This research examines the longhouses of the Ibans who live in Sarawak, Malaysia. These longhouses are highly regarded by antropologist because of its atypical social structure. Bilik family is not related to matrilineal or patrilineal, where men and women has equal right to the bilik. This report clarifies the following points; firstly, the influence of the cycle of construction on the composition of the bilik. Secondly, further subdivision of the bilik family is done several years after the completion of the initial longhouse construction. Thirdly, the expansion to both sides of the longhouse will not occur if the upcoming construction of a new longhouse is near. At that time, the composition of bilik family expands and becomes more complicated.
This paper explores how the Mar Vista Tract in Los Angels has successfully maintained a balance of its original design and modified housing. For almost sixty years since its inception in 1948, Mar Vista Tract has maintained its harmonized appearance of a whole tract despite the extension works. This article examines the following two subjects: 1) the plan which was done by Gregory Ain and the present condition of his project; and 2) the adaptability of the original design to extensions.
This paper aims at clarifying the continuous relationship between residents in detached houses and reliable builders. Questionnaire surveys to the residents were used in three suburban housing areas. The following results were obtained: 1) Almost half of the residents keep the relationship with the builders which built their houses. And 80% of these builders have been considered to be reliable so far. 2) In both the time of the first home remodeling, and also 20 years after their houses' completion, 30% of these residents lose the relationship with the builders which built their houses. More than 60% of all these residents have made new relationship with the other reliable builders.
It is very important for young children to play in the kindergartens and the nursery schools as they represent a new social environment for children to maintain acquiring sociality, one that is different from home environment. In addition, the children undergo a process where they learn to collaborate as well as acquire more self-creative play through constructing play, enforcing the mutual behavior with each individuals in trial and error manner. This study aims to clarify relationship between play-environment and self-creative play by comparing with three-year-old and five-year-old children attending at the municipal kindergarten in Sapporo. As a result, three-year-old children acquire the play by sharing information which the teacher picks up and by collaborating new information picking up from speech and behavior by the teacher. On the contrary, five-year-old children aquaire the play by collaborating new information picking up from not only speech and behavior but also space and object. It shows that self-creative play is achieved through the means of picking up, collaboratively integrating with both new information obtain from space and object as well as speech and behavior.
In this study, the authors attempted to elucidate the museum visitor's behavior on the space experience exhibition that was the "House of the Leader of the Hachioji Guards" in the Edo-Tokyo Open Air Architecture Museum. The authors conducted the visitor's tracking survey and created the observational data. According to the result of analysis, the more effective way to exhibit the historical house was obtained. The authors proposed that after the visitor's experienced on the hands-on behavior, the voluntary interpreter should contact with and guide the visitor more detail of house building science and history of the house.
In the previous paper, we proposed the probability function model that could describe the possibility and probability that buildings would be demolished or would remain within a certain time interval. In general use of the proposed model, however, the age of each building was necessary for estimating the value of the probability. In this paper, considering the extended applications of the model, alternative usage of the model is proposed by using the concept of the average decrepitude of buildings, which can be estimated from the time series digital maps. The utility and the efficiency of the alternative method is demonstrated by some numerical examples based on the actual data of Tokyo.
This study aims at clarifying the effect of building and fire codes on conversion of closed elementary schools in Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe. The findings are summarized as follows. (1) Obligatory return of national subsidy for school construction prevents closed elementary schools from conversion. (2) Closed schools as administrative property are used by changed into out-of-purpose facilities. (3) Specific examples of difficulty in school conversion due to adapting existing building and fire codes are shown.
Recently, the area of wasting land, such as abandoned land, disposed refuse land, disposed material land, is increasing in suburban area. This background is the transformation of the occupation structure of resident. This paper clarify the occupation structure of resident, analyzing with varieties, locations of occupations and attribution of residents, categorizing residents in the viewpoints of the formations of agriculture. Especially, the birth of collateral families and the migrant experience of the first generation of families are connected with the increasing of construction companies by a family, which mainly caused wasting land in the settlement.
The purpose of this study is to consider the influences of community work on residents' life and the community. For this objective, 20 participants to activities of the community currency in a rural town were surveyed by means of interview. Some results show as follows: 1) In many cases, relationship is closer than before not only between requestor and offerer but also among offerers through the activity of the community currency. 2) Although requestors has mentally unwillngness and anxiety to ask, paying the membership fee even if it is small sum of money and having a nodding acquaintance with offerers ease requestors' mind and uneasiness. 3) Retirees are playing an important part to maintain an activity of the community currency. But on the other hand, it gives them an opportunity to display their abilities and contribute for the community.
