This study aims to develop the Building Information Modeling, BIM, system that enables simulations based on multiple fit between variety of floor plan types and management types in the facility planning, programming, design, and management of hospital wards. In this paper floor plan types of a dispersed nursing base type and a circular corridor type were focused and management types regarding patient placement and nursing travel distance were considered.
The case of the dispersed nursing base floor type consisted of four bed rooms and single bed room, which is still quite common in Japan, whereas the circular corridor floor plan type used only single bed rooms, which is still unique. When patient bed rooms are placed along the corridor, the placement of four single rooms requires the double corridor length compared to the placement of one four bed room. Thus, a unit hall scheme was introduced in the case studied ward floor plan where five single rooms share same unit hall functioning as a one five bed room as a whole.
The management research topic included the differences in the nursing system, patient duty allocation, teaming concept, etc. The paper also refers to the topic of Partnership Nursing System, PNS, in which a pair of two nurses conducts the duty as an equal partner. The analysis looked into the level of equality from the movement distances of two nurses.
The nursing travel survey was conducted in four wards of two hospitals to investigate the relationship between nursing activities and the number of visits to patient rooms. The conventional time study method was used where an investigator followed each nurse to record time, from and to locations, tasks, and goods carried. The factors influencing nursing travel distance and patient placements were analyzed including the nursing necessity index based on seriousness of patients’ illness.
The simulations were carried out to make predictions with optimal and inappropriate versions of patient placements using genetic algorithm, GA. The program was written using Python 3.7 applied on Autodesk Revit as BIM system through Dynamo as Visual Programming Language, VPL.
As the result of these simulations, various fit between the floor type and management type were clarified including the phenomenon that the difference in calculated nursing travel distance was small in the circular corridor floor plan type because the distance between the staff station and patient bed rooms was small under different conditions of patient placements. Also, the equality in PNS was confirmed.
Placing a covering at large-scale day care facilities for the elderly and special elderly nursing homes is expected to increase the role of the fundamental facilities in these large areas. This paper aims to regulate the plan and corner arrangement patterns of the main rooms and explain the features of the relations between room composition and usage. The room usage and construction method required for the main rooms of such large-scale day care facilities are considered on the basis of acquired knowledge.
The results are as follows.
1) As the table and chairs are arranged in the center of the main room, activities such as relaxation, meals, and functional training are held in the same place in FTL+N and FTL type corner arrangement cases, and there are a few selection options for the user’s seating space. To ensure the maximum utilization of space as per the number of people, functional training may be held in a seated position on chairs, wherein users spend the whole day seated except when bathing and using the toilet. On the other hand, there is another type of arrangement wherein the table remains as is, and the staff modify the position of the chairs in a completely different manner to provide members with additional training space. The furniture for naps isn’t placed in main room using FTL type arrangement wherein the sub room turns into a nap space, and thereby, results in a generous arrangement including tables and chairs, sofa s, office corners, etc.
2) T+FL+N and FT+FL+N type corner arrangement cases on the main room floor space per person are 5.0-6.0 square meters, and they divide the main rooms into two areas and thereby secure exclusive spaces for meals and functional training. In addition to the position of tables and chairs for meals, the relaxation corner, etc., are often prepared in a manner in which users can freely spend time on the sofa sets in the relaxation corner, and the choice of room also includes a secured functional training corner. As a feature of the two-corner composition type, the staff’s preparation procedure is conducted through the proper utilization of the corner as per the needs of the program, ensuring smooth movement while using the least waiting time during area conversions for lunch and functional training.
3) In T+L affiliation corner arrangement, there are two types of training styles. In the first type, the staff prepares chairs in the functional training corner before the end of naptime, and almost all the members participate in the training sessions. In the second type, members are divided into two groups of T and FL corners, respectively, and different types of trainings are held by the staff in a manner in which it is difficult for all the members to exercise in the functional training space. Moreover, the floor space of the functional training corner also influences the place and form of training. In addition, the nap floor reserve requirement (number of beds for nap / facility capacity) differs (0.10-0.46) as per the facility, and in general, it can be as low as 0.2-0.3 (whole average: 0.26). Although the reservation of a nap space is a common issue in large-scale facilities, there are also users who don’t take naps.
