This study deals with the internal configuration of unit plans in super-highrise condominiums as well as its relation to the building types. First, using an adjacency graph, we categorized unit plans into three types; livingroom-connected type, intermediate type and corridor-connected type. Through a empirical study, we found substantial amount of livingroom-connected type in super-highrises exists more than in non-super-highrise condominiums. Second, we clarify that the tendency is depended on the building types of super-highrise apartments. We also discuss the influence of the area on the unit type and the identify the typical unit plan of livingroom-connected type.
This study clarified utilization pattern of outside common space by visit hearing investigation to 2,226 persons (988 families) with extracted 3 housing estates that have “outside common space of the connecting-core type” build in 1970s, 1980s, 1990s public housing estates in Taipei city. Analysis items are “utilization rate”, “utilization pattern”, “act contents”, “utilization time”, “utilization frequency”, and “utilization place”. We analyzed according to sex / age / dwelling area. The conclusions are as following: 1. Utilization rate is very high and utilization pattern is various. 2. As residents become old, utilization is more active. 3. There is a utility graduation between the large core and some small cores.
We made a hearing investigation to residents besides alleys in Higashiyama area, Kyoto city, about the experiences of criminal damages and how they think about security of alleys. As results, residents besides alleys feel uneasy about earthquakes and fires, but they feel easy about criminal acts. Characteristics of the alleys with which residents can feel ease highly are followings: 1. possible to flee for safety in two directions, 2. possible to recognize entrances, 3. residents associate on the terms of neighbors. We found a tendency that the residents of new houses besides an alley which have a certain width or without barriers, and less association with neighbors, are easily damaged by criminal acts.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the usefulness of public housing estate for ‘new commers’. The result of field surveys in Ichyo public housing estate and analysis are as follows; 1) By using environment both inside housing estate and in the suburbs, foreigners can gain many opportunities to meet someone, buy, or eat something. 2) “Tatami” is unsuitable for foreigners and covered by plastic film or rugs. It is necessary to let foreigners understand the japanese traditional style of living. 3) There is much customization in an apartment, for example, many walls painted blue or white by foreign residents and curtains fixed instead of Japanese sliding doors. In case a household having only children less than 15 years old, the apartment is used as one space. But, if it has a child over 15 years old, a room is assigned to him. And, living, dining, and kitchen are set to spaces following the lifestyle of residents.
The purpose of this study is to show that the method of zoning an open shelf floor with a popular library area is more reasonable and effective at public libraries. According to this method an open shelf floor is divided into two zones at public libraries. One is an “active zone” which consists of a popular library area with a children's book area, a newspaper and magazines' area and an AV materials' area. The other is a “quiet zone” which consists of other adults' book area with a reference area. A research on the method of zoning an open shelf floor at public libraries shows that adult book users tend to use not only books but also magazines. We call this tendency a multipurpose use. There are two methods of collecting popular library books. Whether multipurpose users use adults' books or popular library books depends on them. One is the method of talking parts of many divisions in NDC out of adults' book, and the other is that of collecting most of specific classes in NDC. In the former, many of multipurpose users use both adults' book in a quiet zone and popular library book in an active zone, but in the latter, many of multipurpose users use either of them.
This study tried to analyze the effectiveness on the quality of private room in group home for the elderly with dementia, by the classification for 4types on the base of residents from the view of spending time and frequency to go back to their private rooms. As the result, formation of the base in their living caused not only by the characteristics belonging to residents themselves (physical conditions, terms of residency, kind of disease etc.), but also by the quality of private room in other words the spatial condition too.
The purpose of this study is to clarify changes in user evaluation before and after making a railway station accessible environment. The findings are summarized below: 1) The level of user-friendly satisfaction was raised regardless of user attribute by improving accessibility. 2) Concerning elements of access features, ‘satisfied’ evaluation of almost all features were increased soon after the improvement project completed. However some features changed its evaluation from ‘satisfied’ to ‘average’ as time passed. 3) Comprehensive evaluation of the railway station consist of four factors, such as ‘Safety ’, ‘Clear information’, ‘Accessible pass of travel’ and ‘Toilet’. Comprehensive evaluation is greatly influenced by ‘Accessible pass’ among four factors.
