this practice, this paper aims to clarify substance of management in this house by resident's basic attribute, residency lengths, resident's age change and manager's response of this, and then it aims to consider interrelationship between residents and between a resident and the manager. SUMMARY OF THE TARGETED HOUSE AND MATERIAL TO BE OBJECTS TO ANALYZED The founder and manager builds “Group House SAKURA” at an opportunity of own housing rehabilitation in 1990. She lives next door in same building. It has 6 rooms with a sink and a toilet, and it has a kitchen, a dining room, a bathroom, and a laundry room in common. The practice of new habitation attracted much interest from the public, and more than one published material released about this house. The founder and manager wrote one of them. We used them as objects to analyze, and excerpted description. In addition, we conducted hearing surveys to grasp recent situation. Especially at interaction to forge relationship, we did qualitative research using Grounded Theory Approach (Saiki-Craig hill version). CONCLUSIONS (1) Realization of long-term and stable habitation Total number of residents was 14. Residency lengths were the longest in 18 years, and averaged 8.5 years. The resident could stay living with onset of dementia. In addition to successful relationship, intercommunion after move, conduct a funeral service, and existence of common grave provided a perspective on life course to residents and environment to make them aspire for long-term habitation. (2) Situational responses in inhabited environmental improvement In response to changes in social settings and increasing age of residents, the manager created an environment not only some hardware like renovation their house but also some software. At the beginning, the residents worked together and assumed a role such as setting the table for supper and cleaning common spaces. However with resident's aging, they used Home-visit service by Long-Term Care Insurance Act. The manager launched a company and started Outpatient rehabilitation service. For preparing meals, She made a new relatively-young resident take a role for onerous act. (3) Relationship between residents based on mutual understanding, and quality of life to be gained from it From the situation that residents lived in an inner circle on a daily basis, though they had argument or bickering, they boosted mutual understanding and a sense of tension and competition. It brought about some effects that they had got feelings of self-esteem and acceptableness, fun in the life of not being alone, mutual aid, intellectual development, regulation for their, and health maintenance. (4) Development of a trust relationship by respecting opinions of the residents From the situation that the manager interfaced with balance of payments and assured sustainability, she helped / suggested / encouraged intercommunion / adjusted / no involving. In response to these action, the residents inclined / declined and they indicated their feelings like contentment / discontentment. The manager kept respecting their opinions. It leaded that she developed a trust relationship with residents.
Chapter 1: The purpose of this study is to examine some of Okura-sho owned by the Tottori Domain used for shipment of rice, and to clarify the regularity of spatial structures and the effects on spatial structures by environmental conditions. Okura-sho subject to this study are nine "Nadaokura", and four Okura-sho located in the central area such as Yonago Castle and Kurayoshi Jinya-machi. Among these Okura-sho, the architectural remains were found only in Hashizu Okura-sho. However, the drawings were presented for each Okura-sho. Chapter 2: It shows past studies and procedures of the study. Chapter 3: It clarifies the formation of each Okura-sho and shows the building arrangement in a later stage of domain administration. "Nadaokura" consisted of main buildings such as Okura, Hakariya (inspection station), Bugyo-goya (station for magistrates) and Metsuke-goya (station for inspectors). In Okura-sho located in the central area, there were also Okura and Hakariya, however, not Bugyo-goya or Metsuke-goya necessarily. In almost all of Okura-sho, Okura was arranged in a form like an one-stroke sketch, located closer to the border of the site. When focusing on the location of Hakariya, there were two types of arrangement: some Hakariya were located in the garden surrounded by a group of Kura (type A) while others were located closer to the border of the site (type B). Type A accounted for most. Chapter 4: The type A was the spatial structures that was advantageous to conveyance of materials and to fire prevention. On the other hand, ‹Akasaki› of the type B faced the sea, and building placement had a condition for a slim site shape. ‹Iwamoto› of the type B did not have it, but was affected by the excavation of the river which was planned to prevent sedimentation of the sand caused by the sea breeze. The hakariya and storehouses of the type B had the roles that were prevented window. Also these formed a defense line on the sea side of the okura-sho . The above-mentioned thing became clear. Furthermore, I added consideration to the ‹Hashizu› of the type A that was a base of shipment of rice. Chapter 5: In conclusion, I stated that although there was a basic style for Okura-sho owned by the Tottori Domain, two types were formed as a result of adaptation to the site shape and special environmental condition.
