The objective of this research is to acquire a basic knowledge of architectural planning, in order to realize the changeability and long-term occupancy sought after for dwellings, from the survey and analysis of actual occupancy records and conditions of apartment buildings over a long period of time. The subjects of the survey were households that were long-term occupants of public rental housing estates that were constructed in the 1960s. Analyses were made of how the occupants lived in the dwellings and records of infill improvements, along with changes in the family structures. In some apartment buildings that were surveyed, an additional living area had been built onto the balcony side, and as a result of having more living space, young couples with children had moved in later. On the other hand, apartment buildings that had not had any additions could be occupied by only elderly households. With households that wanted to continue living in the same place for a long term, despite rental housing restrictions, cases could be seen where infill improvements had been actively carried out on the inside in order to improve the habitability.
In this case study, we aimed to clear the characteristic and possibility of the extensionable co-operative management system in the suburban community life. As a result, the following points became clear. 1. The flexible co-operated farmwork system which is adapted to the rhythm of seasons is made. 2. The co-operated farm is added after starting the community life, and now, the residents have more needs for extension. 3. The socialmix in the community was achieved because of the suburban location. 4. The possibility of continuation and extension of circle of friends with urban dweller is confirmed.
In this study, the author attempts to elucidate the regional resources of day nurseries from the view point of the outdoor activities. The authors conducted the questionnaire survey to day nurseries in Yokohama City. The results showed that 70% of the authorized day nurseries had the outdoor activities more than once a week, and 84% of the Yokohama day nurseries had them almost every day. To compare with the authorized day nurseries, the Yokohama day nurseries had smaller play ground, and they always use regional resources. Moreover, most of the day nurseries use not only the parks but also the roads to childcare and education place corresponding to the childcare aim.
Archives of the Kyoto blind and dumb school were analysed on following 3 aspects. 1. It is the Meiji era period and there are 325 documents in material room in Kyoto Prefectural School for the Visually Impaired. The document that specializes only in construction is seven. 2. The Okoshiezu was made in 1886 when the material of the Taiken elementary school was compared with the Okoshiezu. It is thought that the in-a kyojo(blind and dumb classroom) in the Taiken elementary school used a part of two-storied classroom. 3. Historical data concerning Architecture of the blind and deaf mute education in Kyoto of the Meiji era is 13 documents, 6 hanging scrolls and 1 photo.
Dwellings for the elderly may be classified into three types: one's own home, housing for the elderly, and nursing home, in which the housing for the elderly are said to be least developed. However, looking ahead, it is expected that the number of people who move to housing for the elderly will grow resulting from the increase in elderly population and the change in household composition. The object of this study is to obtain insight into high quality housing for the elderly. On that purpose, analyses were conducted using the following two methods: 1. Understanding of the nation-wide quantity of developed housing for the elderly, 2. Analysis of the trends of development of housing for the elderly from the perspective of architectural characteristics, user identification and attendant circumstances of relative services.
The play ground of an orangutang in Sapporo Maruyama Zoo was renovated. The design was evaluated by comparison with behaviors of the orangutang and visitors in before and after the renovation. Following results were found: 1) 30 types of the orangutang's “behavioral repertries” appeared by 15 kinds of environmental enrichments. 2) Affiliative behaviors between the orangutang and visitors were encouraged; The orangutang prefers to stay on the concrete flat surface beside the window and the visitors come close to there, their communication through the windows was frequently observed. 3) The observation period of visitors increased 2.5 times as long as before.
In chapter 1, it is discussed that we can categorize to two types of modal expression approximately, when the use of the modal expression in planning documents is arranged. In chapter 2, the logical property of the planning modal expression is examined based on the knowledge of the modal logic. In chapter 3, the axiomatic logical system of the planning modal logic is constructed, and the main theorems which are deduced by the axiomatic system are described. In chapter 4, it is shown that the planning modal axiomatic system is sound.