This study aims to clarify the structure of population changes and actual circumstances of visitation for mutual aid in villages within urbanization control areas (UCAs) from a case study of Nagano City. Knowledge of this paper runs as follows: 1) There are 3 structual types of population changes in villages within UCAs. 2) Mechanism of population change in old families are clarified in both cases of population increase and decrease. 3) Difference of population change between villages is caused by superiority on dwelling comfortability in villages. 4) Visitation for mutual aid between within and outside villages are kept by visitors near their villages. In declined villlages this visitation supplements the loss of dairy service within a family.
This study aims to improve local ability of disaster prevention in neighborhood associations and makes following things clear by the questionnaire survey for neighborhood associations in Yokohama city 1) As characteristic of neighborhood associations established recently, character of a shared territorial bond become weak. 2) Neighborhood associations to be active usually make menu of local disaster management rich. 3) Extracting neighborhood associations with the small number of households, established recently or new development area constructed by condominiums as the targets to take measures for impoving local ability of disaster prevention.
This paper aims to acquire knowledge on evacuation behavior from inundation into underground space. We have developed an evacuation simulator that enables subjects to go through the emergency evacuation. Using this simulator, we conducted an evacuation experiment from the flooded basement floor. As a result, we got some knowledge that, for example, the escape routes of subjects who fail to evacuate varied widely. Especially, we find the key to analysis evacuation behavior when subjects have to go back in an accident.
The main findings of the study are summarised below. 1) In the target area of the Study, many districts show a unique population density curve of an "increment type" or a "wave type". It is understood that these curves originate from several causes, including (i) the supply of housing taking the form of "discretional supply" where individual landowners have the discretion to supply or not to supply them and (ii) moderate land use regulations in these districts compared to the originally planned population density in that a number of wide areas have been uniformly designated as various non-low rise housing zones with less strict regulations on the purpose of land use. 2) Under the regime of the discretionary supply of housing, there has been the vigorous construction of private sector apartment houses of which the floor area ratio is increased to the permitted maximum in pursuit of the maximum profit. This trend has been more prominent in those districts where the receptability to apartment houses is high due to fewer restrictions under the designated land use. This type of housing development has accelerated the process of producing a higher population density which has greatly diverted from the originally planned population density.
There has been a lot of research on and release of commercial systems that enable evaluation and visualization of alternate construction methods. These have enabled the selection of good construction plans. However, the process in which engineers build 3D geometry, formulate a schedule and eventually synchronize them is still a time-consuming process. Changing any aspect of the geometry or the schedule and re-linking them is also time-consuming. Therefore, the engineers may compromise on getting the best solution. This paper describes a technique to automate the generation of multiple sets of schedules, quantity takeoffs and 4D visualization from a single 3D model.
The purpose of this research is to show guidelines for the improvement of 2K-type housing. The characteristics of the lifestyle of aged-person households before the improvement of 2K-type housing are reported in this research. In the case of one-person households, many of these sole occupants spend most their time in the one room. The research revealed that the amount and size of the furniture, as well as the characteristics of frequent visitors, influence people's room function identification: the room with most large furniture tends to be selected as the main room, or reception room. One-person households tend to use just the one room for all daily activities and another for accommodating guests: when there are no guests, this other room converts back to an under-utilized room or else storage room.
The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the traditional wooden houses can be applied to the current housing market. Based on the data, The authors analyzed the housing rental contract formats, room renovation costs and methods, also the lifestyle of the tenants who are living in the renovated houses. The analysis discovered: 1) The format of long-term housing rental contracts is valid and applicable to the current housing market. 2) In terms of what to renovate, updating the kitchen and toilet, and interior re-design were mainly focused on, however, the reinforcement of insulation and earthquake proof system isn't seriously considered. 3) Although housing renovation is restricted to budgetary concerns and the existent structure, they are still able to meet the tenants' lifestyle demands.
In the PFI project, the public body is the owners. And, a Special Purpose Company (SPC) is selected by the competitive tendering. The public body orders the building performance to the SPC. However, the SPC orders a detailed design and construction due to the contract. Therefore, it is uncertain whether owner's intention is surely reflected. In this paper, the one to reconsider the meaning of the monitoring from the standpoint of the owner support, and to present the technique of a new monitoring.
