This paper endeavors to describe the inter-personal environment of the exterior spaces around the super-highrise condominiums (SHC) developed in Tsukishima, Tokyo. In order to obtain the bonus volume by the relaxation treatment for the super-highrise buildings, each building is obliged to let their surrounding areas open to the public. In Japan, because of the eagerness to building volume, almost all the super-highrise buildings prepare these public open spaces. This describes the inter-personal environment by the combination of density of behavior observed in unit spaces and the percentage of the staying behavior in them through the behavior observation and mapping. We found that the characteristics of inter-personal environment of either small alley spaces, i.e. Roji, streets, parks, and open spaces around SHC are different from to each other, although that of open spaces of SHC resemble to that of the street. We also analyze the images of these outdoor spaces by users.
Based on the analysis of consistency between the sleeping arrangement now and as one wishes, this paper intends to grasp the Planning on master bedroom and private territory. More than one third couples have experienced separating their bedroom from their getting married to investigating. Furthermore transition to separating their bedroom is not necessarily during parents care the child. Almost all of the couples have slept together with children for 6-7years. In these circumstances, sleeping arrangement on couple is unstable in one's lifetime. For the wives, who wish separating their bedroom, in particular, more than sharing their bedroom is observed. There is extremely little couple who recognizes that master bedroom is couples private territory, or who wishes it.
The aim of this study is to clarify the spatial recomposition of row house and alley on Nakazaki area in Kita-ward, Osaka-city. I conclude the results as below from the data mostly based on the field survey. In case of row house conversion I could find five methods; elimination, installation, removal, renewal and material exchange. Row houses can adapt new functions flexibly by these five methods. Alleys can also adapt changes caused by row house conversion. Beside art objects and signboards which are situated in front of these conversion shops, domestic articles such as bicycles and air conditioning units outside can be seen. Flexibility and redundancy of row house and alley could be indicated.
This paper clarifies the core houses adjustments conducted by the occupants, and its typologies related with their dwelling process. The core house concept has been implemented for more than three decades in Indonesia to fulfill the housing need of lower income people through the formal sector as a part of sites and services programs. Provided with basic rooms and simple house shape and construction, further development of the core house is according to its occupant's desires and capabilities. Various adjustments have been made by the occupants to their core houses. Analysis of the adjustment efforts is done based on 150 collected samples in three different housing locations developed by Perum Perumnas or the Indonesian Housing Development Agency in Semarang City, Indonesia, that is Bukit Beringin Lestari housing, Bumi Tlogosari housing, and Banyumanik housing. It is inferred that related with its nature along the dwelling process of the occupants, the typologies of the adjustments are Initial, Moderate, and Advanced.
This study examines school space layout and field of children's activities through the survey at "Gunma Kokusai Academy", providing the following results: 1) We extracted 18 patterns regarding children's group formations and their fields during classes. Their field change indicated how children and teachers selected location according to their various activities. 2) The classroom layout, with the classbase adjacent to a closed classroom, was effective when some children receive separate instructions, though it posed a noise leak problem. 3) In classes conducted in Japanese, children postures were regarded important, and children had less chance to sit on the floor. Sitting on the floor also required thorough carpet cleaning and sanitation.
The purpose of this study is to find out the actual situation of user-participated design of elementary and junior high schools, and the designer's opinion about it. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Design engineers of The Board of Education and architects expect the user-participated design to improve the usability of school building. 2) Architects who experienced the user-participated design expect children and community resident increase of attachment and pride to their school by user-participation. 3) Architects who experienced the user-participated design relief of anxiety about cost, consensus building and planning of user-participated design process.
In this study, we have implemented an observation research to clarify the relationship between occurrences of stop without purpose and stop with purpose and space conditions in an underground shopping arcade. It was observed that actions of stop without purpose like; "watching commodities or advertisements" happen in spaces where eye-catching objects exist, and actions of stop with purpose like "choosing a destination", "watching information" and "taking out and putting in baggage" happen at exits to ground and in spaces where many partitions lie next to each other. However, actions of stop with purpose like; "using cellular phone" were observed everywhere. It was observed that actions of stop with purpose like; "conversation" and "getting together" happen close to entrance gates and at exits to ground and spaces where many partitions lie next to each other. And it was observed that actions of stop with purpose like; "telephoning" and "buying ticket" happen close to entrance gates around exits to ground, and actions of stop with purpose like; "eating and drinking" happen around restaurants. As mentioned above, it has been proved that actions of stop without purpose are often observed in gateway spaces and actions of stop with purpose in open spaces.
