The purpose of this study is to make clear the relation between the shape of balcony and acoustical properties under the overhang, and ultimately to derive a design criteria for balcony configuration in auditoria. On the assumption that a physical change of sound field caused by building a balcony would be primarily a reduction of the reflected energy from upside, directional characteristics of early reflections afe measured in auditoria both with and without a balcony. And the subjective effectof reflections arriving from upside on auditory envelopment is psycho-acoustically examined in this paper. The conclusions are as follows : (1) The results of measurement show that the ratio of vertical component to total early reflection energy is extremely small under the overhang. (2) Auditory envelopment becomes weaker as the vertical component of reflected energy decreases when lateral energy fraction is constant. These results suggest that the lack of early reflections from ceiling above main orchestra causes the peculiarity of directional distribution of reflections, and consequently disturbs good acoustics under the balcony.
The results of two experiments in terms of the subjective response to the changes in brightness on the desk with time and that to changes in the illuminance by on-off switching control of artificial light are reported together with a proposal of artificial lighting control for constant brightness sensation. The sensation against the change in brightness can be interpreted by the frequency and the range of fluctuation of illuminance on the desk. The sudden change of task illuminance from higher to lower was found to be a decrease in brightness sensation of the desk. Estimated electric power consumption for lighting with the control of constant brightness sensation suggested a possibility of great reduction in power consumption compared to the case of continuous lighting.
A simplified prediction model was developed to predict indoor thermal environments in atriums with openings. Characteristics of cross ventilation through openings were studied using CFD technique based on the standard k-ε model. According to the simulation results under several conditions modeling strategies were obtained to predict draft airflow volume, inlet airflow angle and the airflow state in atriums. Finally, a simplified prediction model was developed as a computer softwere to calculate indoor thermal environments in atriums with openings. Predicted results on temperature distribution using this software showed a good agreement with CFD results, and it was verified that developed model provides acculate predictions on indoor thermal environments.
Temperature variations of full-size ceiling insulation model and roof insuration model are measured and observed to prevent melting and freezing of snow on the roof during winter. As a result, roof insulation model with ventilated air space is quite effective to prevent the problem caused by snowmelting on the roof since the temperature inside the ventilated air space follow the outside temperature well. On the other hand, ceiling insulation model leaves much room for improvement on ventilaion method in attic space because of the bad followrity of temperature inside the attic space.
In this study we estimated odor emission units (OEU) by measurion odor concentration with flask experiments, and we examined the control of garbage odor using OEU. The results were as follows: 1)Odor emission rate (OER) increased in proportion to garbage surface area. We obtained OEU with OER per area of garbage. 2) The maximum value of OEU was 1.1×10^2 (m^3/cm^2/h) with the airtight type and 1.0×10^2 (m^3/cm^2/h) with the ventilated type. 3) Previously we showed that the acceptable level of garbage odor was about 10 with odor concentration. We could estimate ventilation requirement for garbage odor by OEU and the odor concentration of acceptable level. In conclusion an enormous amount of ventilation needed to control the garbage odor below the acceptable level in the kitchen.
The respective vegetation cover ratios (VCRs) around 42 elementary schools in Kawasaki, Japan, were calculated by a process employing airborne remote sensing data. In addition, we obtained ranked scores evaluating various environmental conditions around each school using results from a written questionnaire completed by teachers at 111 elementary schools there. It was found that the relationship between the logarithm of the VCRs determined for a 150-m radius and the ranked scores evaluating the amount of existing vegetation surrounding each school could be predicted to fall between two regression lines. Those lines were calculated for the cases in which large, public-accessible areas with vegetation were present or not present. We also found that about 20% of VCRs corresponded to the neutral of ranked scores evaluating (i) the amount of existing vegetation and (ii) the overall environmental conditions sorrounding each school in the case large, public-accessible areas with vegetation were not present.
Apuropose of this article is to consider a walk experience in the approach space that arcchitecture forms. For one thing, I extracted the gaze rate of sight and memory type of element from the slide experiment that used eye-mark recorder. What is more, I expressed experiment result as a visual graph, and made a figure of gaze rate sequence. Next, I did the point that element fellows of maximum gaze rate in this graph were replaced with a clause point. One final point is I examine a change of clause point in learning process. I will extract some example to find a space direction with walk experience.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relation of each corner and the location of browsing corner for adult's multipurpose uses at public libraries. The results are as follows; 1. About half of the adults use not only books, but also magazines and audio visuals. We call them multipurpose uses. Especially, the use of both books and magazines is more than 50% of them. Therefore, it is necessary to locate the maeazine corner near the adult's book corner. 2. It is necessary to locate the browsing corner in the book corners. The number of seats needed for browsing is 70 to 80% of the greatest number of the book corner users. Many adult users browse most in the seat only 3m from each book shelf.