The four folding screens illustrated around Shuri and Naha in the Early Modern Age have two types of traditional dwelling, Nukiya and Anaya, distinctive of Okinawa prefecture. Special perspective is applied to these screens. We can easily distinguish Nukiya and Anaya on these screens according to their characteristics and illustrated areas. Nukiya may derive from the detached palace or the samurai residences. But the difference in city planning between Ryukyu Dinasty and Edo, Japan may suggest the original evolution of Nukiya.
The purpose of this report is to clarify the reasons that the carpenters who get together in the village and the forms during the Edo-Era. They are carpenters who mainly worked away from home rather than in their hometown. I tried to explain the actual conditions from the backgrounds and factors of origination and the ratio of carpenters.
Just before the establishment of the Housing Corporation, Department of Social Welfare in Ministry of Health and Welfare hold a conference to make 'the designing standards for housing and its surroundings.' First proposal had several ideas. One was to propose house types following family members. But it was denied in the conference. And the corrected 'the designing standards for housing and its surroundings' were presented without reference plans. Then the Housing Corporation made the standard plans. But it made a big mistake. It adopted figures by meter to plans by "shaku." After all the Housing Corporation couldn't receive the important ideas by Department of Social Welfare in Ministry of Health and Welfare.
In the course of the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, diplomatic relations and trades with foreign countries were assured only through foreign settlements formed in the heart of the country in East Asia. Soryo Wakan was the biggest Japanese colony to house the Japanese diplomatic mission and traders in Korea. Wakan means Japanese Pavilion literally, but the reality of this Wakan exceeded much the scale of single architecture. Since Soryo Wakan was closed in the second half of the nineteenth century, the site of this settlement grew rapidly as the downtown of Pusan, which was the first port open to foreign countries in modern Korea. The field survey of the site as well as the analysis of historical documents, which were newly found both in Korea and in Japan, enabled to reconstruct the architecture of Wakan.
In the latter part of the 18th century, the researches on Indian Culture by the Asiatick Society, which was basically the subject of Sanskrit and its Literature. What this position secured is the discovery of the so-called "Indian-European". The members of the Society interpreted, what we understand Buddhistic, Hindu and Jain Architecture in India were built by Gentoo (or Hindu) in the ancient times, contrasted former times with reality. Such reading are reflected their views which they understood the history of Indian Architecture by the Sanskrit Literature.
The present paper attempts to reveal the theoretical basis of Bramante's architectural practice, using Ernst Cassirer's interpretation of the philosophical thought of Leonardo da Vinci. Cassirer claims that Leonardo's theoretical accomplishment lies in the new concept of the 'necessity of nature'. Leonardo considers that nature is governed by the immanent and unbreakable laws, which are not detectable through a mere accumulation and comparison of sensible experiences, so that the spontaneity of the mathematical understanding is indispensable for uncovering those qualities of nature that bring forth the objectively beautiful. Given that Bramante came into frequent contact with Leonardo in Milan, it is probable that he adopted this theory for architectural practice and developed a universally valid design method.
This paper shows the concept of the economics of housing in Tange lab. Uzo Nishiyama, who studied public housing project under general mobilization, discussed "conceptive standard cost of living". This idea had been based on housing model for labors (nLDK) and minimum standard cost of living. But Kenzo Tange proposed "realistic standard cost of living", which had been based on wealthy person and corresponded to price variation. Tange emphasized the impact of housing industry to economics in Japan, and considered the residence the base of recreation. His idea matched System linkage of Talcott Parsons, and developed the standard residence of Japan into national land planning.
This is a study on the exhibition project "Violated Perfection: the Meaning of the Architectural Fragment" in the Gallery 400, College of Architecture, Art and Urban Planning, The University of Illinois at Chicago and its background. The purpose of this research is that will make investigation into the truth about the reason that they used a word "Fragment" in the epoch, the relationship between the word and a word "Violated Perfection", and what happened in The University of Illinois at Chicago, and that place the credit of two architects, Paul Florian and Stephen Wierzbowski, in Chicago for the exhibition project on architectural history. No exhibition "Violated Perfection: the Meaning of the Architectural Fragment" in The University of Illinois at Chicago was ever held, as they could not get the financial support to make it happen. Consequently, "VIOLATED PERFECTION Architecture and the Fragmentation of the Modern" was published as a book, authored by Aaron Betsky, from a concept developed by them. At a later time, MoMA held the exhibition "DECONSTRUCTIVIST ARCHITECTURE" based on the exhibition project "Violated Perfection", by Philip Johnson and Mark Wigley. However, Florian and Wierzbowski are not well known in the world. The credit of this two architects should be appreciated all over the world.