In this research, we tried to clarify how adventitiously blinded people walk, and how different walking behaviors are among these people in real walking environments. Ten adventitiously blinded people are asked to walk independently in environments which they are fully accustomed to and have little difficulty to walk. Their walking behavior are recorded by video camera and analyzed. The results are as follows: 1) Very small bump are widely used with white cane. 2) Visual information, such as white line on roads is used with slight eyesight. 3) Slide motions tend to be used by subjects with little experience of being blind and physical/psychological handicaps, along with many kinds of techniques tend to be used by subjects with rich experiments of being blind. 4) Tactical tiles are considered to be useful. However, some troubles in real use are suggested.
The purpose of this study is to estimate effect of perviousness of street's design which is applied by the concept of “Green Infrastructure”. We used some scenarios to estimate the effects of flood control by applying the concept of “Green Infrastructure” at the three different study areas. The results acquired by a GIS based hydrological modelindicated that the “Green Infrastructure” have significant effect to reduce water runoff. And, two important evaluations were summarized.
In this paper, narrative film is defined according to structuralist semio-linguistics, and then its units of significance are laid out in a preliminary model of elementary units. Then, by applying this definition and segmentation process on the case study film of “Russian Ark”, it was found that all its significant elements and organizational structures are dependent on, and function of, the denoted architectonic elements of the actual State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg, where it was filmed. This dependency of the filmic structures on architectonic elements allowed the preliminary conclusions that their similarities with architectonic spatial structures are as follows: 1) architectural spatial units are similar to segments and syntagmas, 2) their organizational structure is similar to the diegetic spatial structure, and 3) architectonic programmatic and functional organizations are similar to the narrative organizational structures, or syuzhet.
We reported outline of house recovery policy and marked them in the stricken area of Noto Peninsula earthquake in the March of 2007. And we clarified the actual situation of disaster public housing in case of Touge, village Wajima city where is near to the hypocenter and has sustained great damage. We marked them in the point aimed at building process, and defaine reasons of moving, community relations. and attributes of tenants, of Shofudai Disaster Public Housing.
It is important to get finding on dynamism of both of shop facility components and visitors' shop-around behaviors for downtown revitalization. This paper addresses these surveys at Osu, Nagoya in 2008, and analizes the transition of Osu district in comparison with our 1998 and 2003 surveys. Our main results include (1)the shift trend of the facilities components of each shopping street, (2)the shift of visitors' spatial distribution and their characteristics of the behaviors, (3)the shift pattern of their typical shop-around routesand ,and (4)a study of interaction between shop-around behaviors and facility components.
In Egypt, peripheral villages encompassed within urbanized areas have recently undergone many transformations, becoming neither urban nor rural, but demonstrating features of both. This paper examines evidence of physical and socio-economic transformations occurring in two different neighborhoods of El-Minya City to find similarities and differences in their transformation typologies, transformation causes, and their negative impacts, to be used as a reference for future control strategies. Our analysis clarified 1) the physical transformations in urban fabric, blocks configuration, and building characteristics; and 2) the socio-economic transformation from a rural to urban style, but not to the degree of other city districts, including the loss of old local administrative units. Field observations with resident questionnaires revealed major negative impacts of transformations in: inadequacy of street networks for vehicle access, incompatibility of plots' decreased sizes with the application of planning laws, lack of maintenance for area physical components, diminishing main economic activities, and growing social conflicts. Our study results suggest the enhancing of such areas using special administrative units, through which partnerships between government and local residents can be used to solve these negative impacts and improve the environments of the respective areas.
Recently, an increasing number of urban areas have established neighborhood committee organizations. We investigated organizations established in the 1970s and those formed from the 2000s in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Comparisons reveal that their performance and appraisal by local governments differ despite their almost identical organizational structure. If local governments expect them to serve as necessary planning units for urban management, then it is important that they have legal and political stability to local assemblies and community organizations. Local governments should have them participate in policy-making processes to enhance members' motivation. Furthermore, facilitative leadership encouraging social entrepreneurship is necessary to vitalize these committees.
