The pressurization smoke control system for vestibules, stairwells and corridors has been popularized. In order to plan the system, it is essential to grasp the relationship between the characteristic of smoke and air velocity to prevent smoke from spreading. An experiment on the effect of soffit in a corridor and air velocity to prevent smoke flow was carried out. The relationship between the characteristic of hot gases and velocity of air stream to prevent smoke flowing back was clarified by the experimental results and the theoretically supposed relation between buoyancy of hot gases and inertia of air stream.
The purpose of this study is to describe how residents of the detached houses in Tochigi Prefecture accept and create indoor environments during winter through the study on indoor thermal environments, senses to warmth, consciousness toward their residences. The results are shown as follows: 1) Residents of the detached houses in Tochigi put priority on the plan and commodiousness though they also acknowledge necessity of the thermal insulation of their houses. In the most of the area, residents build detached houses with their windows wide suitable for summer daylighting and ventilation. 2) As to the thermal environment, temperature went down very low ranging from 0 to 10℃ in the morning in each rooms. Heating appliances are not so much mounted in the dressing rooms, toilets or in the kitchens except in the living rooms. People mostly mount KOTATSU in the living rooms though oil fan heaters, oil stoves, airconditioners were used supplementarily and intermittently for energy saving and safety. Temperature difference between the heated and the unheated rooms were found to be 10-15℃. 3) Under such severe environment, we found residents kept off the cold with their clothes such amount of 1.0-2.3 clo. Some of them think enough with KOTATSU only and also few consider to improve their environment though they feel dissatisfaction.
Angle factors between human body and rectangular planes are calculated by a numerical model. Present method, which is applied for predicting the thermal radiation field in a space, is based on a numerical integration method proposed in the previous authors' paper. To confirm the validity of this method, predicted angle factors for both standing and seated persons are compared with those by the experimental method. It was found that predicted figures are met quite well with those by the subjective experiments. From previous results, however, significant difference was found in angle factors between the human body and the front floor. In addition, angle factors between each body surface and rectangular planes including the floor were also investigated.
The system which uses the natural energy, are deeply related with the weather factor. Because the atmospheric radiation quantity and the nocturnal radiation quantity influence mainly, the Sol-Air Heat Pump System which radiates in to the sky with the radiation cooling in night must examine these values sufficiently. Then, it did long-range observation with the observation receptacles such as the wet and dry-bulb thermometer, the pyrheliometer, the infrared radiometer and the SAT meter. It made an atmospheric radiation quantity estimated formula from those observation results and the practicality of the formula was shown.
Air pollution problems, such as reentry of exhaust fumes into buildings and pollution of residential areas near sources of emission, are of much concern. In this study, wind tunnel simulation of diffusion of high temperature fumes from a point source in the lower portion of a building was carried out. Concentrations near the building surfaces and at the ground level around the building were predicted. A method was also proposed to estimate the yearly-average concentration based on the dilution ratio obtained from the wind tunnel simulation and meteorological data for the area in consideration. High concentrations were predicted for one of the building walls close to the source and in the building wake. For one location on the ground, mean concentrations as high as 0.32×10^<-3> times the source concentration were predicted.
To precisely simulate non-isothermal flows, the models utilizing the eddy viscosity concept do not work well since those flows are strongly characterized by non-isotropic features of turbulence. First, thermal plume is simulated by the WET model and k-ε models. In comparison with the experiment, the WET model predicts the flow and temperature-field most precisely. Secondly, wall damping effect near walls is introduced into the WET model and apply to indoor air flow. The simulated flow-field agrees well with the experiment, but the temperature near walls are higher than that of the experiment. The WET model overestimates the convection heat-transfer coefficient.