This article examined the sketch which drew by J. Conder in the Nobi earthquake stricken area, and it is following points become clear. 90 pieces of the sketches about the Nobi earthquake drawn by J. Condor were placed in “AN ARCHITECT'S NOTES ON THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER, 1891.” (afterward write it as "NOTES"). About 20% of the sketches placed in "NOTES" might be started drawing for "NOTES" writing newly. We can confirm the two pieces of sketching of the Nobi earthquake in the sketching book of J. Conder. The sketching books of the Conder were donated from child of the Conder, Helen to Tokyo University in 1966. Although there are the explanations that Conder wrote down in this sketching, the reading have not been done until now. In this paper, I have carry out reading of this description. As a result, I can judge that the sketches of the refuges were drew by Conder in Nagoya from 2 to 4 on November in 1891. Of these, one piece drew the refuge at Hirokoji of Nagoya, another one is the refuge which was built by the servants of the Shukinrou hotel on the street.
The philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein designed Stonborough Villa with the collaboration of Paul Engelmann. Stonborough Villa is a “Mathematically configured” building very rare in modern architecture. The aspects that distinguish the Villa can be observed in many calculated details such as the boundaries of the walls, which vary in thickness from room to room creating a wall projection, the height of the ceiling and the Double Doors. This research is focused on the doors on the main floor. The placement and the role the doors play in connecting the rooms is an important factor in this particular architecture. The dimensions and positions of the doors are determined by the internal logic of the Hall with strict precision. The main floor is centered around the Hall where the doors connect to every room in the house in a counterclockwise arrangement: The Breakfast room (Frühstückszimmer), Living room (Wohnzimmer), Salon (Saal) and Dining room (Speisezimmer), each having a maximum amount of openings with a respective sequence of 1-2-3-4. The spacing and symmetry when viewed from the room as a whole or as the wall surface the location of the doors in each room and the arrangement, they have their own independent logic. The doors on all five rooms, including the Hall, are Double Doors; some consist of Single Double Doors and Pairs of Double Doors. This paper looks to classify the types of door arrangements in the five rooms of the Stonborough Villa's main floor. Based on the patterns that emerged a Door Schedule was produced. In order to produce the Door Schedule for this research it was necessary to make a comparative study because of the lack of information regarding the subject. This also included and on-field investigation in October of 2013 using a laser distance measuring instrument with which new data was compilated. Through the comparison of the doors that at first sight look as if they had the same shape and dimensions, it was found that there are minute differences in the dimensions. This is most notable in the room connections where there are Pairs of Double Doors, in which, the front door and rear door have different sizes. The arrangement and logical systems mentioned previously can be applied in the Dining room as follows: The four doors are arranged symmetrically while at the same time consist of two types of opening and closing mechanisms. From the Dining room on the far left the Pair of Double Doors lead to the Hall, one opening into the Dining room while the other into the Hall. The remaining three doors open into the Dining room. After surveying the current dimensions of the doors, the Pair of Double Doors which lies between the Hall and the Dining room we can establish that the Double Door which opens into the Hall and the Double Door opening into the Dining room in spite of having the same shape the size is in fact different. These differences also exist in the Pair of Double Doors connecting the Living room and the Salon. For these reasons, we can say that in Stonborough Villa the proportions of the Pairs of Double Doors are adjusted to suit the internal dimensions of the rooms into which they open. The Pairs of Double Doors in Stonborough Villa have a relatively wide spacing in between, this generates a different dynamic whether the doors are opened or closed. With the completed analysis of Stonborough Villa's doors it is clear to see the crucial purpose they possess in the spatial configuration of the House.