Understanding human behavior, such as waiting, returning home, and evacuation, after a great earthquake is very critical in establishing detailed disaster prevention planning. In the present paper, we construct a simulation model to describe human behavior variable from physical damages such as spread of city-fire and street-blockage by collapsed buildings. The proposed model is applied to a highly dense built-up area of Tokyo using the database of the spatiotemporal distribution of railroad users, automobile users, and pedestrians. Using the model, we attempt to demonstrate some new findings for disaster prevention planning by examining evacuation plans and various condition settings in earthquake simulations.
Salt is an ancient town located 28 km northwest of Amman, the capital of Jordan. Salt became the first capital of Jordan for a short period in the early 20th century. Nablus traders and builders settled and expanded their business network there. These two events brought to Salt professional Nablus craftsmen, who used the yellow stone material to build most of the ordinary Salt buildings, including those which are designated as historically significant now. In the late 20th century, the public sector began to conserve the historical Salt character. These yellow stone buildings are important resources portraying the historical context of old Salt. This study aims to clarify the criteria used by the public sector in their evaluation of the yellow stone buildings in order to understand the established historic character of the significant and traditional buildings such as landmarks. These yellow stone buildings landmarks are one important part of conserving the historic townscape, but a public sector's concept of conservation is lacking in appraisal of ordinary yellow stone buildings from the view point of Salt townscape generating local character. Some criteria that the public sector established to evaluate the importance of historical buildings, such as vertical openings, curved arch windows and door, and I-beam balconies are applicable as research guidelines for evaluating ordinary yellow stone buildings.
In recent years, urban areas in Japan have been faced with increasingly worsening problems of decrease in population and socio-economic activity in the inner city areas. One powerful method to alleviate the problem is to quicken the pace of urban redevelopment projects aimed at increasing the attractiveness of these areas. The objective of this study is to develop and examine the applicability of a planning support system for accelerating consensus building among the property owners in urban redevelopment projects in Japan. Problems with current redevelopment project processes are clarified and a new methodology is proposed employing a support system that can simulate important decision making factors such as overall project costs and rights conversion under various proposed plans while offering the property owners easy to understand visual output through Virtual Reality models, graphs and reports.
Building-Standards-Low has Lower-limits of Safety and Inspection-System. In this paper, firstly, we tried to classify ratio of inspection of Buildings mentioned as No-4 had been low, but there are, some prefectures whose ratio of inspection of these Buildings get close to 100%. Secondly, we tried to classify real-ratio of inspection is available to reach 100%. As the result of this analysis, firstly we found there are 5 prefectures whose ratio of inspection of these Buildings get close to 100%. Secondly, we found real-ratio of inspection is available to reach 100%.
The interior finish work of apartment building is different of the length of job and the amount of work. This problem obstructs of homogenizing tact time because the progress of work is not equal. Moreover, the judgment by the worker and the foreman tends to become the best in the part. As the key which solves these problems, this paper takes notice of the architecture of the information of communication. First, it classifies the information processing structure of the construction team from the relation between the work flow and the information processing process. Next, it considers the point of the process control according to the team type from the relation between the role and the responsibility of the foreman and the worker. Last, this paper describes a problem on management about the construction system of the general contractor.
This study aims to investigate the land subdivision and the movement of dwellers at a suburban detached housing area in the stage of generation change. We surveyed “H” housing area built in the 1970s in Yokohama City and compared the building agreement zone with land subdivision and non-zone. Housing lots are not divided and dwellers continue living their lots in the agreement zone. In contrast, many of lots are divided, and rebuilding and new dwellers' moving-in are active in non-zone. Therefore the subdivision control of building agreement works well only in agreement zone and influences on changes of dwellers.
This study analyzed composition and transition of facility management on Engineering University that have two types of campus.One type is the high rise building type another type is many kinds of buildings. And, we could grasp the feature for the facility management expense on two campuses. This study shows basic document that served as a reference when the maintenance policy is decided. Following is the feature of facility management expense on Shinjyuku and Hachioji campus. •In shinjyuku campus, the proportion of operational management expense in the total of the facility management expense is 65%,on the other side, in Hachioji is 54%. •In Shinjuku campus, the exterior cost, air conditioning equipment cost, and the elevator equipment cost are large. •In Hachioji campus, the experiment equipment cost, and the plumbing sanitary cost are large.
This study aims at the construction and maintenance system of Kokubunji temple in 8th century. The research method adopted here is based on intensive examination of historical documents. It was the turning point to intend the Kokubunji temple construction that central government ordered each province to construct seven storied pagodas. The historical documents shows that the construction step is able to be divided into three, “Plan”, “Construction”, “Completion”. “Plan” step was to make managerial planning of Kokubunji temple and economical frame for construction. “Construction” step was to cooperate with the provinces and to press the construction. “Completion” step was to complete the central area of Kokubunji temple and to maintenance Kokubunji temple.