The situation surrounded presentation in architecture and city planning has changed. But the purpose of precise communication contents of plans to others should not change. And planners grope for the method of effective presentation that communicates contents of plan to accurately. For such a situation, planners have used the representation that describes the situation of visual plan to communicate contents of plans as the method of presentation from old. Therefore, the purpose of this study is research representational characteristic in visual presentation of architecture / city planning in 20th century from analysis of elements and composition drawn.
Activities exist in any space of architecture and are important element on planning architecture. Until now, common space was considered as space that anyone can use. In addition, the buildings are classified according to function of building type or building use, and a lot of studies from the viewpoint of function side and designs have been made. But the demand of diversifying user lets contain the various activity that accorded with purpose to buildings, and the conception of possession and common in the building space become meaning many things more by form of the activity to become complicated. Then, we focused activity of user and made model by composition of activity territories and categorized. In this research, we analyze these models and make activity properties clearly as focusing on specific various buildings.
The purpose of this study is to find out on psychological evaluation by performing true experience, and the method of impression evaluation research by interview. Investigation to consider influence of the psychology to find out structure of psychological evaluation to be provided in true experience without setting the evaluation conditions such as visual factor or environmental factor. As a result of investigation, a difference of sensibility emerged from evaluation distribution of 15 architecture most clear. And, as macrotaxonomy, it was classified in "A-type (environment / mutually)" and "B-type (sensibility / prominence)". Based upon the foregoing, became clear factor such as "environment", "movement", "light" and "colors" gave big influence to impression of building-space.
This report is to illustrate how contemporary Japanese architects construct a conceptual framework in their design theory with a point of view of scale. Scale is one of the most varied and important general conceptions of architecture. In this report, scale is difined as two aspects, size and proportion. Firstly, the content of each article was considered and classified into four categories based on their background context for architecture. Secondly, two forms of architectural thought were considered from their texts - the aspect for spatial recognition; [size], [proportion], or [size and proportion], as well as the systemisation of their concept of the scale; [single], [flat], or [compound]. Finally, the relationship between the content of background context and two forms of architectural thought was considered and analyzed totally.
This paper discusses characteristics of habitat segregation of Hui's Residential District in Xi'an Old Castle based on field surveys. The major objective of this study is to compare the Muslim cities and the Chinese cities focusing on the urban tissues. Now, Hui's residential district is located on from the central to the northwest region in Xi'an Old Castle, where Hui believe in Islam are living and gathering together. We, firstly, clarify a distribution of habitat segregation, especially in terms of “huizu” district and “hanzu” district. We clarify typology of houses and form of possession through segregation, and characteristics of district based on number of households and residents. This paper shows clear differences between the Hui's residential district and general blocks in Xi'an Old Castle.
Building characteristics of dwelling unit in residential building, e.g. story height, floor area and lighting condition, effect on the choice range in designing other building characteristics e.g. ceiling height, room area and water-section positioning. The purpose of this paper is to describe the structure of influence among such building design parameters quantitatively. Graphical modeling analysis was applied to multivariate data obtained from 158 existing dwelling units. It demonstrated a structure of influence using a “graph” defined in the graph theory. This graph is effective when assessing capacity of base building for interior design variety or for interior changes.
This paper aims to clarify a design method of Tingbao Yang (1901-1982), who was one of the representative architects in the first age of modern China. We collect his architectural drawings and pick up 59 buildings. We analyze relationships of exterior walls between axes of symmetry, we point out that his architectural works are able to be classified into 5 planning types as follows; central emphasis type, direction emphasis type, function emphasis type, facade emphasis type, discrete type. Lastly, we have suggested that Yang's concern about architectural design methods had moved from a symmetrical composition to a functional composition.