We found some factors which effect the territoriality of person working in an office, such as, job relations, work styles, informal relations, layout of furniture, visible places from one's workstaion, as we have already reported. In this report, we tried to test the temtoriality in a free-address research office at a university, comparing two layouts. After we surveyed persons' territory, we settled some number of workstations, which have different settings and the layout of workstations and personal file cabinets, according to each person's territory. Then we confirmed that we could enlarge person's territory and keep privacy and encourage communication.
The study's aim is to clarify the paradigmatic characteristics of the composition of contemporary Japanese public institution and their relationship to the building types. First defined are compositional elements as volumetric unit by construction system, and topological relationship in their combination. The combination in core compositional element with the biggest adjacent volume is fixed as main body, the most frequent topological relationship from the core element as main topologocal relationship, which are the two independent levels of the analysis. Secondly comparing the whole composition of the buildings -whole body - three rhetorical groups are structured; homogeneity by the repetition of elements and topology, repetition by main body and independence of interior and exterior. In conclusion the compositional level of main body responds to the building types, which is thought to be one of the structures differentiating the building types as spatial composition.
In this paper, the author defined the actual conditions on architectural standards which involves the popularization of building construction. The architectural standards consisted of three national standards, which were Japanese Engineering Standards (JES), it's war time temporary version and Japanese Standards. The results of research are as follows; the number of architectural standards was less than elctricity, machinary, steel and chemical division. The conditon of the dicided architectural standarads on each year was relatively flat comparing with another, although the start was early. It is characteristic that architectural standards had the field of design and performance in the period of the temporary version of JES.
In this paper, authors defined the actural condition of what consciousness to traditional building construction architects offices have, in order to apply traditional construction. The procedure of research was achieved by the questionnaire. The result are as follows: The difference between traditional and conventional is not clear. It is possible to explain the consciousness of architects offices by two factors, one is timber and the other site work. The carpenter work is located in special position comparing with another works in the standing point of promotion and the ending time of use etc.. Architects offices have a strong consciousness of timber and SUKIYA style.
In this report, I describe the method for analyzing crowd characteristics by image processing, using a CCD camera and image processor controlled by micro computer. I calculated the accumulation of the difference between background and input image. From this accumulation. I was able to automatically get information about the crowd, such as the number of pedestrians, and about the space which is used for walking or standing. I confirmed the efficiency of this method by experiment in buildings.
In the previous paper we reported the ways of life of the young and the old in newly established extended families in the same house. In this report, we focus on the succesive extended family in the same house in local towns. The following findings were obtained from a field survey conducted in 6 towns in Kumamoto prefecuture and 1 towns in Miyazaki. 1) Almost of the successive extended family form when the eldest son living with his parents get married. 2) Living spaces in the house where newly established extended families are devided into space for family, space for young couple, and space for the old. 3) There are two strong needs on this life style as well as the establishd exteded families. a) The young couple wish to have separate rooms from the old couole. b) The young couple wish to have a bedroom which is separate from the family room in the house. 4) The old usually stay at the family room at day time with doing the domestic work or pastime.
In order to evaluate the usefulness of reservoirs as environmental resources, this paper analyzes use effect and existence effect of reservoirs through a questionnaire survey at 10 districts of Tokai city in Aichi Pref. and Tsu city in Mie Pref.. Results are as follows; 1) Many residents, who live near reservoirs, recognize them necessary as environmental resources. 2) Many residents take a walk around reservoir. Therefore reservoirs ananged to be useful are evaluated as useful and desirable environments. 3) Reservoirs have three existence effects which evaluated by residents, first is open space effect, second is symbol effect, thrd is green effect.
This paper deals with the system of safeguarded sector enacted by the Malraux law and its method of protection of old quarters. At first the safegarded sector was introduced to realize the restoration operation, which was also stipulated by this law. Because of problems caused by this operation, the safeguarded sector has become the method of controling old quarters by the precise document named plan of safeguard and development. In this document all the elements forming old quarters are clasasified and either protected or reused.
This paper aims to clarify the planning charateristics of the town houses in the mountainous regions in Taiwan by adducing Chi-Shan Chen, Kaohsiung Hsien as examples. Main conclusions are as follows: 1. The original dwelling plan of the town houses in this region could be classified into two plan types by the pattern of composition of shop space and Dai-cho (Main living room). 2. In the process of the enlargement and the rebuilding of the town-house, the functions of Dai-cho have been separated and the number of the rooms on the 2nd floor have been increasing, and the sanitary fittings have been placed inside of the house. 3. Recently, five-storey town houses have turned to be a majority.
This paper proposes a rent system of public houses in Tokyo in view of tenants' benefits such as location and sizes, so that competitive rates of application for these houses will be equalized. It is shown that the discrepancy of the differences between market rents and actual rents of the houses should be reduced. ln particular, the coefficients to adjust location and size factors should be raised while the coefficient of building age should be lowered. Based on these results, a rent determination method is proposed, in which each benefit factor has an equal degree of contribution to the rent.