Recently in Japan, high concentration of VOC caused by air-tightness in residences has become a social problem. There are many chamber tests of individual materials or measurements taken place in experimental residences. In real residences there are occupants. There is a possibility of them taking in sources of VOC, changing environmental conditions and etc., which will effect on the emission of VOC inside the residences. In this study we measured VOC concentration including formaldehyde in 50 residences. As a result, the mean concentration of HCHO and TVOC were 0.0478ppm and 3640μg/m^3 and the standard deviation were 0.0415ppm and 8240μg/m^3. The concentration differed 1.7 times with HCHO and 15 times with TVOC between new and old residences. In both HCHO and TVOC concentrations were higher in the winter time. There were no correlations between the temperature or relative humidity and the concentrations of HCHO or TVOC. The HCHO concentration became steady in about 6 years and TVOC concentration in about 8 years. Also it is neccessary to be aware of the product which the occupants bring inside the residences.
In recent years, indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde (HCHO) from interior finishing material are recognized as one of the most serious potential risks against human health. Authors carried out experiments to investigate the influence of interior finishing on indoor air quality. Three experimental rooms with different finishing material and adhesive were used to quantity the indoor air concentration and the decreasing rate of HCHO and VOCs. It is observed that the concentration of HCHO and VOCs decreased by approximately 58% and 89% as the minimum after one year from the completion of the rooms. In addition, a method for predicting the indoor air concentration of HCHO, using measured emission rate of HCHO from each specimen of the finishing material, was proposed.
Building materials used indoors usually emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the interior space. It has been emphasized to reduce the exposure rate of humans to indoor air pollutants and to improve the quality of indoor air by the use of less polluting materials. Comparative studies of emission measurements carried out by different laboratories on such materials are regarded particularly important in view of their utilization for material emission databases. Small scale chambers have been used to develop emission rate data of VOCs. These tests involve placing samples in the chambers and measuring VOC concentrations at various times. The concentration versus time data are used to determine the parameters of emission rate models. The purpose of this study is to estimate long term VOC emission rates emitted from polyurethane using empirical regression models.
The objective of this research is to develop a scheme for optimal placement of outdoor condensing unit. To this end, we examine the relationship between rise in suction temperature and the placement of outdoor condensing unit in multi-level installations. A model experiment is performed for outdoor condensing. In addition, an equation for predicting rise in suction temperature for outdoor unit having an outside-air inflow rate R_m (ratio of outside-air inflow volume to air volume of the outdoor unit) is used to clarify the relationship between the rise in suction temperature of outdoor unit and equipment setup conditions. Based on these results, factors that will determine setup conditions considering the rise in suction temperature of outdoor unit are found and a method for suppressing rise in suction temperature is evaluated.
This paper describes the simulation study of the central space and DHW heating system for a multi-family house. A five storied building containing 30 housing units heated with indirect heating system using a central boiler was used as the simulation model. The detailed hour by hour simulation results showed that the total annual boiler load is 152 MWh/year and the heat loss from the piping system shared 17% of the boiler load. The amounts of energy consumption were also compared among the central and individual systems and the effects of the part load characteristics of the heating systems were examined.
Currently, in China, the condition of water shortage has been frequently happened in city. The water demand in city is largely increased and the water supply shortage problem is coming out because of the remarkable economic development, the increase of population by urbanization and the improvement of living standard. Then, the unbalance problem between water supply and demand is becoming more serious. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to clarify the actual situation of water usage and the water consumption in dwelling houses based on the questionnaire survey that was carried out in Suzhou, China. According to the investigation, the authors obtained the actual data that are consist of characteristics of household, water-using facilities, frequencies of water usage, consciousness for water saving and living environment, etc. Using the technique of multivariate analysis, the authors clarified the relations between factors of water usage and water consumption, also clarified the main factors having an influence on the level of consciousness for water saving. Where, the consciousness for water saving is depended mainly on the reuse performance of water in the bath tub. As the main factors affected the volume of tap water consumption, regional difference, frequency of taking bath, annual income of a family, number of room in a house, etc. are mentioned.