Major of the research is to clarify the process of formation and transformation of Tai house plan in area of Mekong Basin, especially Lao and Thailand. The previous paper clarified the typology and its transformation of Tai house in Northeastern Thailand, Mookdahan and Loei province. In this paper, authors selected Luangprabang, Ban Paksy, to consider the spatial formation of Tai village and its transformation. Tai-Lao people are classified into a subgroup of Tai-Kadai group in ethnic tribes. Clarifying the process of urban formation and characteristic of living environment of Tai-Lao group in Ban Paksy village of Laungprabang, Lao, based on field surveys. The analysis is based on comparison of the formation of Tai-Lao village in Luangprabang, which was clarified by Sophie Clement-Charpentier and Pierre Clement in 1975 and published in Lao in 2003, with that of Ban Paksy village. Analyzing the characteristics of village conditions and form of layout plan, the paper suggest that Ban Paksy village is set between river and mountain which leads the formation of village different from the other Tai-Lao's village in flat land.
The purpose of this paper is to make an analysis of Le Corbusier's early works focusing on the plan types “à redents”, “fermés” and “linear”. It can raise the plan type of assembly form called "à redents" and "fermés" as the elements characterizing Le Corbusier's early works from the middle in 1910's to 1920's. Le Corbusier suggested some city planning and apartment housing such as <Immeubles-villas>. This paper aim at the use of those plan types in such works, and it intend that clarify transformation of it in his early works.
To clarify the operating station and the speed of the robot where man doesn't feel the obstruct feeling to the robot, the work was done from the following two approaches. 1. When the robot moved around the man, the obstruct feeling that man felt was measured. And, the relation between the obstruct feeling, to the passing speed, the position of the robot, and the moving direction of the robot was clarified. 2. Man was arranged at a position near the wall and a position far from the wall, and the obstruct feeling to the robot that moved was measured. The relation between the obstruct feeling that man felt and the space was clarified. As a result, it has been understood the obstruct feeling compared with the robot is in proportion with the distance between the man and the robot. Moreover, it was clarified that the obstruct feeling rose when was arranged at a position far from the wall.
This study analyzed the formation processes of the small community “Hot” and the changes in residence status of the pastoralists in “Hot” and identified the current status of the settling of these pastoralists and the processes thereof. 1) With the establishment of the people's commune in 1958, “Hot” as the pastoral residential groups for nomads was organized and stabilized. 2) In the land being studied, with only a narrow land area and a small number of livestock, it appears that the ranching style, where collective houses and lands are jointly used in each “Hot” was established to effectively manage the division of lands and livestock. 3) Space compositions for “Hot” are based on the configuration that existed when they were nomads. With crowded buildings or influences of government policies, visible boarders which separate livestock or the boundaries of each household, appeared. 4) Space concepts for traditional yurt are used in the space composition for the stabilized residences. The space concepts are affected by the settling down process, the Han people and urban residences. New and old space concepts co-exist.
We clarified the following points in case of Touge village, Wajima city where is near to the hypocenter and has sustained great damage in the stricken area of Noto earthquake in March of 2007. 1. We clarified the characteristics of the spatial composition of Touge, consisting of about 300 houses, based on analysis of the neighborhood, the road pattern and site characteristics. 2. We clarified the characteristics of the reconstruction process and the rebuilding houses in Touge 3. We clarified the characteristics of the housing location, site planning, rebuilding houses and site use.
The city is so complicated that we can hardly describe its totality. The purpose of this study is to clarify how we perceive cities, and what we recognize there. We introduce the concept of modality in order to grasp the total phenomena between human and environment as the global meaning of cities. We conduct walkthrough experiments in Kyoto City, and ask subjects of those experiments to write down what they feel as it is. The results are as follows. 1) A theoretical model of urban modalities is constructed based on possible world semantics. 2) Urban modalities can be described and visualized based on the data of walkthrough experiments.
The purpose of this study is to develop a supporting system for choosing visiting area based on visualization of individual preferences. We performed to make the supporting map for choosing visiting area by following three steps. First, individual preferences on sightseeing were quantitatively extracted by AHP (analytic hierarchy process). Second, attractiveness of the area in the research zone was estimated. Finally, area attractiveness was visualized by kernel density estimation method. The maps were appreciated by the participants of the experiment which we carried out in Echigo -Tsumari Art Triennial site.
