In part two of this research, Jingan District was chosen as the study area. This paper first aimed to examine the renewal policy and the trend accompanying social background factors, then put focus on the changes of the residents' lifestyle and evaluation of the residential environment after renewal from the residents' viewpoints. The research methods included information collection of projects by archival records, interviews of researchers and local authorities from a macro viewpoint; And then a questionnaire and indepth interviews with residents were carried out. The findings show that: 1. The residents especially the elderly have deep attachment to the Lilong housing because the good location; 2. In the cases of which the ratio of returned residents is high, the residents are more satisfied with the new environment as well as the community. Some renewal projects are successful on providing good communication places and services for the residents; 3. Residents' preference is the main factor influence residents' choice in Lilong housing renewal, it's also an important factor influence the evaluation of residential environment; 4. The necessary facilities should be provided in the outer suburb housing for the residents to move in; 5. There is obvious income difference between the returning residents and new residents after renewal, it's a new problem that how should they share the common space.
This study is on neighborhood communication in the mini-development residential area, developed in the second half of the 1960s. In this article, we focused on the Japanese pub, nomiya, and examine the dynamics of nomiya culture. Today, there are 21 nomiyas in this area, which are small-scaled and each of them has unique characteristics. Nearly 80% of the owners and customers live in this neighborhood. Main customers are the middle-aged and elderly residents. 57% of the customers go to the neighborhood pub by themselves and enjoy communicating with other customers.
This study clarified relation of posture, behavioral patterns and sleep-wake rhythm of nursing home residents with deteriorated ADL. The methods utilized were a behavioral tracking survey, a questionnaire survey and observation by actigram.The results are as follows: 1) Changes of posture from lying, to sitting on a floor, and to sitting on a chair increased the ratio of awakening state accordingly. 2) When time of ambulation became below "about 150-210 minutes", Physical activity during day and night were reversed or Physical activity during night increased. 3) Sleep-wake rhythm is formed regularly by dispersing the time of ambulation for a certain duration in a day.
This study is focused on the Ikigai Day Service Center(IDSC) which aims to offer to the elderly the daytime staying space and some programs of companionship and pastime activities. As it is the place where the elderly can spend their daytime life freely under the guardianship of support staffs, the elderly's environmental behavior should be effectively considered to the architectural planning of space. This study tries to consider the space structure and the meaning of the IDSC, by analyzing user's activities through a lot of the collected data in the close observations of their behavior and the way of using patterns of that space. As the results of this study, some meaningful suggestions are extracted as follows; first, it is very important to satisfy the various needs of the elderly with providing flexible spaces, second, it is a very valuable space for the elderly where they can realize and seek their religion of late in life, and third, it is enough doing functions as a comfortable shelter in local community.
This study aims to clarify the feature of the visible surroundings in the total visual space of the group living for the aged with dementia. And this also tries to make new index on the description of the dwelling atmosphere that is based on the visual information of the space. For this purpose, three different cases of the group living for aged with dementia were surveyed by means of activity mapping and deep interviews. The main results of the study are as follows: 1) The total visual space is composed of the unit spaces which has various differences of the behavioral content and frequency. The arrangements of the unit space perform a major role in the feature of the total visual space. 2) The number of the visible unit spaces, the visible rate, and the grate from 'a litter few behavior' to 'a lot of behavior' of the unit space on the visible space gave a major effect on the whole of the visible surroundings. 3) According to this study, the author produced the method of one of the description of visible surroundings which was guide to the concept of unit space and visible space.
The Building Accessibility Improvement Act is the most important act in Japan for elderly and disabled people regarding architectural barriers. The act was investigated with a questionnaire for five concerned groups; disabled persons, staff in welfare facilities, academics, government personnel and company personnel connected with the construction of buildings (in construction companies, real estate companies, designers and property owners), as well as with interviews of 4 experts and 3 personnel in the administration of the regulations. The purpose of the investigation was to clarify problems in evaluating the regulations with respect to buildings generally and to individual buildings.