This study experimentally examined the effects of spatial environment and the layout of a conference room on creativity. It also provides the results of psychological evaluation of brainstorming groups with the aim of determining favorable characteristics of a conference room for brainstorming. The study included 30 subjects who were divided into six groups of five people each. Each group brainstormed in two rooms; the first room had a standard layout for all teams, and the second room had six different layouts, including the standard one, for each team. Three of the six groups (hereafter called, G I), started from Room 2, and the other three groups (G II) started from Room 1. After a ten-minute brainstorming session for each team, the subjects were evaluated psychologically. Three correlative psychological factors were determined for the brainstorming groups, and psychological evaluation showed different factor loadings and features in several evaluations for each room. It was found that the spatial environment and layout affect each factor, and a significant difference was found in the number of ideas generated for the standard layout between the two rooms because of the effects of spatial environment. In addition, the changes of personal space affected by physical environment contribute to opposing tendencies between G I and G II with regard to choice of favorable/unfavorable layout for brainstorming.
In the near future, there will be several types of the leading robots that lead us a way to a destination in our daily life spaces. Some experiments were conducted in order to clarify the characters behaviors of human in follow-walking after leading robots in a real corridor. Following results were obtained. 1) The distance to the robots were kept in from 900 to 1100(mm). And 2) Subjects tended to gaze at the short size robot (300mm height) more frequently than the middle size one (600mm height). 3) When the leading speed is lower (0.34m/s), subjects tended to gaze at the short size robot (300mm height) more frequently than the tall size one (900mm height). 4) The characteristic fixation pattern was found that was gazing at the midair area above the head of the robots.
This study aims to grasp characteristics on cognition against spatial structure of volumes with random layout by the sketch map analysis of the treatment center for mentally disturbed children in Date, Hokkaido. This building designed by Sou Fujimoto Architects is awarded some architectural prizes. We made two hypotheses from sketch maps of visiting experiment; (1) cognition on spatial structure as a whole could be related to acquiring perception of opening toward outside between volumes, (2) in case developing cognition on the repetition of volumes is not enough, the property of rooms as "Figure" will weaken. As a result of the verification analysis by computer graphic simulations, it has become clear that both of rooms and spaces between rooms in cognition would be reversed as "Figure" and "Ground" each other on spatial structure of volumes with random layout.
Major of the research is to clarify the process of formation and transformation of Tai house in Mekong Basin, especially in Laos and northeast region (Isan) of Thailand. The purpose of this research is to clarify the spatial formation and transformation of Tai-Lao house at Ban Paksy village, Luangprabang in Laos. Base on the previous research of Luangprabang by Sophie Clement-Charpentier and Pierre Clement, this research tries to analyze the spatial characteristics of houses at Ban Paksy Village in Luangprabang by the field survey. It is one of the main issues of the research to explain the space order of site plan and house plan that the inhabitants has succeeded. This paper classifies the house plans into several types and describes the basic type and its variation. The authors suggest that Tai-Lao dwelling and the way of life has been gradually changed from the past and symbolism of spaces has weakened according to the change in the way of behavior and the way of recognizing space by the people.
This paper is focused on the actual state of care prevention in Sweden that enables the elderly to stay at home. The results are as follows; 1. The service of care prevention in Sweden is based on two points. One is to make residential environment appropriately in order to keep living at home. The other is to relieve lonely elderly people with contact with community. 2. There are some support services for care-giver so that the cared elderly people keep living at home. For example, Commune sends a home-helper in order to make free time for care-giver. This free time is available for care-givers gathering and talking about their problems. 3. Every elderly people are permitted to use Meeting place free regardless their physical condition. 4. In Sweden, it has been considered that the welfare work for elderly people should be carried out publicly. But recently, human resources like family or volunteer come to use for welfare work because of increasing elderly people.
This article deals with the development of the farmer-painting village in Shanghai in China and the regional structure of evaluation to the townscape creation. The results are as follows. 1. About the regional structure of evaluation, people who have the relations with tourism in daily lives tend to give a good evaluation about tourism. Not the span of residence but the daily relation to the tourism is necessary for the evaluation. 2. It was clarified that the new townscape, which created by the touristic development, can get the evaluation of the local people. In order to involve the cultural meaning on the townscape creation, it is needed that giving cultural value by the activity. 3. It is necessary to make the best use of the spatial characterization created by the touristic development in the relation to the living space.
In this paper, we tried to classify resettlement after natural disasters from the view point of continuity of household-relationship and owner/user-relationship of housing site before and after housing relocation. Firstly, we tried to develop a framework to analyze resettlement by household-relationship and owner/user-relationship of housing site. Secondly, in order to certificate the effectiveness of the framework, we tried to apply the framework to the case of resettlement of 66 households in the settlement called "Watta" in Weligama, Sri Lanka after the Sumatra earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004. As the result of this analysis we found 3 typical types of resettlement and found out characteristics and issues of each type.