Appropriate buffer distance from a road to buildings, to judge if their lots are adjacent to the road whose width is equal to or more than 4 meters, is examined. A buffer distance is said to be optimal if judge error becomes minimum among all possible distance. The optimal buffer distance can be regarded proportional to the square root of average of gross lot size, where the proportional coefficient was found to be close to 0.35. Besides, by making a mathematical model, it is found that the optimal buffer distance is regarded as the average set back distance between roads perimeter and a frontage of a building.
High-rise housing buildings were first built approximately 40 years ago in Japan, and currently these buildings are old and deteriorated facing the need of repair. With this in mind, I believe there are more experience and cases of maintenance and renovation in America, primarily because of the longer history of high-rise housing buildings which stretches over 100 years. The intent of studying maintenance and renovation projects of high-rise housing buildings in America is not only to solve the problems in Japan now, but also to understand better for the future of high-rise housing buildings being built in Asia now. In this study, I investigate the method to sustain good quality resident environment within existent high-rise housing buildings. I try to analyze the maintenance and renovation process from technological and economical sides. The purpose of this study is to find the obstacle for extended maintenance, look for the appropriate countermeasure, combining hard and soft technologies.
This study aims to clarify the issues for developing the existent housing policy into the overall regional housing policy. This research targeted the local governments that execute housing policy for the elderly by collaborative policy between housing and welfare bureau like“Silver Housing Project”. The results are as follows; 1)There's a difference of recognizing about collaborative policy between housing and welfare bureau. 2)The effects of collaborative policy is limited, and the system to hold a continuous meetings among related bureaus is insufficient. In the future, the clarification of required collaborative purpose and the grasp of the actual conditions will be more important.
The space function is evaluated for the welfare facility reused a traditional farmer's house. The stable daily life base for old people has been formed by repairing the south side Japanese-style rooms in the functional training room and north side Japanese-style rooms in the lunchroom. The convenience that the rest room is available for at once is secured when the old people change the act in the functional training room and lunchroom, and the care by staff is easy to do. By setting up the sink and kitchen table in the lunchroom, the old people's voluntary help act has been induced in such cases as the preparation for lunch, preparation for tea and the cleanup after snack. During the summer vacation, old people and child's various interchange has being done around the functional training room and lunchroom, and it is evaluated as the trial that suggests the possibility of the interchange between the generation at the small scale multiple functions type facilities.
This research clarifies the process in which the drawings and paintings were introduced to the residential study on The Tale of Genji during the early modern period. In the early 19th century, Yukiyoshi Matsuoka extracted architectural terms from The Tale of Genji and produced the book, Gengo-Zu-Shou a collection of historical documents from the ancient times, which includes drawings and paintings from the Dai-Dairi-Zu-Koushyou. Matuoka also authored Genji-Ruijyu-Shyou, which included the drawings from Inkyu-Oyobi-Shitei-Zu. The production of the two books, Gengo-Zu-Shou and Genji-Ruijyu-Shyou, were made possible by Matsuoka's research on residential history during the ancient times.
By surveying village Sinto architecture with historical plaques of Simousa fief once a part of Chiba-ken, we can find out the activities of the sculptors represented as Takeda Juzaburo in the late Edo period. We are able to draw out our results by examining the materials as follows; Four sculptors named Takeda Juzaburo once lived in Yuuki, near the northern part of Kanto area, where some shrines have an extreme amount of wood-curving. They had spread the use of large amounts of wood-curving in shrines in the fief, and carved onto not only the panels used as decorative transoms but also entire wooden walls of shrine from 1806 to 1822.
The first Juraku-tyo was the first castle town where was built along with Jurakudai in Tensyo 14-18 (1586-90). Toyotomi government assembled the wealthy commonalty and ordered to inhabit in Juraku-tyo. The row houses were formed by intention of government and the financial power of commonalty. This paper is intended as an investigation of the row houses, which were found out in “Gosyo-sandai-Jurakudai-Gyoukou Screen”. It is clear that Toyotomi government intended to complete the row two-storied houses, which made the same eaves height.