We tried to measure the level of anxiety (LOA) in wayfinding with pedestrian navigation system (PNS) by means of on-the-spot experiments with 4 participants. In the course of finding the way, when the participant was getting closer to the destination, his/her level of anxiety decreased. This result is opposite to the phenomenon of wayfinding without PNS. LOA was highly-influenced by the identification of the point of interest (POI). LOA was directly-influenced by the experience of past route. There was a tendency of zooming in the navigation map when LOA became higher and zooming out while walking on a long straight route.
In this paper, a research on the changes of leisure activities of the group moving inhabitants is made to clear up the indispensable element which bring elbowroom and prosperity to life of the same. Firstly, the gross time spent for leisure before and after moving, and the change of the family structure and lifestyle are cleared up. And then, it focuses on the leisure activities of women who often participate in local activities, especially on their distribution of leisure time and space usage. Through these analysis the major purpose is aimed to contribute some fundamental opinions for the future moving projects of the village.
The construction boom of Nikkei farmhouses in Tome-Acu started in the early 1950s, with improved economic conditions as a background. Typically, those houses have a special dining room and living room for guests and another living room for family in the interior. In addition, a hall allows them to gather. That style has tended to disappear from inside residences that have been constructed recently, with the addition of wide verandas. This study clarifies the actual conditions of that change based on a field survey. The factors affecting that change were further examined in relation to living condition.
This paper aims to clarify the formation process and spatial structure of Fort Cochin, India. The research project of this paper is based on was launched under the title 'Field Research on Origin, Transformation, Conversion and Conservation of Urban Space of Colonial Cities' the major target of which are the Dutch colonial cities. To compare the colonial cities of all over the world in term of spatial formation is ambitious objective of the project. Dutch occupied many of strongholds, which once belonged to Portuguese. They remodeled them and established new forts and cities. Fort Cochin is a good example of this reformed ones. At Cochin, Dutch East India Company (VOC) destroyed previous Portuguese fort and constructed a new one with smaller size. The purpose of this study is to reveal this reformation process and spatial formation of the city after reconstruction of Portuguese Fort. The methodology of this research is based on analysis of old maps and related data. This paper illustrates the spatial structure of former Portuguese fort, construction process of fort Cochin constructed by VOC and its spatial structure. Then the reformation method of Cochin can be comprehended by comparison between Portuguese fort and those of VOC. Colonial cities constructed in East India is said tobe influenced by a plan of 'Ideal city' proposed by Simon Stevin, who was one of the most famous scientist in Europe in the 17^<th> century. This paper also aims to clarify influence of Simon Stevin's 'Ideal city' plan on spatial formation of Fort Cohin.
This paper aims to clarify reorganization and urban design of civic center by War Rehabilitation Project after the World War II, analyzing cases of 22 prefectural capital cities based on Japanese Castle-Towns. Findings are as follows: 1) governmental and municipal offices tended to be accumulated near castle area after the World War II, 2) reorganization of civic center from before to after the World War II are grouped into three types, and most of them are the Keeping type which was kept in the same place as before the World War II and expanded, 3) in the case of forming civic center inside castle area before the World War II, civic center tended to be kept in the same place as before the World War II and seen urban design applying the elements of Japanese Castle-Towns, 4) urban design of paying attention to "Axis" tended to be kept and urban design of paying attention to "Class" tended to be disappeared after the World War II, 5) urban design of paying attention to main street built by War Rehabilitation Project after the World War II were seen in the cities of all types.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate and to know the sustaining factors of machidukuri groups which organized in relation with the "HOPE Plan". We did a questionnaire survey on 200 cities and towns. Throughout the analysis, we pointed out three sustaining factors, which are the leader, well-known their working results to the citizens by the participation activities and the continuous subsidies from administrations. We also clarified that these groups played an important role in the success of machidukuri by "HOPE Plan".