Carlo Aymonino (1926-2010) is an architect who had an important theoretical position in La Tendenza, the movement led by Aldo Rossi (1931-1997). This paper focused on the idea on technology of Aymonino and application to architecture. In search of his refection of the theory into his work, this paper took the two methods. One is analyzing his technological view through Italian documents in of Aymonino with comparing to document of Rossi in 1960-70s. The other is analyzing self-references about his applications to architetural designs in 1960-1970s. In Section 1, the ideologies of La Tendenza movement were surveyed in terms of social situation. Actually, Aymonino and Rossi belonged to Italian Communist Party and were involved in social movement. Then the movement was characterized in aspect of Communism and Socialism. In Section 2, through the documents, it was shown that Aymonino associated the word of tendenza with a tendency toward Socialism cities. For this reason, he placed high importance in real technology of production according to economical needs of the society. In Section 3, the technological view on architectural design was surveyed in comparison of Aymonino and Rossi. Notably, both emphasized the reality of production technology and were interested in possibility of production technology. Therefore it was confirmed they treated typology as synthesis of unchangeable production technology in architecture. Rather than projects like Metabolist movement and Archigram, they were more interested in real technology in Modernism cities, such as mass productions and prefabricated architectures. In Section 4, their application of technological view to architectural forms was surveyed. As a result, it was shown that Both of Aymonino and Rossi associated Rationalism, the manifest of the movement, with removing of decorations inherited from Modernism architectures. Especially, Aymonino emphasized relationship and diversity in multiple of materilai poveri (poor materials). Furthermore it was confirmed that their representation of Rationalism was realized by “flat surface”. For the conclusion, it was confirmed that the La Tendenza is a successor of technological view of Modernism architecture and that they applied it to their architectural designs.
The research of this paper focuses on “Soan” style tea houses in 16-19th century and discusses the criteria of two kinds of classification; the design styles ”Rikyu” / ”Samurai” / ”Noble” and the design preference of tea master “Konomi”. In order to achieve it, the paper studies the typological structures of morphological composition through the multivariate analyses of physical quantitative data of elements and compares between historical knowledge and the results of analyses. The steps of research method are as follows: 1. Collect the physical quantitative data of 13 elements from the plans and elevations of the tea houses, then see the results of it and discuss the properties of “Soan” style tea house. 2. Use the data collected in the first step and study the typological structure of morphological composition by the principal component analysis and Cluster analysis in parallel. In addition, check the principal component coefficients of 13 elements and discuss the tendencies of typological structures. 3. Study the correspondence between the typological structures and each classification: the design styles and the design preference of tea master. The results were as follows; 1. There are 4 types of typological structures (Fig. 4) ; (1) the small size and the free lighting format, (2) a little bit bigger size than (1) and lighting from windows, (3) the small size and little lighting open, closed space, (4) low ceiling height but big number of areas of plan, Fusuma and Shoji. And there are 5 tea houses which aren't classified in 4 types. 2. The results of 3rd step show correspondences between the typological structures and the design styles (Fig. 5). “Rikyu” style tea houses have small lighting opens and closed space regardless of the size. “Samurai” style ones have the similar composition to “Rikyu” style, but the plan area and the size of windows and Fusuma are bigger than it. “Noble” style tea houses have different space compositions, but they have more open and freely designed spaces, higher ceiling and wider Shoji and Fusuma. 3. The results of 3rd step don't show any clear correspondence between the typological structure and the design preference of tea master “Konomi” (Fig. 6). However they show the tendency that “Uraku Konomi” tea houses have lower ceiling height and smaller area of Fusuma than “Rikyu Konomi”. For further research of these classifications, it's necessary to analyze with the data of position (direction, height, relation between host and customer, etc) of elements or the qualitative data of small elements (shelf, ornament etc). And probably the logistic analysis is also useful to study more precise structures of the design styles.