The Principal Tower of Nagoya Castle was repaired on a large scale from 1752 to 1755. This paper evaluates and analyzes the Principal Tower based on historical drawings and specifications, which explain the repair of the main body of castle tower. The northern and the western parts of the first and the second layers on the top of the stone wall of the Principal Tower were dismantled before the stone wall was dismantled. Also, the builders cleverly applied a system of levers. Then the subsidence and the inclination of the Principal Tower were fixed logically and systematically using the system.
Stained glass are generally the most remarkable element in Modern Architecture. As some documents disappeared because of natural disasters and so on, the Japanese early stained glass had not studied. However, this time, some documents about the KIUCHIs were found and clarified the following. 1. Kiuchi Shintaro was one of the founders of the UNOZAWA GUMI Stained Glass Works. 2. A number of connections that Kiuchi had contributed to the development of UNOZAWA GUMI. 3. History of UNOZAWA GUMI in the era between the last half year of the Meiji and Taisho era.
This study focuses on documents from August 1958 that came before the first basic design plan for Twenty Six Martyrs Memorial by Kenji IMAI. Three starting points for the creation of the architectural project became clear. 1. Firstly, the memorial monument and memorial site were planned to be devided and the main construction site was to be on the east side of the existing road. For this purpose for the monument and memorial site being separated is that the purchasers were different. 2. The original design for the memorial monument was that of The catholic society for the fine arts, and IMAI designed his stone plinth monument holding these designs in high esteem while improving them further. 3. Lastly, even at the first stages of the project, IMAI had already thought of circling the space reciting the prayer of the rosary while imagining the twenty six martyrs on the road of suffering. This was the architectural theme.
It is said that the spread of stainless steel sinks is the eyeball of apartment housing that began in 1956 by Japan Housing Corporation. It is Japanese Housing and Urban Development Corporation who contributed to the nation wide spread of stainless steel sinks. This research is verified based on the patent office's data base “SHINKENCHIKU” and “Industrial arts news” of which contents of patent fillings on kitchens prior to the existence of stainless steel sinks. Such verification is an essential fact, serving as a prime example of technical improvement in post war days, much related to mass production.
This paper deals with Architect Kichijirou NISHIHARA and reveals his biographies and his architectural works. He was born in 1868 and graduated the Technical College in Tokyo. His career is divided four stages as follows.(1) He gained architectural experiences by practice at the site of the Prince Fusiminomiya house etc as an assistant and a draftsman. (2)(3) He became a staff of the building section of the prefectural office such as Fukuoka and Aichi. His role was quite big as an In-house architect. (4) After resignation from the Aichi prefectural office he set up the first architectural design office in Nagoya in 1917. He designed many buildings for local people.
Remains of ancient monuments at Koh Ker and Angkor are equally important for study on the Khmer architecture. It is the same for analysis of its architectural planning technique reconstructively. In this paper, we would like to examine scale and layout of the temple monuments at Koh Ker, firstly through analysis of dimensional planning of Prasat Pram, a small and simple temple situated in the southern end of the city. The purpose of this study is not only to clarify the planning method which realized this temple proper, but to find an important clue for considering that used throughout the site. The results reconfirm the construction measure we proposed in the previous paper, as well as reveal the features of scale and layout of the Khmer temples in Koh Ker.
This study deals with building types and spatial composition of town houses in the old Beijing city. The author's own field measurement results indicate that there are two types of buildings. By studying the urban structure (such as the skeleton of streets, block composition and subdivision) and various other social considerations (including the population, real estate activity, and house tax), and by using documentary and pictorial sources, the author concludes as follows. The first is a town house with posteriorly continuous ridges, built in dense commercial areas of small blocks. The second is a town house which also spreads back, but with courtyards in the middle. This courtyard-style was built in commercial areas with bigger blocks, facing onto arterial streets. In both cases, town houses, due to the location, expanded their shop area and created diverse spatial compositions. This study also shows that the first type originated with squatters taking over streets.