Recently, the National Universities in Japan have incorporated, and in the field of campus planning, they are confronted with various kinds of issues. This paper clarifies the current situations and characteristics of their campus plans and planning organizations through the analysis on campus plan documents and questionnaire tests. The results are as follows; 1) most of their campus plan documents are consist of similar contents with the unified format controlled by Ministry of Education. 2) majority of them do not have the organized planning sections with some exceptions. 3) there are some of unique planning processes including the participation of experts and university communities.
Hierarchical relation of preference for attributes on residential environment is analyzed based on the comparison between households' evaluation for previous houses and that for current houses. Binomial test is devised to select statistically significant hierarchical structures of preferences. The results show that 'house size' is the most important attribute for families consisting of three or more members, that 'housing cost' is a minor factor for all family sizes which can be compromised to improve other attributes, and that at least two typical patterns of preference are observed, one taking priority for 'convenience for commuting' and the other for 'house size'.
In this study, we aimed at examining the decision-making support method using scenario approach focusing owners' decision-making in the regeneration of housing complex. The 1st step is creation of the scenario of the whole area. Owners create the scenario of the whole area, after extracting the driving force which does influence with the future. The 2nd step is creation of an individual scenario. Owners create their individual scenario, after arranging their life story. The 3rd step is verification of living environment, and examination of the directivity of housing complex regeneration. First, owners verify whether the living environment of a housing complex can correspond to the scenario of the whole area, and an individual scenario enough. Then, the directivity of housing complex regeneration is examined. We clarified the validity and the subject of scenario approach through holding the workshop in which owners of housing complex participate.
The purpose of this paper is to consider on the houses of Ainu people drawn in early modern period (mid18c-late19c). So far the studys of the houses (Chise) of Ainu people has been superficial. We know that there are the drawn materials concerning Ainu people and their cultural elements in early modern period. So, we carried forward this study by following steps. At first, we collected the drawn materials concerning the houses of Ainu people. Next, we extracted the materials which were trustworthy. At last, we analyzed about the characteristics of the houses of Ainu people. We made it clear that there were various forms and various structures in the houses of Ainu people drawn in early modern period (mid18c-late19c).
In our resent paper, we explained the planning method of the column interval dimensions of Horyuji Kondo (the main hall of Horyuji temple) by adopting the mediaeval period's 'shiwari-sei' as a clue. However, what seems to be lacking is the consideration to the Pagoda in Asuka period. This thesis deals with the method for designing the standard unit of the column interval of Horyuji Gojyu-no-tou (Pagoda of Horyuji temple) and Hokkiji Pagoda. These Pagodas have the same measure and the method founded on the primitive 'shiwari-sei' as that of Horyuji Kondo and Chumon.
The characteristic of the modular proportioning of a bracket complex written in "Kamakura Zoei Myomoku" which had been formed in 16 to 17 century is to regard the bracket arm as a important member of modular proportioning, and to allocate other dimensions by using width, height and length of it as a standard dimension. About perpendicular dimensions, each members edge gets on the base line that pulled every "bracket arm height 1/2" by taking a simple coefficient for allocation of dimensions. This result is equal to the composition of bracket complex of Zen Buddhism sanctum building of the Middle Ages in Japan.
In this paper, we clarified how the regulation of the official residence had transformed at the beginning of the Meiji era. The transition of the regulation at the beginning (From October, 1867 to May, 1876) of the Meiji era can be divided into following three stages: 1. In the first stage (From October, 1867 to July, 1870), in Tokyo, the regulation of the official residence was groped relating to the process of arranging the land and building of an old shogunate era. The regulation was gradually formed through this stage. 2. In the second stage (From August, 1870 to May, 1872), the regulation of the official residence was groped for to become 'General regulation' relating to the process that the rule of government extends to all over the country. As a result, two famous regulation was enacted at May 24, 1872. 3. In the third stage (From June, 1872 to May,1876), the former regulation was groped again against the background of an unstable state of each ministry and prefecture. After some gropes, at last,'Kansya Taito Kisoku' was enacted at May 15, 1876. And for about 70 years after that, this regulation had controlled the way of supplying and management of the official residence.