Wajima City Monzen town Touge is maintaining the number of households though is one of the mountainous village regions where depopulation and aging become problems. The factor that the senior citizen keeps residing in the village includes the existence of the senior citizen support network. In the senior citizen support network, two or more things etc. by the relative by the one, the one by the friend, and the welfare commissioner exist. The environment that the senior citizen lives easily is made because two or more support networks accumulate, and the residence of an aged home is continued.
The townscape formation of the historic port town of Levuka was analyzed on the aspects of history, town structure and landscape structure to clarify the characteristics and the values of Levuka town. The results showed that the historic characteristics of the town is that the town was formed through prehistoric age, beachcomber, missionary, Fiji Rush, the capital and copra trading period and the elements which constructing the town structure and the townscape are remaining in the town as the evidences of the history. The characteristics of the town structure is that the structure is different from other planned and planted towns in terms of its disordered town structure including areas related to native villagers which are non geometrical and other areas related to European settlement which tend to be geometric. The characteristics of the townscape structure is that one or two storey shops with gable roofs are built along the coastal road and the church with clock tower built in the middle of shops, with setback from the road gives a variation to the streetscapes and one storey houses with hipped roofs and verandahs are built on hill side covered with green. The group of public buildings in the center of the town also gives characteristics to the town. The value of Levuka town is that the town structure which was formed as results of exchanges and negotiations between native villagers and Europeans are inherited, elements constructing the town structure and the townscape which are the evidence of the history of the town formed through disordered construction in early stage and the city infrastructure construction in colonial period, and of the town which have kept its character as a port town through all periods are inherited, and properties which are the evidences of the history from prehistoric age to modern age are inherited.
This study is to grasp the law regulations situation in Ryukyu world heritages' buffer zone area and its surrounding area, and the activities taken out by local autonomy and the potential problems in the heritages area's landscape preservation. Also, taking Shuri castle, Nakagusuku castle and Seifa utaki areas as study cases, this study investigates into the actual building conditions and development trends of the three areas and tries to figure out what kind of influence has been caused to the landscape formation of the areas. Finally try to find a way to solve the existing and potential problems in the world heritage buffer zone and its surrounding area's landscape preservation and formation.
My reseach aims to elucidate the circumstances and significance of the reconstruction of castle towers in the period preceding the Second World War. This paper covers the reconstruction of two castle towers on ruins dating from the early-modern period. The early-modern castles at Hachiman and Ueno had no castle towers. The reconstructed castle towers built on their ruins were constructed of wood, and great care was given to the design of their layout and their external appearance. In both cases the impressive spectacle presented by the reconstruction built using modern construction techniques was accepted by the local communities.
This study aims to clarify the transition of inferior urban habitations in Changchun City from 1997 to 2007. The main purpose of this study, which was conducted in 1997, was to clarify the distribution and types of inferior habitations. The result showed that there were many vast slum-like habitations with an area of more than 50 ha, and there were four types of habitations. A study conducted in 2007 clarified the transition in the types of habitations in the preceding ten years. The result shows that the number of inferior habitations decreased drastically, while sprawling areas and urban villages in the marginal areas increased proportionately.
In this study, firstly by gathering and analyzing previous studies, the development process of accommodation function of the livable Happy Farmhouse in Zhuzhou City was reviewed with its characteristics being summarized. Secondly, by practicing an on-spot investigation, the current situation of the livable happy farmhouse in this area was studied. Thirdly, by carrying out a consciousness survey of overnight visitors, views about the accommodation conditions in the Happy Farmhouse were collected. Based on the classification of the Happy Farmhouse and by analyzing the points of view from different visitor groups, charms and problems were determined. At the end of this paper, suggestions for the improvement of the living conditions in the Happy Farmhouse were discussed.
This research is a study on the effect of estimating price of the scenic views in the super-high-rise residence. The effect at the year since construction is considered by targeting of the newly-built selling in the-high-rise residence, and the numerical value of a relative standard is calculated on an azimuth, views from the room, natural elements, and the building things etc. Finally, as for the view synthesis chart, value from the scenic views from the room is evaluated. The value of the scenic views is able to be clarified in the process of the design stage, and the rights to landscape will be protected in the future by the security of the value.
The purpose of this research is to analyze the Relation Design built in the traditional townscapes in Kyoto from semiotic viewpoints. We make a code of townscapes in Kyoto based on the systemic grammar and construct a database of townscapes using CLOS. The results are as follows; 1) Systemic codes of townscapes are constructed based on the field surveys in Torimoto and Fushimi-Minamihama districts 2) Townscapes can be described as the network of signs selected from the limited number of signs in the systemic code. 3) It is possible to analyze relation designs in the townscapes based on the database.