The purpose of this study is to establish the new calculating method of fixture requirements for railway stations by applying a simulation method based on the characteristic factors of stations. In this paper, as part one of the study, we analyzed the weekday data of passengers and toilet users in three East JR stations, Tokyo area. The results are as follows. We showed the sequential changes of the numbers of passengers and toilet users in each hour through a day. The ratio of the toilet users for the passengers has five stages in a day. On the basis of the analysis of the U station including the people of transfer, the number of transfers has to be considered as a factor of the calculating method of fixture requirements for railway stations. We showed the relationships between the passengers included the people of transfer and the toilet users in each of four stages needed for the calculation. We clarified the ratios of the number of toilet users in each gender for the estimated numbers of passengers of male and female.
Effects of habituation to repeating presentation of noise stimuli on auditory evoked potentials that reflect auditory information processing in the brain are analyzed. They are investigated under two hearing conditions (listening and task-imposed) using four intensities (33, 40, 50, and 70 dBA) of pink noise as noise stimuli. Results of analysis suggest that habituation to auditory stimuli of 50 dBA and above occurs under listening condition. However, 70 dBA stimuli only lead to habituation under task-imposed condition. It is supposed that a person who is at his task perceives auditory information weaklier than when he is listening to it.
This is the report of the psychological experiment conducted to discuss urban landscape from the viewpoint of environmental engineering. Seventy two slides of street landscape were shown to the subjects in the experimental chamber adjusted to two levels of traffic noise (55, 70LAeq), vegetation (with or without vegetation) and temperature (26℃, 28℃. Evaluation was made on 17 pairs of adjectives of seven point scales. Subjects were 25 healthy male students, half of whom specialized in "architectural course" and the rest did "non-architectural course." Results showed that the evaluation structures of the two subject groups differed each other in the evaluation of vegetation.
In recent years a trend developing a seaside area as a new residential site has become common. However it is necessary to examine local characteristics, natural environment, living environment, safety and crime prevention. Some problems that must be solved became clear for the living conditions by the questionnaire that was filled out by residents at a seaside area. One of than is the damage from salty breezes from sea. Through the investigation of details and frequency of repairs for housing estates, it became clear that outside repair for housing at the seaside area was more frequent than for one at the inland. This paper describes the relationships between the concentration of the chloride ionic contained in atmosphere and atmospheric weather condition or space elements by examining sea water aerosol concentration which is to be a precondition against the damage from salty breezes. In this study, the survey area is the Hakata bay area, Fukuoka City, in Japan.
This study forcuses on the transformation of dwelling units in Dojunkwai Daikan-yama Apartment House which was built by the Dojunkwai Foundation in 1927. The aim of this study is to find out changes in fanctions of dwelling units and the way of transformation of all dwelling units. Analisys was taken under 3 ponts of view, "change of people", "multi-unit use" and "change of space use". Findings are as follows; Low rise buildings have a tendency to afford long-term dwelling. Multi-unit dwelling can easily suit each dweller's life cycle. Changes of space use occur according to transformations of neighborhood circumstances.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the place where the elderly feel relaxing and pleasuring, and we investigate the place viewed from the residential style in Imai, Nara Pref. The results are as follows, 1) Most of the place relax the elderly are within the house. In Imai, there are not enough place for the elderly to communicate with the residents of Imai. 2) According to the residential style of the elderly, in the case of separating from their married children in Imai, they can contact and communicate with their children or grandchildren easily. 3) It is required to provide a good choice of the places where the elderly feel relaxing and pleasuring, such as a park, and to utilize the unoccupied house.
The Old Qiang tribes used to be prevailing in the west of China. They separate now into some ethnic minorities. The purpose of this study is to clear their principles of spatial composition of dwellings. In this paper I am concerned with Qiang, one of the Old Qiang tribes. In conclusion, (1) As going up, the spatial hierarchy grows high. (2) The "square" plan of the traditional house is one of the spatial principles. (3) The corners have significance in the room. And the main room is divided into some spatial sections by two diagonal axes.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the spatial characteristics and meanings of pilotis-type detached housing in Okinawa. Here the focus is on morphological characteristics, housing needs and dwelling usages. As survey methods, observations of utilization and interviews were used. Some results show as follows: 1) The pilotis style was decided by dwellers rather than architects at the planning process. Many types of pilotis utilization were observed and it is thought that the provision of spatial diversity. The utilization greatly affects the life-style of dwellers especially for reserved space as extension of housing. 2) The traditional housing plan were adapted to typical pilotis-type detached housing. The public spaces like Japanese style room were strongly reserved inside housing, but events for their relatives is held rarely. 3) Due to the special spatial characteristics of the balcony space, dwellers were able to develop several pattern of using the spaces. Both the outside space and inside spaces are unified to be important in terms of balcony.