In this study, we conducted two experiments using immersive virtual environment technology to test the relationship between the shape of the “Leading Passage” and the perceived ceiling height of the “High Ceiling Room”. In order to quantify the amount of psychological height of the ceiling, we implemented a method to adjust the height of the ceiling up or down by the subject’s own manipulation.
In Experiment 1 , subjects were asked to walk through six different shapes of “Leading Passage” - “going straight,” “going up,” “going down,” “going through,” “turning left," and “turning right” - to “High Ceiling Room” and asked to adjust the ceiling height of the room. The results were as follows.
• Connection or Un-connection of “Leading Passage” led to a change in the amount of psychological ceiling height perceived in the “High Ceiling Room”.
• The shape of “Leading Passage” led to a change in the amount of psychological ceiling height perceived in the “High Ceiling Room”.
• The amount of psychological ceiling height perceived in the “High Ceiling Room” is lower after passing through an upward “Leading Passage” than after passing through a flat “Leading Passage”.
In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to walk through three different shapes of “Leading Passage” - “going straight,” “going up," “going down,” - to “High Ceiling Room” and asked to adjust the ceiling height of the room. The results were as follows.
• As in Experiment I, the amount of psychological ceiling height perceived in the “High Ceiling Room” varied depending on the shape of “Leading Passage”.
• The amount of psychological ceiling height perceived in the “High Ceiling Room" is lower after passing through an upward “Leading Passage” than after passing through a downward “Leading Passage”.
• When walking in an upward “Leading Passage”, subjects look more upward in the environment than when walking in a downward “Leading Passage”, at the point where the ceiling of the “High Ceiling Room” begins to be visible over the exit of “Leading Passage”.
• When walking in a downward "Leading Passage", subjects look more upward in the environment than when walking in an upward “Leading Passage", at the exit of “Leading Passage".
In both experiments, subject tends to perceived the ceiling height of the “High Ceiling Room” higher after they walked through a flat or a downward “Leading Passage” and perceived the ceiling height of the “High Ceiling Room” lower after they walked through an upward "Leading Passage", than in the case without “Leading Passage” .These results indicate that the ceiling height in the “High Ceiling Room” can be controlled by passing through the approach space with a suitable shape.
Kandahar is the second-largest city of Afghanistan, located in the southwestern part. It has experienced a drastic population increase and a dramatic expansion over the last two decades. Ahmad Shahi is an area which is located in the CBD of Kandahar city; it is famous for the historical dome houses and traditional urban fabric. The buildup area illegally expanded in violation of the master plan and caused a massive transformation in the land use from residential to commercial, which certainly affected the ancient architecture, culture and urban fabric of the area.
Cultural heritages and historical buildings have a significant role in the socio-economic development and identity of a place. According to the socio-economic survey, the residents are facing lots of problems in terms of the social and quality of life. The majority of the houses are at huge risk of collapse and failure due to the low maintenance from the construction point of view. There are a number of historical houses on the site with more than 100 years of building age; these are considering as a cultural asset for the area. Unfortunately, due to many reasons the government could not put any practical step for the preservation and rehabilitation of these assets so far. As a result, these houses have been destroyed gradually, and the architectural design and elements of these houses which are representing the ancient history and morphology of the area are steadily disappearing.
This study looks into a comparison and analysis of two maps associated with the target area from different years to find the percentages of transformation and changes in the land use.
There are a number of historical dome houses in the old city of Kandahar which have faced drastic changes and transformation since the last two decades. According to the spatial analysis from the satellite imagery of 2011 and 2018, (6.8%) of the residential lots have transformed into commercial regardless of the master plan which obviously have affected the environmental and social life aspect of the residents and as well as the characteristic of the area. This transformation and changes have occurred based on the land value, close distance to the CBD, transition of the family typology and some other minor factors. The historical houses are on the verge of collapse and need urgent repair and protection. Some other places which are currently in bad condition and may gradually perish if not paid proper attention can certainly threaten the life of the people who are residing there. This research basically focused on the traditional houses in the Old City of Kandahar and discussed the importance of historical value, land use transformation and its impact since the last two decades. Finally, some recommendations have been proposed to deal with the problem and to create a sustainable approach for the preservation of the old city of Kandahar.