Historic Conservation Easement Program (HCEP) is used for preserving historic buildings in U.S. from 1970s. If the conservation easements on historic buildings are donated in perpetuity to a charitable organization who aims a historic conservation, land owners of those buildings can get a charitable contribution as a federal income tax deduction. In order to introduce HCEP like conservation program into Japan, there are three subjects such as to establish an “conservation easement”, to establish a tax deduction system, and to design a flexible system which can custom-made by local conservation organizations.
This case study of shelter for domestic violence survivors managed by Non Profit organization “shelter M” in A prefecture, aims to understand the utilization of housing subsidy for survivors. Using housing subsidy, supporters can focus on survivors' prioritized factors, such as children's school districts, working place, hospital, and support them to secure housing in their desired area. On the other hand they can assist survivors who can't be independent move into the appropriate facilities. The present result suggested that the effects of housing subsidy are: 1) It is easier to secure permanent housing, 2) It is possible to select available housing in the desired residential area, 3) rational to secure permanent housing to take requirement for social security service.
This study aims to understand single mother households' housing situation including housing tenure, minimum housing standard and housing expense to income ratio in Tottori prefecture, Osaka prefecture and Osaka city. In conclusion the housing condition in Tottori prefecture (rural area) is better than Osaka prefecture or Osaka city (urban area) however compare to general households single mothers'owner occupation rate is lower and the living space is smaller,. Moreover the housing condition gap between single mothers and general households is much larger than urban area.
We attempt to measure energy conservation effect of investment executed after building completion; i.e. investment in mending, repair or renewal. The effect is statistically estimated by means of cross sectional regression analysis, about a little more than one hundred samples of rental office buildings actually working in Tokyo area. In the regression model, energy expenditure variation is assumed to be controlled by revenue variation and investment. The energy conservation effect of investment is estimated as the coefficient of investment in the model. In this analysis, we also consider the influence of scale and age of buildings.
This paper explores the stratification of residential property assets among increasing numbers of older households. Empirical evidence was obtained from re-calculating the micro-data from the National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure. The paper looks at the tendency of economic conditions relating to home ownership to become more stratified. Elderly people with lower incomes tend to live in owner-occupied houses with lower property values while those with higher incomes own houses with higher property values. Moreover, higher-income elderly households more often possess a second property that produces rental incomes. The pronounced disparity of home ownership conditions among older people will arguably create destabilizing socio-economic effects.
The repair and the renovation of lease office buildings are often changed from the initial master plan because condition of the material and equipment varies along with the environment and the circumstance. When the time to repair or renovate some parts of the building comes, the decision making can be classified into 2 patterns according to the categories of the owners. One is those who intend to hold buildings for long term, another is those who invest to real estate for revenue. The model of the decision making by these 2 kinds of owners is developed based on data of real lease office buildings in Tokyo under a property manager. The model can be also used to forecast owners' decision making of the repair and the renovation of lease office buildings.
The aim of this research is to identify the root causes of dissatisfaction among students regarding outdoor rest areas, by applying this method to a certain university as part of a case study for the introduction of “Environmental Evaluation of Outdoor Rest Areas”. As a result of the application of this method, it was found that in terms of the “Provisioning” of outdoor rest areas, a high level of importance is placed on “Conditions of Location”, and that students also place importance on whether or not the outdoor rest area is “close to a store” or “close to the canteen”. It was also identified that in terms of the “Desired Equipment” in outdoor rest areas, the existence of a “bench” or a “garbage bin” is viewed as important when evaluating outdoor rest areas. In this research, we also clarified the “Desired Equipment” requiring prioritized improvement for each of the “Conditions of Location” when conducting improvements of outdoor areas.
The purpose of this study is to clarify factors concerning the durability of buildings. The processes of this study are :distributing questionnaires concerning demolished buildings to the members of JBMA ;comparing the factors of this survey with the factors of the former survey;analyzing the impact that the factors for demolished buildings affect the reasons of demolition. The main results from this study are as follows. 1)The specific year that effective building age is more than 30 years and the number of completion is large,has the large number of demolished buildings. 2) Buildings are not torn down just because they are old. On the other hand, prominent stains of buildings will be a good reason for teardown.
From the view point of relationship with space composition and the usage of space, this paper aims at evaluating the space function of the welfare home reused a wooden house. This house satisfies the scale requirement for the welfare home to be the large one-story house of floorage 228 m2. The composition of rooms connected in the veranda corridor should make the use change of the space by the slight improvement possible with securing the independence of the room. It is pointed out as the terms of building that realized the space composition as the welfare home. The act in veranda space to look at the Japanese garden is induced by the improvement design that leaves the atmosphere of tradition house, and the point that can become the home feeling the dearness of wooden house for the old people is important. It is the part left as the subject of improvement plan about securing of the homogeneous heat environment of the building, the dispersion of the office work space and the shortage of the passage width. These are spatial terms of restriction of the use change by the improvement of existent building if the existence of the upper limit of improvement cost is taken into consideration.