Based on a one-day observation survey of courtyard houses residents' activities in 3 districts in Bamako, we analyzed the particularity of each "activity space", their transfer with the time and the overlap of those spaces according to the collectivity form. In the courtyard every activity require a specific space which is formed by the placement and movement of furnitures and tools. The activities in the courtyard are not specified to any component in the term of space and time, but some are intensely used than others (the tree-shadow is intensely use in afternoon and the front-door of residents' room all day). In the front-doors we observed the overlap of some "activity space" such as chatting and cooking, but many residents take their meal separately. The "activity space" of activities (laundry, wash up of dishes) using water and requiring an easy place for drainage don't overlap.
Patient usage of therapeutical exercise rooms was analyzed from the following three perspectives. 1. Platform, walking exercise area, parallel bars, and mats are the main areas in therapeutical exercise rooms. 2. The results of a logistic regression analysis indicated that the higher probability of patients using the platform was due to wheel chair patients or patients undergoing manual therapy, the walking exercise area or the parallel bars was due to patient performing gait exercises, and the mat was due to patient performing A. D. L. exercises. 3. The time remained at each exercise area were classified in 7 types by using cluster analysis.
The purpose of this experimental study is to evaluate how persons perceive physical barriers and visual barrier, and how these barriers may be avoided from potentially hazardous. Eye fixation behaviors by using apparatus of eye-reflection camera are examined in dementia and mental retardation groups, in comparison with normal control group, while they are walking on corridor with three types of barriers. The results are summarized as follows. 1) Dementia group has difficulties to perceive smaller physical barrier, although all three groups fixate on bigger barrier. 2) Dementia group often fails to fixate on visual barrier, which is located on floor. 3) Dementia and Mental retardation groups often fail to fixate on wayfinding cues, due to closer barrier.
In this report we aim to clarify collective form of housing units concerned with exterior spaces. It is one of the important subjects which decides the compositional characteristics of collective housing, that is how to make the spatial units and how to combine them. First, we defined the compositional units which is formed by articulated exterior space and houses surrounding it. Secondly, we analyzed the spatial relationships between exterior spaces and between compositional units. Then we found typological compositions and characteristic instance in collective housing. Through comparing those compositions, we found the structure of territory and the collective form of housing units defined by arrangement of exterior space.
In this study, we sort wall and window around the modern houses, measure Sight Depth and consider the space composition in the modern houses. We presume various space compositions by the relation of the component with defining window as a thing that faced wall. Wall and window were used in opposition from the viewpoint of multiplier effect and changeably in the modern houses. We confirm what architects in the modern ages tried to find the new space composition that was different from past architecture.
In order to realize accessible environments for people with impaired vision, we must first establish the information system for their own wayfinding. This paper deals with the cognitive basis for the system and specifies the elements of information for their successful navigation. In our experiment, 4 groups of subjects with impaired vision (blind/partial vision, early-onset/late-onset) as well as normally sighted subjects are asked lo explain the entire sequence of their everyday routes. From the comparison of the route descriptions by the 5 groups, spatial schemata of each group are specified. We conclude II schemata should be the fundamental elements of information for the future navigation system.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the influences of children's space perception on evacuation behavior in elementary school. The results are summarised as follows ; 1) Lower pupils perceive space of their school partially, upper pupils perceive the whole. 2) Children perceive the site of a fire and staircases only partially when the fire and staircases are in another wing or on another floor from the children's permanent classroom. 3) The ratio of space perception is high when the ratio of non-access route to fire is high, but the ratio of non-access route to fire is dispersive however the ratio of space perception is high.