To address the problem of urban sprawl, which occurs in spite of population declines in local cities, municipalities in Japan have been working to develop a sustainable urban structure by designating residential zones. Although national guidelines address the concepts of location optimization plans, local governments have had difficulty creating feasible plans without concrete methodology to support such planning. In addition, the discussion is carried out in each individual municipality and deviates from people’s real-life activities that cross city borders.
Portland, Oregon, well known as among the best places to live in the U.S., has implemented a compact city policy based on the Oregon State Land Use Plan of 1973, aiming at sustainable city development. The policy draws a “20- minute neighborhood,” where jobs and service facilities are located within a 20-minute walking distance, and it features an “Urban Growth Boundary (UGB),” equivalent to Japan's demarcation system, which is a metropolitan land use regulation restricting disorganized development. The city has been constructing an urban structure on the scale of personal living along with its regional scale.
The purpose of this research is to examine a support system for revising compact city construction plans in Japanese local cities by referring to the compact city policy of Portland, Oregon. This study investigates a popular local urban area, the Shunan area in the Chugoku region, by analyzing 100m MESH data, including population distribution, land use, and location of facilities.
First, we drew up compact city models of Shunan metropolitan urban areas from municipality administrative plans, using an expert system to apply the model onto the area to reveal possible future urban structures (Scenario1). Second, we applied compact city models of Portland, which had incorporated that city’s administrative plans, to the Shunan area and revealed their future structures (Scenario 2). When we compare the results of the two scenarios, large gaps in the concentration degree of the population are observed within areas of city, town, and neighborhood centers as well as in the zones of public transport, along city borders, and in the suburbs. The reasons for these gaps are as follows: (1) the administrative plans in Shunan merely emphasize city and town centers, (2) they do not concern the other items closely related to convivence of living in detail, and (3) they do not include a view of broader metropolitan areas for the most intensive urban structure.
It is necessary to support local governments in designing location optimization plans that prioritize livability for residents in a metropolitan area rather than merely concentrating each city’s population within the surrounding, long-standing urban centers.
This paper investigates the difference in the classification systems between MasterFormat® in U.S., CAWS in U.K., and the Standard specification for the public buildings in Japan. Standardization of the classification system is mandatory for the information management, especially in the BIM environment. However, the classification system for specification in Japan is not systematically classified under the specific ID. First, the historical background of the three classification systems was investigated. Then, compare the difference between them with the example of stainless-steel door. Finally, clarify the difference between U.S. and Japan, and U.K. and Japan.
MasterFormat® in the U.S. is described by descriptive, performance, reference standard, and proprietary method. It is utilized by architects, estimators, contractors, and manufacturers. In 2012, SMM7, based on the CAWS classification system, was replaced by NRM2, but SMM7 is still utilized mainly by quantity surveyors and contractors. In 2013, Uniclass was replaced by Uniclass 2. At this moment, the work section in CAWS was eliminated.
Comparison between MasterFormat® in U.S. and the Standard specification for the public buildings in Japan.
- MasterFormat® covers broader items than the Japanese system., such as Procurement and Contracting Agreement, special constructions, and process equipment.
- MasterFormat® defines its unique ID for each item.
- Both SectionFormat and Japanese one has a hierarchical structure under the category.
Comparison between CAWS in U.K. and the Standard specification for the public buildings in Japan.
- CAWS does not have clear intent to classify information hierarchically.
- CAWS deals with Mechanical, Electrical, Plumbing, and civil engineering items, which is much broader than the Japanese systems.
- CAWS has some unidentified categories, which is not appropriate for the classification system for BIM.
This paper examines how the eclectic design of the Hongo Campus of Tokyo Imperial University was developed through the collaboration between Uchida Yoshikazu and Kishida Hideto. Uchida began designing a building on the Hongo campus in 1919. After the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, he took the initiative in planning the new campus until 1938. Kishida helped design buildings on the campus as a subordinate architect from 1922–1930. Previous studies mainly focused on the uniformity of the collegiate gothic style on the Hongo Campus, but overlooked the variety of expressions that resulted from the collaboration between Uchida and Kishida. This paper analyzes the variation and development of designs on the campus during the 1920–30s and connects it to the relationship between Uchida and Kishida.