Kenichi Komiya (1911-1990) was one of the enactment members of the Kenchikushi Law for Architects & Building Engineers 1950. The purpose of this study is to find out his view of architect legislation. The results are as follows: 1. It is quite possible that the person who drafted the original bill of the Architect Regulation of Qingdao 1942 was Komiya. 2. The Architect Regulation of Qingdao 1942 was to prohibit architects from doing business as contractors. This was an ideal for members of the Association of Nippon Architects. On the other hand, the Ministry of Interior denied it at those days. Komiya, who had been working at that ministry, made it because Qingdao is the city which had been developed by Germany after 1898. Probably this draft was worth trying. 3. The chapter of architect in the Draft for Building Law 1947 by the War Damage Reconstruction Institute was influenced by this Architect Regulation of Qingdao. His trial was to pursue a certain kind of ideals. However, it was not realized.
In this paper, we found the following things as a result of analyzing the structure and the material in the buildings of 29 silk factories of GUNZE Raw Silk Mfg. Co., Ltd. taken at the end of March 1932. In the silk factories that had operated from 1923 until the economic depression, the large buildings like the reverse mills and the dining facilities were built of RC. Dry mills were chiefly built of steel because they had long dry rooms of brick inside. After the economic depression, the majority of factories were built of wood. RC was used only for fire walls. The structures and the specifications were changed for the region as in the wooden shingle roofing in the snowy country and the one-storied construction of the women's dormitory to accommodate the installation of Korean style stoves in colonial Korea. The company's construction section completed its modernization when Saito Hattori joined in 1923 and contributed to the introduction of new technology.
The furniture except for chair designed by Mackintosh was investigated in form, color etc. According to the data, transitional features of his design can be roughly classified as follows. (1) From around 1894 around 1900. The period of attaching beaten metal panel or abacus on furniture, based on the traditional form. (2) From around 1898 around 1903. The period of metalwork and coloured glass usage on furniture, whose motifs are wood carving, painting, and the flower. (3) From around 1903 around 1905. The period of geometric constitution where the lattice, vertical lines and squares are motifs. (4) After 1906. The period of the Art Deco tendency which geometric constitution and colorful decoration are unified. The Mackintosh furniture design as description above it is considered from the findings from that it changes.
We performed free vibration tests with a 1/10 model of a traditional wooden three storied pagoda. By changing the weight of the model, we simulated the behavior of three different pagoda the height of which is 18m, 5.4m 1.8m. When the height of pagoda is relatively large, natural frequency of vibration tend to become small, because of the decrease of stiffness. When the height is small, by increase of amplitude, natural frequency of vibration and damping ratio become small, because of rocking of pagoda.
Reinforced concrete buildings lacking seismic isolation need reinforcement in earthquake-prone Japan. Guidelines for reinforcing them, and thereby conserving their historical value, have been set. This paper evaluates reinforcement efforts, focusing on reversibility and original structures, distinctions between the structures and their reinforcements. 76 modern reinforced concrete buildings are considered. Reinforcements must be distinct from original structures; otherwise the line between original structures and their reinforcements can become blurred. Article 12 of the Venice Charter addresses this concern. Additionally, historical monuments reflect cultural diversity. Reinforcements applied to concrete buildings likewise require originality of design, a fact also recognized in restoration guidelines. A third aspect of these structures is the features requiring reinforcement. Weakened points and other problems of a building must be truly reinforced, not simply disguised. Keeping the above aspects in mind, this paper offers advice on how to best reinforce historical reinforced concrete buildings so that people will enjoy them well into the future.
This paper aims to clarify the regulations of fire compartment in the former building codes in Japan. The analysis of investigations into seven building codes in Taisyo era or later presents the following aspects. 1. The regulations of fire compartment that were laid down in 1930's had the following characters. 1) The regulations of area and stairwell fire compartment were laid down, but other fire compartments were not. 2) The indented building types were only department store and apartment. 2. The building code in 1933 and 1936 are assumed the following each role. 1) The code in 1933 gave priority to earlier announcement though ambiguous expressions. 2) The code in 1936 aimed to disseminate and realize the concept of fire compartment nationwide.