This paper deals with the relationship between Antoni Gaudí and Milà y Fontanals. The book of Ràfols, Gaudí, said that Gaudí was affected in aethetic of Milà, while he wrote the architectural theory, El manuscrit de Reus. We have to investigate about relationship between Milà and Gaudí to understand this. We found credibility of Ràfols' discourse. By checking about this aspect of other investigators, we found Milà were brothers, Pau and Manuel. This paper shows effection of Manuel Milà y Fontanals to Gaudí's architectural theory.
This study is intended to clarify the architect's vocabulary of Facade design in works of Kiyosi Seike focusing on the relationship between the proportion of windows, fenestration and the external form of elevation. Facades are defined by the composition of sites and buildings, and the expression of windows. The relationship between the proportions is analyzed on the similarity and the repetition of window form and division of window. As the result of classification, 10 types of proportional schemes of elevation are identified, and moreover by analyzing, these schemes are classified into 4 types of facade design. Analyzing the relationship between the date of completion and the proportional schemes, it is clarified that facade design is changed from the totality of proportion to the partiality and the synthesis by the expression of beams and columns.
This study is as for the role and in addition type of the traditional reinforcing metal of Korea using even now, concerning the reinforcing metal the fact that it tries inspecting this research verified the part where the reinforcing metal was used via the example where the reinforcing metal of present Korea building repair is used adopted metal reinforcement in some reason what method of using, is the purpose. Utilizing with the fundamental data of structural interpretation via the verification of this kind of structural defect, although the stability which is long-term the cultural assets and it presents the appropriate proposition which in the future confronts the management of retention there is the meaning.
The World Heritage site of the old town of Lijiang is composed of three areas: Dayan old town and Baisha and Shuhe housing clusters. As one of the important features characterizing the value of the site, the squares called Sifangjie are found in all three areas. Although the design and visual integrity of the traditional shop fronts facing onto the squares are very important conservation indicators, many of those in the Dayan old town and Shuhe Sifangjie squares have been modified to open-type shop fronts to accommodate modern commercial uses; however, in the Baisha Sifangjie square the traditional shop front design in the dominant window and door style -- the Pubanmen style -- still remains. This paper aims to describe the current situation and the changes in Baisha Sifangjie and to study the conservation of commercial building. This was done mainly by examining the commercial buildings and by conducting interviews with local residents.
The following aspects of stone arrangement are described in this paper. 1. A few names of type of stone arrangement described in the garden manuals in the medieval period appear in those written in modern times. “Sanzon” type is one of a few. 2. No correspondence was found between the dimensional speculations about Sanzon - type written in the manuals and the constructed remains in the strict sense. 3. Though the garden manuals do not intend to describe the dimensional system throughout the garden designs in general, they intend to set a couple of fixed design patterns for several types of stone arrangement including Sanzon - type by providing the dimensional speculations.
In this report I restricted the discussion to the selection of the castles for this consideration and to the basic consideration. I feel disappointed that any researchers couldn't fully understand the details of the all castles on the list, generally because in their investigation they only used the reports in the present generations or used the questionnaire to the present person in charge of cultural properties. I think that the researcher has to investigate historical documents of each castle carefully and directly, even if it is necessary to decrease the number of the castles.
The author defined Hiroshi SHOKEN's indication as follow. 1)Modern times is Momoyama (1573-1614) and Edo period(1615-1867) in Japan. 2)「haijyou」generally means「Ordinance of haijyou」in 1873, but the author adds meaning of changing something else in castle. Reviewed the results of Mr. SHOKEN pointed out the paper, where this is inadequate and certainly had inaccuracies. So, table1 of this paper has revised for the accuracy. However, by these, there is no necessity for revising the entire paper is not considered. Therefore, we concluded that the overall conclusions and this paper's point aren't changed by these. In the future, accepting points of Mr. SHOKEN, I wish carefully research from now on.