In the early the 1920s, Uchida applied the gothic style as the standard design in accordance with the design of older buildings on the campus. He consistently adopted a basic pattern of elevations that was characterized by a porch at the center and evenly aligned pilasters. He established his typical gothic style of a porch and pilasters through a series of designs five buildings.
During this period, Uchida also let Kishida design the elevations of seven buildings. Under the influence of German expressionism, Kishida attempted to overcome the historicist style at the time. Consequently, Kishida introduced modern-style designs to the gothic-style campus. Kishida’s elevation designs during this period can be categorized into two types: 1) the elevation with flat walls, which can be observed in “Department of Otolaryngology Building”, and 2) the elevation with a porch and pilasters, which can be found in "Building No. 4 of the Faculty of Engineering". The first type had no pilasters, which were totally different from Uchida’s basic pattern of elevations. The second type had the modern-style porch and pilasters that are characteristic of expressionism, but it had the same basic pattern of elevations as Uchida’s designs.
Since the late 1920s, buildings on the campus were designed mainly by Uchida because the collaboration between Uchida and Kishida did not go as planned. After Uchida designed “Library” in 1925, he repeatedly applied its gothic-style porch and pilasters all across the campus. On the other hand, Uchida also repeatedly adopted the expressionist-style porch and pilasters, which Kishida had applied in his design for “Building. No. 4 of the Faculty of Engineering.” Uchida adopted this style, particular in the proximity of the aforementioned building and the “University Hospital,” which indicated the importance he placed on the aesthetic harmony of adjacent buildings. Furthermore, in “Building No. 1 of the Faculty of Medicine,” the gothic-style pilasters and the expressionist-style porch were utilized in combination in one elevation, which displayed a mixture of the historicist and modern styles on the Hongo Campus.
Through the analysis of these designs, this paper concludes that Uchida did solely follow the gothic style, but in fact had an eclectic design style. When designing a building, he adopted either the gothic style or the expressionist style based on the designs of the surrounding buildings. On the other hand, Kishida criticized the historicist style and introduced expressionist-style designs. The collaboration between these two architects contributed significantly to the unique design of the Hongo campus, which is characterized by the harmonious merger of two different styles.
I reanalyzed the photographs and captions in a 1960 photo collection titled “Katsura” in light of the spatial theory that Kenzo Tange set forth in his correspondence with Herbert Bayer. I also identified seven points of contention in the correspondence between Walter Gropius and Tsutomu Ikuta, and analyzed Tange’s theory for the Katsura Imperial Villa in view of its contemporaneity and anachronisms. This research yielded five new findings.
First, during a visit to Japan, which formed part of a cultural exchange program organized by the Rockefeller Foundation, Gropius emphasized the commonality between traditional Japanese architecture and modernist architecture. The purpose of the program was to encourage Japan to align with the US against the Soviet bloc. Accordingly, Gropius was sent to Japan because of his dislike of Soviet realism. The program succeeded in enlightening Japanese intellectuals through modernist architecture.
Second, Walter Gropius criticized divine architecture, noting that the ancient city of Rome had been dedicated to the emperor. He argued that modernist architecture should embrace democratic values and adopt a human scale. On the other hand, Gropius also argued, as Japanese fascists had done before the end of the war, that architecture should form a cultural unity. Gropius believed that Japanese architecture, as exemplified in the Katsura Imperial Villa, embodied a human scale.
Third, Tsutomu Ikuta fiercely debated with Gropius over traditional Japanese architecture. I identified seven points of contention in their correspondence. Tange’s theory for the Katsura Imperial Villa did not deviate significantly from the ideas of either Ikuta or Gropius. Tange, while seeking to differentiate his ideas from those of Ikuta and Gropius, picked out their good points and blended them into his own theory. For example, Tange emulated Gropius in downplaying the influence of Chinese architecture on Japanese architecture and in underscoring the role of Zen. However, whereas Gropius focused on the simplicity of Zen, Tange emphasized how Zen monks had introduced the other gardens associated with Zen.