The intention of this paper is to make a thematic explication of Aldo van Eyck's architectural thought through his treatises titled "steps towards a configurative discipline." The analysis consists of three chapters as follows: Chapter 2 explicates his key concept of "place" and analyzes the structure of "a bunch of places" with reference to "Gestalt." Chapter 3 illustrates the multiplications of "twinphenomena" by way of "configuration." In Chapter 4, through analyzing his method of "repetition", it is explicated that he intends to realize a multimeaning of house and city as man's "home-realm."
The aim of this study is to clarify the character of architectural space as information in the "Complete works of Le Corbusier". Firstly, space and elements in the architectural photographs, and their relations were analyzed. Secondly, hierarchical compositions of photographs showing each built work were defined, according to the size of photographs. In almost every built work, expressions of spatial images in architecture transferred to informational space were observed, to be concerning with "external form", "room", or "roof garden", in particular. In the conclusion, some information were made clear to be representations of architectural composition in informational space, reflecting Le Corbusier's architectural thoughts and tendencies in each age.
This study is intended to clarify the architect's vocabulary of Facade design in residential works of Kiyosi Seike focusing on elements of elevation and interior use. Facade is analyzed by defining the composition of site and house, and the pattern of opening. The way to compose the elements of elevation is analyzed in relation to the symmetrical and the asymmetrical property of such elements. As the result of classification, 10 types of compositional schemes of elevation are identified, and moreover by analyzing in relation to interior use as living room, these schemes are classified into 3 types of Facade design. Analyzing the relationship between facade design and the placement of living room, it is clarified that he considered living room as a focal point in designing houses throughout his career.
The aim of this paper is to clarify how the urban space of the Central Seoul, especially the Jong-Ro area and Kwoang-Hwoa-Mun District, was changing during the middle and later colonial period. Newspapers and official records of the Governor-General of Chosen are the primary materials. The analysis consists of 2 distinct dimensions: (1)the beginning of urban planning and the process of its change (2) the repair of roads in those districts. The analysis shows following conclusions. (1) From the middle colonial period, the urban planning projects were carried out in Seoul based on the urban policy, whereas the Ordinance for Street Planning in Chosen and those urban planning projects had almost nothing to do with each other. (2) The urban planning meant the road repair planning at that time.
Throughout the changes of cement manufacturing techniques in the Meiji and Taisho eras, the history of Onoda Cement Corporation, the resources and material left with them were examined in order to find out a part of Japan's modernization. The material includes the transition of the amount of cement, manufacturing process, energy cost, operating term etc. according to the change of kiln types between 1883 and 1923. The following findings were obtained: 1) Although the cement manufacturing process in bottle kilns, batch system, was consisted of 1) filling raw materials into the kiln, 2) firing, and 3) taking cement clinker out of the kiln, there was not precise manufacturing process in Dieztsch's ones and the revolving ones which systems were continuous. 2) While the operating cycle of Bottle kilns was about ten days, Dieztsch's ones run approximately half a year. Rotary ones paused four days a month for mechanical repairs in 1912. 3) By the end of the Taisho era, along with the changes of firing kiln, the cement manufacturing productivity increased sixty times, and the labor productivity for each person improved rapidly seven times as those of the establishment. 4) The fuel and labor cost accounted for a majority of all the manufacturing cost. 5) The manufacturing capacity, the productivity, and the cost were improved with the times.
When the current state of the SHIN-SUI space (space for familiarity with water) in the waterfront areas in Japan is seen, it is rather difficult to say that characteristics of the ocean are sufficiently utilized, because fountains and watersplashing ponds, namely space arrangements that can be effective even in non-waterfront areas, are formed. In this research, therefore, we take note of the Japanese Park Planning System-a base for improvements of Japanese parks-to propose desirable methods for improving parks through utilization of the ocean in a way not seen in places other than the waterfront area. We will also clarify changes in the role of waterfront areas. Based on the results of such efforts, further, tasks for improving the present Park Planning System in a way limited to the waterfront area through the use of oceanic characteristics will be revealed.
The purpose of this paper is to provide the method for the classification of liking for space by using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The preference data consisted of the replies given to a sensibility evaluation test carried out on architectural designers and students regarding several exhibition spaces. SOM includes a two-dimensional visible system which allowed us to analyze the multivariate data. By using SOM, we were able to create a map reflecting the characteristics of the exhibition spaces. In this case the pattern of the preference data was easily understood by visual analysis. Liking for space deduced from this data was classified into six categories according to the spatial characteristics of seven types of favorite exhibitions.