This paper discusses the "Master Plan of Park in Nagoya", which was established in 1925 and preceded the other local cities, through its relationship with the geography, the historical sites and the city planning. This plan aimed to preserve the small topographical undulations in the flat landscape of Nagoya, that is, plateaus, historical sites, ponds, and woods, from the land developments. All sites were connected by the "Master Plan of Street Network in Nagoya" established in 1923 to form a network of existing places of interest scattered around the suburb.
The purpose of this study is to make clear the basic condition of collective form creation where various buildings coexisted as a result of architects collaboration coexisted, by using The Master Architect Design Coordination system. To understand this subject, 1) We extracted "form" from several drawings to grasp design development tendency, 2) We analyzed the "form" decision method and the background of decisions. As a result, We understood following issues: "form" is decided by the personal ideas of MA, simulated design by MA, and the development of form expression by communication MA and BA .The collective from is made by a collaboration of MA and BA using the unity formation principle and the existence of collective form model.
This paper aims to clarify the transition of the buildings along Svetlanskaya street, the main street of the central district of Vladivostok, Russia. In the early days of the city (1860-80's), only wooden houses existed and none of them exists now. The existing buildings of the towntscape were mostly built between the 1890's and the early 1910's. In the Soviet Era (1922-91), due to the abolishment of the ownership of land lots and buildings, construction by private merchants stopped. Besides remodeling and extension works, only a handful of new buildings were constructed, and the townscape has changed only partially.
In the previous research, we simulated the transition of streetscape which were composed of low-rise to high-rise buildings by means of virtual reality simulation system and investigated the relationship between estimation and transition of streetscape. In the present research, we simulated the transition of streetscape under an alternative control : height and setback of upper part of building facade. The results of the previous experiment and of the present experiment were compared. In four estimation categories, continuity and order showed a different evaluation type, but openness and preference showed a similar type.
The purpose of this study is to clarify relationships between estimation and color composition in streetscapes regarding the range of basic and point colors in a collection of building walls. In the first experiment, building colors were gradually changed to determine the effect of basic color ranges on estimation. In the second, the color of a particular building was gradually changed to investigate the effect of the change in color. The basic color ranges which cause visual unity are hue 5R-5Y, value 7-9, and chroma 1-3. The range of acceptable point color variance is wide in the case of value.
This study aimes to clarify the roles of municipal master plans on the development process as a resort city, compared with in Kusatsu and Yuzawa. Based on historical records of municipal master plans, maps, and evidence from interview survey, the analysis was conducted. Finding are as follows; The municipal master plans had fullfilled their available functions on the development process as a resort city in Kusatsu, on the other hand, they hadn't in Yuzawa. The results were caused by the difference of both plans. In the concrete, the plans of Kusatsu had the flow from vision, pilot plan, zoning to project plan, and had proposed the measures of control and guide against disordered development, on the other hand, the plans of Yuzawa had facility plans as the main plans.
This is a study on the optimization of construction planning. In this paper, we develop the optimized simulation of construction planning by using Genetic Algorithms in consideration of constrained condition of materials, machine parts, and sequence of works. In order to apply the new method to a real project, conditions among activities such as "Do not extend the activity to the next working day" are used across cycle process. Moreover, we compare the project plans obtained from the application of this method with the one executed in the concerning project to find out that our plans have lower cost.
The correspondence of existing housing stock to the changes of economic social structure is a key-point in inner city problems now. It is considered necessary to revaluate the meanings of the spacial and social economic characters of existing housing stock on macro and micro levels. By analyzing the relation between the urbanism process of inner area and the location of Lilong estate's types, this study aims to clarify the characters of urban form and settlement style of urban area made up by Lilong estates, which are typical urban houses developed during colonial age before 1949, from a case study of inner area in Shanghai.