Three Kigo Families (Harima, Jinzaburou, and Sakudayuu Family) were members of Carpenters in the Imperial Palace at Kinri. In the early of Edo period, Harima worked as a permanent chief carpenter. However, at 1774 (Anei era 3), Harima was discharged a permanent job position at Kinri. Instead of Harima, Jinzaburou and Sakudayuu were hired as permanent chief carpenters at Kinri. At 1788 (Tenmei era 8), Harima participated in building of Dairi in the Kansei era for drawing plans of the Imperial Palace.
It is the following points to become clear about the machine sawing by Glover. The advertisement of the machine sawing by Glover was carried at first by English newspapers, next, translated into Japanese newspaper and reprinted. There were already errors when the article carried by "The Japan Times" was reprinted in Japanese newspaper. It is June 30 from February 26, 1866 issue at least that an advertisement of Glover was carried by English newspapers. The power was steam by coal and a vertical saw, a circular saw and a plane, a gimlet were put in the lumber mill.
This paper deals with the thoughts of architect Hendrik Petrus Berlage on Dutch modern architecture. The previous researches show that what characterises the thoughts of Berlage is its diversity, which includes inclination to social-democracy, ideal of gemeenschapskunst, emphasis on sachlichkeid, acceptance of normalisation and further on. It would be necessary to clarify the momentum of his thoughts, how those thoughts got mixed, and also the relationship among them. Such a research, however, through the consideration of the discours of Berlage is not seen in the previous researches. Thus, the goal of this writing is to formulate such diversified thoughts of Berlage, to find an underlying element, and to present a comprehensive vision of the architectural thoughts of Berlage. We will clarify that Berlage's thoughts on architecture had been based upon the principle of "algemeenheid", around which the subsequent thoughts of social-democracy, gemeenschapskunst, sachlichkeid and normalisation had been centred.
The aim of this study is to clarify the rhetoric of integration on deformed roof shape in Japanese contemporary houses. When a house is built, “regular shape” can be used in a large site, but “deformed shape” must be used along the limits of small sites and in dense areas. With the deformed roof there is a possibility for s dynamic conflict between the rule of the basic roof shape and the possibility of each specific condition. In this study, the roof shapes are analyzed in terms of certain roof components: eaves, ridge, pitch of the roof, also, by surveying houses with the shed-roof deformation, the gable roof, the pyramidal roof and the hipped roof are considered. As a result, roof deformation are defined by the combination of the deformed parts. Thus the rhetoric of integration on deformed roof shape is revealed through the comparison of the each character beyond the basic roof form.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the spatial composition of Short Scroll of Landscapes and Long Scroll of Landscapes drawn by Sesshu. We divided these long handscrolls into mountainous scenes and horizontal ones, and these were classified into five types based on an analysis of spatial composition. Through the comparison of two handscrolls, the followings were made clear: 1) the fundamental composition of both scrolls shows strong resemblance. 2) Long Scroll of Landscapes has more contrasted composition between mountain and horizontal scenes, and more systematic construction of four seasons.
In this study, we performed static horizontal loading tests with a 1/10 model of a traditional wooden three storied pagoda by changing the weight of the model. We obtained the following results from this test. •The weight of the model affects characteristics of deformation and restoring force against horizontal load. •When the weight of the model is 1/100 of the full scale, restoring force is greater and more dissipative than that of the other conditions of the weight, and the model bent like a bow. •When the weight of the model is about 1/400, 1/1000 of the full scale, restoring force is smaller than that of the above, and the model tilted like a rigid body. And in accordance with old documents about a restoration of a pagoda after earthquake, we pull down diagonally the Sorin, which is the prolonged central post above the topmost roof of the pagoda. By this lording, the Roban, which is the bottom of the Sorin, deformed, and the Tokyougumi of the top story, which is the capital supporting the eave, also deformed.
Today, most of architectures are designed homogeneous, and their facade tends to be monotonous. However, architectures including the element of fluctuation came to be seen in the work of recent architects. This paper aims systematizing algorithms which enable the automatic generation of the various fluctuating façade design by mathematical technique, and considering its possibility as the design support. Study is advanced in the following procedures. 1.create the systems which generate the representative facade of fluctuating architecture design automatically. 2.classify about the generation method of the fluctuating architecture facade design. 3.generate fluctuating pattern automatically based on a classification result.