The purpose of this study is to interpret the successive modification and chronological order of the Prasat Suor Prat (PSP) terrace, one of the Angkor monuments in the central area of the Royal City Angkor Thom, located in Siem Reap Province, 314 km north-western part of Phnom Penh city, Cambodia. The site was excavated and investigated from 1994 to 2004 by the team of archaeologists of Japanese Government Team for Safeguarding Angkor (JSA). Based upon the fundamental data achieved from both individual research and the JSA's research, the results show clearly that the terrace was supposed to be built in four different stages (periods). The analysis of the Chinese ceramics and Radioactive carbon age of charcoal fragments collected from the PSP site provide a crucial data to meaningfully interpret the chronological order of the terrace in each stage. Moreover, the classification of the terrace into four different stages can be clearly brought about the historical event from the beginning up to the abandonment of the PSP site.
This paper is a systematic research on the museum architecture for art collections in the 19^<th> century in Germany and Austria. In three chapters the following four subjects are analyzed and explained: 1. The number of the museum architectures built in the 19^<th> century in this region and its chronological transition. 2. The relationship between the number of museum architectures and the types of museum: e.g. museum of fine arts, industrial arts and cultural history. 3. The construction of museum architectures and its historical background in Germany and Austria. 4. The relationship between the museum architecture and the architects.
By studying articles written by contemporary architects, published in "Shinkenchiku" and "Shinkenchiku, Jutaku-Tokushu" from 1970 to 1999, this report aims to illustrate how architects have related architectural programs, such as requirements for building and concerns of architects, to architecture. At first, the contents of these architectural programs were studied and were categorized into three different groups: Human, Building and Surroundings. Then the relations between these programs and architectural practices were analyzed with the KJ method. Their relations were abstracted into two different levels: the level of the Form of Relation and the level of the Intermediary of Relation. Finally, with this report we clarified various relations between architectural programs and architecture, and studied spatial conceptions by architects of those relations.
In order to re-locate 'Megastructure' proposals of the Japanese 'Metabolism' group in the international context of post-war architecture and urbanism, it is necessary to re-evaluate them in terms of their spatial characteristics and, based on it, to expound the general concept of 'Megastructure'. For this re-evaluation, however,'Bay Projects' by Kenzo Tange around the turn of the 50's and 60's, namely MIT Boston Harbor Project, 1959 and A Plan for Tokyo, 1960 are of great significance. MIT Boston Harbor Project, 1959 is taken here as the earliest presentation of the concept of A-framed 'Megastructure' to link the individual building to the city through a three-dimensional circulation system. Its spatial characteristics are outlined through its analysis in terms of the interrelations between structural and spatial elements and compared with its supposed ancestors in the first half of the twentieth century in order to lead to a discussion on the general concept of 'Megastructure'.
The Barcelona Pavilion designed by Mies van der Rohe in 1929 is considered to be one of the masterpieces constructed in the 20th century. The form and arrangement of components in floor plan were analyzed by frame analysis and concluded as follows: 1) The aspect ratio of the main building corresponds to that of whole frame WF, the ratio of the pavilion main part; to that of SF1 (2:1). The relation between them stays the same through all five schemes. The length of the main building of pavilion is about a half of WF. 2) The pool has the same ratio as SF3 (5:3) in the first scheme but it changes into double square in the second scheme corresponding to SF1. It becomes a 20M×9M rectangle (20:9) which still corresponds to SF1 after the third scheme. 3) The annex corresponds to WF in the first scheme and to SF1 in the second and third schemes. Shapes are determined using multiples of grid module (8M×5M) instead of frame after the fourth scheme. 4) The onyx wall is arranged at the center between CLx and the north wall. The length of the onyx wall is in proportion to the length of green marble wall at the eastern entrance in all the schemes. 5) The length of the green marble wall at the eastern entrance is about 1/3 of the distance (approximately 28m) between the south end of green marble wall and the north wall.