This study shows the way to estimate the residential remaining ratio by an equation based on the years of house and the average length of stay, and aims to clarify the nature of estimated residential remaining ratio. I estimated the residential remaining ratio r by solving an equation r^l-u'r+u'-1=0, u' as an average length of stay in term. I calculated the remaining ratios using Housing Survey of Kinki urban area, and examined the relations between years of house, rent, floor area, distance from city center and the ratios. The residential remaining ratios are affected by rent, rent per floor area, floor area and years of house, but the distance to the center of city isn't major factor in Kinki urban area. As a result, I think that the estimated ratio is appropriate as the indicator expressing residential stability and mobility. But the problems to examine the nature of the ratio influenced by the years of house and to express the fluctuation of the ratio are left.
This study is focused on the scientific management of defects in the apartment housing and on building the foundation of the reasonable quality management through it, analyzing the influence of each factor on defect occurrences and the correlation between the factors and the occurrences, predicting the frequency of the occurrences due to the elapse of year. It is verified in the study how the factors influence on defect occurrences by the elapse of the year and how is the degree of the confidence level through the statistical procedure, surveying and analyzing the frequency of the occurrences after sorting them by the elapse of year.
I investigated the Shikyakumon of Ryuhoin mausoleum in the Eiheiji-Temple in search of clues to go on through its old drawings and its firsthand survey. The summary of this study is as follows : The existing Shikyakumon was originally built as the gate of Ryuhoin grave in 1647 (Shoho 4). It has a hiwada gabled roof, with a nokikarahafu in the front. The Shikyakumon was moved to the present place in 1778 (An-ei 7) and was dismantled of its nokikarahafu. The Shikyakumon retains the original style in its details.
The object of the research project in this thesis is the east-yamate house No.9 & No.10 that were built in the old leased territory of Nagasaki. In the comparison with the six south-yamate houses, we made an inquiry into the design's measurement problems in the east-yamate house No.9 & No.10. On the result of this research, it would be clear that about 313 meteres-design s measurement were used in the east-yamate house No.9 & No.10, and 303 meteres-desigri s measurement were used in the six south-yamate houses. and it would be guessed that the east-yamate house No.9 & No.10 were built by the Chinese influences in the middle Meiji period.
In the early Archaic period, viewpoints to look all chambers were found in the front space open-air of the doorways to chambers. In the late Archaic tombs providing central hall-like spaces, visitors entered the hall-like spaces beyond the doorways in order to look at all chambers. The viewpoint was moved from the space open to sky into the hall-like space. In examples in the 6th century B.C., for instance a wide room with pillars at Tomb of the Capitals, the wide room was used for two different purposes, such as the chamber and the viewpoints, in transition between early and late Archaic tombs. In the 4th century B.C. Etruscan tombs, so-called Sotto Faciata, had the place for the viewpoints that was spatially independent of the chambers.
Certain rescarchers studied on the construction's history of the chateau-neuf of Versailles, i.e. the "enveloppe" by Lc vau. But they don't have any harmony with themselves, for example, about the date of the mise en chantier, the competition between several architects and the first design for the chateau-neuf. It is for the dateless of three Colbert's documents. To resolve these problems, it is necessary to compare the analyses of the documents in the former researchs. At all, the situations about two first problems become clear, but the documental analyses aren't insuffisant for the last.
This paper aims to elucidate the generation of the site vision in Le Corbusier's architectural conception concerning the hill of Ronchamp. His visit to the site inspires the first concept concerning the chapel, the esplanade and the campanile in order to materialize a "response to the landscape". However, some concepts will change their meanings and his complex vision influenced by the landscape 'from the site' will shift to the vision of a chapel united 'with the site'. Thus, the architect finds out the totality of the "architectural place" where site and building interact.
The Yami have the highly valued main post (tomok). This report attempts to elucidate the order of place in the Yami's dwelling main house (vahay) through the place (domavak) where 'tomok' is erected. For the Yami, 'domavak' is set as the original place to dwell between sea and mountain. We can understand that 'domavak' is founded on 'tomok' and mountain as the immovable center, and it is regulated by sea-direction and mountain-direction. At the 'domavak', the Yami are satisfied themselves of their center, and, at the same time, they stand on the tension between sea and mountain.