The fourth finding concerns my re-analysis of the captions for the “Katsura” photo collection, in which Tange described his spatial theory found in his letters to Bayer. Postulating a Jomon–Yayoi dialect, Tange used the concepts of “pattern,” “space,” and “space-time.” Most notably, Tange found creative freedom in the Katsura Imperial Villa by focusing on the tension arising from conflict between the reception room “space” and stepping stone “space.” Additionally, I clarified that Tange criticized the overall design of the villa (“space-time”), including its mukuri (convex) roof, claiming that it is no more than scenery.
This study examines historical records of the planning and construction process of settler’s houses in Shinko nojo of Ibaraki Prefecture. These records are available in the Kogakuin University Library and the Ibaraki Prefectural Museum of History. Furthermore, this study elucidates the ideas of the designers Wajiro Kon and Yoshitaro Takeuchi, and their position as an initiative to improve rural housing.
Based on a model farm construction plan, Ibaraki Prefecture entrusted the designing of settler’s houses in its Shinko nojo to Wajiro Kon, a leading expert in rural housing improvement, who designed them in collaboration with his apprentice Yoshitaro Takeuchi. At the request of Ibaraki Prefecture, Kon and Takeuchi set up a reception cum dining room and an indoor workplace on the Doma and then arranged chairs, tables, and cupboards for convenience. The use of multiple glass windows and partitions between the dining area and the workplace further improved the sanitation.
The original design plan is based on “Reference Figure 7” of “The Farmer and Agricultural Building Design Reference Chart ” designed by Kon in 1927, and is the only rural housing implementation project for Takeuchi and Kow before the war. Kon and Takeuchi adopted a design that takes versatility into consideration, in line with the way of housing in a cultivated land, where constant changes in farm management and family composition are expected. This method was adopted by the Agricultural Land Development Agency where Takeuchi was involved at the time of the second war.
The author has considered the import of Western nails since the end of the early modern period and their prices, and used the newspapers of that time, and it is shown that the earliest confirmation of imports of Western nail prices is the “Nail-rod” listed in “THE JAPAN HERALD.” dated April 16, 1864. By reading through subsequent papers such as "THE JAPAN WEEKLY MAIL.” (abbreviated as JWM), I show that the Nail-rod was imported into Japan until the first half of 1890 and the price transition could be clarified, this was the similar price trend of kugi-sao and kugi-tetu reported in the Japanese paper “Chugai Bukka Shimpo” and the subsequent paper “Chugai Shogyo Shinpo” (hereinafter, both papers are collectively referred to as “Chugai” paper). In addition, I have already clarified the change in the price of 1.2 sun(= 1 inch and a half) of Western nails since late 10’s of the Meiji era. By the way, I confirmed that the prices of Nail-rod and Wire Nails mentioned above are also continuously stated in the English-language paper published in the Meiji era. Therefore, this paper extracts and examines the price of Wire Nails reported in JWM, considers the relationship with the price of Western nails clarified so far, examines its validity, and clarifies the background of price fluctuations. The purpose is to do. The following points have been clarified.
The prices of Wire Nails, assorted could be confirmed in the JWM newspaper from the July 25, 1885 issue to the June 29, 1912 issue. Prices such as Wire Nails, which were compensated by exchange rates and prices, showed a good positive correlation with price fluctuations of one and a half inches of Western nails and the total import volume of iron nails. Before 1894, the price of Wire Nails was kept low compared to competing Japanese nails, and the conversion from Japanese nails to Wire Nails was attempted. Since 1900, when the production of Western nails began in Japan, the price of Wire Nails had been sensitive and the price had been on a downward trend.
During the Weimar Republic era, German architect Bruno Taut planned many housing estates in Berlin, in which he used colors to enrich the inhabitants’ living environment. This paper discusses his color planning, focusing on the townhouses in sections one (1925-26) and two (1926-27) of the Britz housing estate in Berlin. As Taut did not give any concrete explanation about this color planning, we must consider his concept by analyzing the existing architecture. The author tries to clarify it by analyzing an architectural model made with the help of a field study.
This housing estate consists of three-story apartment houses and two-story townhouses, each of which has different color-planning characteristics. The former buildings have an eye-catching, unified coloration. On the other hand, the townhouses show a relatively random coloration consisting of four colors: dark red, yellow, white, and blue. The author pointed out the following characteristics of colors on the street-side walls of these townhouses:
• Taut used dark red most commonly as a fundamental color. The number of blue residences was small, and they were mainly located at the end of a building.