This paper will show what the condition of workers' houses in the suburbs of Osaka were like by examining the work of Juntaro Yamaoka. He made various contributions to the business world in Kansai. When he became the eighth president of Osaka Chamber of Commerce and Industry in 1917, he established Osaka Jutaku Keiei Co. Ltd., which was responsible for housing development in and around Osaka City. Senriyama Estate and Tanabe-cho Estate were developed by 0. J. K. Co. Ltd. He could succeed in building the Japanese Garden City at Senriyama. But O. J. K. Co. Ltd. did not continue housing management, because of business crisis. As a result, it was dissolved in 1928.
In this study, We analized the town planning, the town type and the block size of south Senba area, through the "Mizucho Ezu", old maps in the Edo era and the "MinyuChizu″. The Senba area was divided the north and south. In the south Senba, the inside measurement of the block was 40.5ken from south and north. On the centers, it was 44.5ken. It was 42ken from east and west, 45ken on the centers. It was equal to the north Simanouchi area. The town blocks of the south Senba and the north Simanouchi area were formed in late HIDEYOSI period.
This study aims to comprehend the characteristics and the genealogy of firmhouses in and around Hakodate- City. Twenty-six farmhouses were investigated and eighteen farmhouses were surveyed among them. The result of this study can be summarized as follows. 1) Almost plans of the farmhouses in Wajinchi- Higasizai, Japanese colonies in Hokkaido, are kuitigai- yomadori type, named Kamedastyle, regional Minka style. 2) The plan of Kameda type consists of two parts, namely public front part and private back part. The public part is equipped with special facilities which represent social status of household such as the principal post, wide hall, the boundary lintel between earth floor and hall, household shrine, tokonoma and household Buddhist alter. 3) The plan layout of neither Hokkaido settlement' farmhouses nor Tohoku farmhouses shows similarity with that of Kameda type. The intimate similarity of plan layout is found with traditional farmhouses of Echigo.
Part 1 of this paper examined the Hyokai Goten as one example of Retired Emperor Goiuizuno'o's various villas located within the courtiers' quarters of the city of kyoto. Part 2 examines another small urban villa, the Hakuhiken, located on Nikaimachi Tori within the courtiers' quarters. Here we examine Hakuhiken to determine the actual location of this villa, the overall size of its grounds, the size of buildings within the villa complex, and their actual usage, and the meaning of this villa when viewed in terms of Gomizuno'o's relationships with his daughters and various wives.
This study makes a comparative examination of two parallel volumes in mainstay books of the Shitennoji School: "Bukekishu" of Shokishu and "Denokushu" of Shomei. Bibliographical study with close analysis of difference in composition and contents in reference to architectural practice of the time has revealed that "Bukekishu" of Shokishu is essentially identical to the original document. "Denokushu" of Shomei incorporated new chapters with the intention of developing the document into a more comprehensive manual of architectural techniques. It has been chronologically determined that "Denokushu" of Shomei was compiled in the mid - seventeenth century or, more precicely, after the 4th year of Shouou.
The purpose of this study lies in making clear the reason why ferro-concreate schools became increased in number, with an eye on the fact that a lot of schools were rebuilt into ferro-concrete mainly during several years of the end of the Taisyo era in relation to abolition of the school district system with an accordance of abolition of school district system, the administration of Osaka-City gave financial aid to each school districts on a large scale. Representative of each community making good use of the financial aid, many well-equipped elementary-schools were brought into realization in a short period.
The purpose of this paper is to make clear the historic outline of carpenter's planes in Jiangnan district from Ming-Qing era to today. According to field work and studies of Exploitation of the Works of Nature (Tian gong kai wu) and Lu Ban jing etc., most of planes what we can see today have been existed in Mine era. In China not only drawingknives but also adzes, chisels may have been an early stage in development of the planes.
This paper is the second part of the thesis on the forms of the later Hinayana Buddhist caves in India. In Western Malwa region, there are four other major groups of the Buddhist caves, that is, Caves at Poladungar, Khejadia Bhop, Kolvi and Binnayaga besides caves at Dhamnar. In this paper, standard plans of the carved caityagriha (or stupa- shaped shrine), the assembly hall and the residential cave in this region are studied on, As the result of this study, we may say that the carved caityagriha of this region is not modeled after the structural one, and that the plan of the pillared assembly hall is based on that of the typical residential cave of this region.
This research presents the basic information about the change of colour with the change of distance between the view-point and the view-object, in order to make a Photo-realistic Computer Graphic image. The results of this research by colour panels and by some buildings show : 1) white shows a different tendency of change from other colours. 2) buildings with multiple colours show greater changes of colour (hue/ saturation/ contrast) than buildings with a single colour.
Recently, the cost down of video related equipment and its information transfer ability has made it easy to utilize video for architectual education. We started the project of researching the possiblity for the use of video in architectual field at 1980, and produced "Japan Architectual video Series", as an educational material. In the present we have completed 25 series of "Architecture", and 25 of "Housing". When producing, we systematized the sereies of video on account of the use in college education. On this study we indicate the past study procedure and the method of systemtizing, and next we research the usage condition by the buyer and response by the user in college. Thus we seek the utilization guideline of video educational material in architectual field hereafter.