This paper aims to explore the state of activities of architects in modern Hiroshima. Based on the sufficient understanding to modern architectures, their designers and designing organizations of pre-war Hiroshima, this study tends to clarify the features of the activities of those architects who were in Hiroshima during Taisho period and the earlier stage of Showa period. The results of this study are: Before being bombarded, the mainstream of architects' activities in Hiroshima was of those non-local architects, particularly,(1) activities of architects by utilizing Trust System in earlier stage of Showa;(2) building institutions of Guan Gong Sheng Ting and the activities of architects;(3) moreover, a series of bank buildings, with the involvement of famous architects, such as Kingo Tatsuno and Uheiji Nagano, and by their respective single piece of work, contribute a lot in the history of architecture of modern Hiroshima. In addition, up to now, little has been known about the activities of folk architects or non-government building institutions. And the pieces of work from local building institutions are few as well.
It is not a simple task to protect ruins which is deteriorating and in a precarious state. It is required to achieve techniques making ruins structurally sound without destroying its picturesque beauty. Another question is a rather old question, namely,'why should we preserve it as a ruin, rather than restore it and use it again?' This paper firstly examines George Gilbert Scott's suggestion on the conservation of ruins, and the process toward the statutory protection of medieval ruins, then cases at Tintern Abbey and Fountains Abbey, to illustrate the process achieving the technique and the significance of protecting ruins, respectively.
"The Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954)" is the first of the UNESCO conventions in the field of the protection of the cultural properties. The intergovernmental conference held at Hague from 21 April to 14 May 1954 to adopt the convention. At the conference, Japan insisted that Kyoto and Nara should be protected under special protection. Japan had the policy that insisting on its original concepts internationally is important even if not accepted, and some of the concrete amendments of Japan were reflected in the content of the convention.
Researched on Historic Site Conservation Systems in Germany from the following 3 aspects. 1. Legal Condition of Historic Site in all German States; Definition of "Historic Site" in each State Law. 2. Comparison of Historic Site Conservation Systems in Hessen and North Rhine-Westphalia from legal aspects; Registration Method etc..3. Actual Situation of Historic Site from Town management aspects; hearing on actual Historic Site Conservation acts and inter-relations between Historical Site Conservation and other systems.
In this study, we have lead the method to solve the problem with arranging lecture-rooms by using Genetic Algorithm with the functions, that we have derived to arrange classes to suitable lecture rooms and in right time schedule in another study. We simulated the problem with 874 lectures that should be placed in 68 rooms into three cases. In the first case, the purpose is to decrease the number of lecture rooms. In the second case, the purpose is to change the unused lecture rooms into properly used ones retaining the total area of lecture rooms. In the third case, the purpose is to change the unused rooms to used ones maintaining the total number of lecture rooms. In all cases, frequency in use of each lecture rooms could be increased, and the number of lecture rooms, which are essential to operate all lectures, could be decreased by our method.
This paper proposes a method for finding the spatial elements which give a good impression of exhibition, using a methodology based on sensibility evaluation and rough set theory. With the proposed method, it is possible to obtain combinations of several spatial elements considered as reducts. These elements contribute to give a good impression of exhibition. We prove that the analysis of these combinations provides significant knowledge for exhibition planning.
This discussion raises a few questions on the definition of homeless people and framework for monitoring homelessness that tries to discuss the way of definition of homelessness and monitor the homeless situation.
The author thanks for raising some important questions as to the definition of the homeless and the way to monitor its population. The author agrees with Mr. Okamoto that the expression regarding the common way of defining the homeless should be rephrased. The author also argue, in response to Mr. Okamoto's discussion, that the relationship between the social and economical context and the definition need to be further analysed, though the objective of the paper in question does not cover this. The author also tries to clarify how the analysis of monitoring framework was conducted in the study.