• He gave the townhouses arbitrary zigzag arrangements and changed colors where the houses followed this layout.
• He varied coloration from street to street. For example, in some townhouses, two colors alternated between every residence or every two residences, while some buildings were unicolored.
The author concluded that because there was no clear regularity in the color planning, it must have been laid out according to Taut’s sense of design.
However, by analyzing the architectural model, it became clear that his color planning seems to have changed in the short period of time between section one and section two. For example, the townhouses along Liningstraße in the area of section one show a unique coloration that is different from other streets, i.e., the whole building is colored blue. There are also buildings on this street on which two colors alternate between every house, like stripes, a coloration which is not found elsewhere. Moreover, on many townhouses in section one, the colors of the garden-side wall are different from those of the street-side wall, while most of the townhouses in section two have the same colors on both sides. Therefore, it can be said that the coloration of section two is more systematic than that of section one.
In order to consider Taut’s color planning of this housing estate in his whole career, the author tried to compare it to his other projects. Taut’s manner of architectural coloring changed from the 1910s to the 1930s. In an early project called Garden City Falkenberg (1913-16) he seemed to use colors freely, while the fifth section of the Onkel Toms Hütte housing estate (1930) shows a clear regularity in coloration. In the latter project, different colors were adopted according to the facing of the wall, i.e., he used green for the east walls and red for the west walls of houses because each color corresponded to the rising or setting sun. Taut's color planning gradually changed from arbitrary one to systematic one through his career. Hence, it seems reasonable to conclude that the change of coloration between the sections one and two of the Britz housing estate shows a process of development of Taut's manner of architectural coloring.
This study elucidates the relationship between plant locations and city planning in Koromo (subsequently changed to Toyota) and Toyota City, company town of the automotive industry. The period from during World War II when the foundation of the company city was formed to the high economic growth period will be covered in this study. Analyses will be carried out focusing on plant locations and for the following: (1) the New Industrial City Plan during World War II; (2) Koromo’s city planning during the postwar reconstruction period; and (3) Toyota city planning during the high economic growth period.
During World War II, Koromo was chosen to be one of the 23 New Industrial Cities, a land readjustment project that was to be undertaken by public organization was planned. Land readjustment was carried out to develop a residential area to the west of Toyota Motor Corporation’s headquarters plant. The scale of this land readjustment project, however, was small compared to those of other such projects of the New Industrial City Plan, and such matters as the proportion of green space area for parks were not specified by the project.
During the postwar reconstruction period, a city planning basic survey was conducted, and city-planned roads and land-use zones were planned based on the survey. City-planned roads were established so that the vicinities of Koromo Station (the old city area) and the Toyota headquarters plant became connected, while the area in front of Koromo Station was renewed through land readjustment. These developments coincided with the proposed plan of Hideaki Ishikawa who was asked to give a lecture as a part of the city planning basic survey.
During the high economic growth period, Toyota’s Motomachi Plant was newly established, and the city area expanded toward the southwestern part of Toyota City. As a result, it was decided that Toyota city planning needed to be fundamentally reviewed. It was then agreed on that city planning would be performed in accordance with the City Planning Report that was produced by City Planning Association of Japan. The created plan included a radial ring road that would connect the old city area to the southwestern part of Toyota City. Additionally, parks and green spaces were networked using the Shidare Canal, and they were made to function as a buffering green area between the old city area and the industrial area. An unprecedented park system, this green area was the most important feature in Toyota city planning. Furthermore, the neighborhood unit served as the basic unit for residential areas, and each neighborhood unit was designated as a residential-only district. Akira Sato, director of the City Planning Association of Japan, and Teruo Hatta, committee chairperson of the Toyota city planning research, likely played central roles in the formulation of this groundbreaking city plan.
Subsequently, the rapid rise of Toyota became unstoppable, and the city area of Toyota City expanded along with the building of plants. To match the growing municipal area, the city planning area was expanded. In addition, it was discovered that a plan for creating a belt of green space by situating productive green areas around the city area was developed. Toyota City is facing today in city planning is the growing urban sprawl that is decimating the productive green areas.