It is quite common in fire safety codes of buildings that the higher or the larger the building, and the larger the number of occupants, the more strict the provisions applied. This, of course, intends to reduce the probability and the potential size of fire loss. Although the consistency of the principle and the attainable level of the prescriptive provisions of the existing codes is questionable, the favorable interpretation of their intention will be expressed in a scientific term as "to control fire risk under a certain level", that is, letting R be the fire risk, P_L be the probability of fire loss occurrence, S_L be the potential size of the loss, and R_a be the acceptable fire risk. [numerical formula] By so considering, many provisions can be interpreted in a rational manner. For example, the fire resistance requirements on principal structural members intends to control the fire risk by lowering P_L ; compartmentation and shaft sealing by limiting S_L as well as to lowering P_L ; provisions for safe escape routes are not imposed, or at least very lightly if any, for small buildings such as family dwellings because the potential size of life is so small. Under above concept, calculation method of design fire load density was developed and case-study by proposed method was carried out in this paper.
The sound field in an irregular-shaped reverberation room was analyzed using finite element method (FEM) to evaluate the resulting accuracy of the FE-analysis of sound field with irregular-shaped elements. Next, absorption modeling techniques with the assumption of locally reactiveness and with absorbent finite element were examined by comparing the accuracies in the sound field analysis, and the latter modeling was found to give the better result when transmitting acoustic energy exists. Finally, the standard deviations of sound pressure distribution in the reverberation room was calculated using results of sound field analysis by the FEM.
When the resonators have a space of one-fourth of resonance wavelength, the transmission loss of double section resonators becomes the maximum. In addition, when the acoustic resistance of the upstream resonator is adjusted to the specific value for the acoustic resistance of the downstream resonator, the acoustic dissipation increases. This paper shows the example of applying such double section resonators to the silencer for the air-conditioning duct. First, the acoustic impedance of the resonator which installed resistance to the resonance pore is discussed. Next, the measurement result of the peculiar acoustic properties and dynamic insertion loss of the double section resonators which composed with these resonators is shown.
It is indispensable to understand the luminance distribution to evaluate visual environment. The luminance measurement with a digital camera which installs the fish-eye lens can measure the range of 180 degrees at the same time. It is a practicable measurement method excellent as for operativeness and the portability. The measurement result can be recorded as one fish-eye image by converting the luminance value into color information and allocating it to each pixel. It becomes easy to use for various visual environment evaluations. This report describes the method of calculating effective luminance at the center of view from this fish-eye image. As a result. easily understanding effective luminance on the site which had complex luminance distribution became possible.
This Study places emphasis on obtaining the distribution of the entire wall surface for measurement of the heat transfer coefficient on the outer wall surface of a building. An experiments is carried out on a smooth surfaced wall of a small building model (1.1m × l.lm × 1.1m) made of a SAT meter set up outdoors. Development of a method of obtaining the density of heat flow rate and the convective heat transfer coefficient at each part of a building using the measurements from the SAT meter, infrared radiant energy thermometer, and net pyrradiometer is attempted. As part of this study, the thermal image of a wall surface captured by the infrared radiant energy thermometer is divided into 10cm × 10cm grids, and the heat transfer coefficient is obtained from the heat balance of each area. This method shows the possibility of measuring the heat transfer distribution rate of an entire wall surface so long as multiple SAT meters can be attached to the wall of a small building whose surface is smooth while the measurement accuracy may be slightly inferior.
This paper presents the calculation method of a shape factor of human body model, shape factor distribution maps, etc. Using the measurements of human body's sections, the 3D human body model creation was performed. Consequently, the 3D human body models (four kinds : standing nude, standing clothed, seated nude, and seated clothed), which consist of triangles, could be created. In order to perform shape factor simulation of these models, the calculation algorithm of a shape factor using the scan line was developed. The program using this algorithm was able to calculate the shape factor distributions of the human body model on the wall. After calculating the effective radiation area of the human body model, the shape factors between the human body model and the rectangular plane ware determined.
This paper describes the simulation results of annual air conditioning load in the model office building in Tokyo and five European cities, Rome, Zurich, Paris, Frankfurt and London. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristic of heating and cooling energy consumption in Japan in comparison with Europe where space heating is considered more important than cooling. From the comparison of annual air conditioning loads in the office building, the total load in Tokyo showed the greatest value which is 1.4 times of the total load in Paris. Since the space cooling load of office buildings is affected by solar radiation through windows and internal heat gains, the annual space cooling load is much greater than the space heating load in all cities. However, for the air conditioning coil loads, the heating load is greater than the cooling load in the most European cities due to cooling effect of outdoor air for ventilation reauirment. From the simulation results, it was confirmed that cooling is primarily important in Tokyo in comparison with the European cities where the heating shared the largest portion even for the office building.
The authors have manufactured heating devices using PCMs (phase change materials) for housing heating, and conducted various experiments. One with a built-in heater for midnight power has employed a PCM whose fusing point was 28 degrees centigrade. The other was for a solar air collector. The two devices have shown that theoretical values were very close to those gained from experiments. It has been found from experiments that the capacity of the PCM heating device for midnight power was insufficient to be used from early morning. It has also been discovered from simulation that the PCM heating device for a solar air collector was useful in raising room temperatures both in the daytime and at night.
This paper presents the results of survey on 276 grid-connected PV generation systems and measurement of 7 systems in Kyushu area. The electricity generated for a year was in average 925.9kWh/kWp/year. It was found that the system with panels on one side of roof generates more electricity than the system with panels on plural side of roof. The electricity generated by the system with panels on one side of roof was approximately 10% more than that with panels on three sides of roofs. The amount of electricity generation from PV system is in general affected by the local solar radiation condition and the system efficiency. The relation between decrease in power generation and the shadow on the panel or the unbalanced solar radiation between panels was simulated using the data acquired by the experiment.
The purpose of this study is to obtain basic data concerning to the actual conditions of water consumption, refuse quantity and malfunctions occur in sanitary equipment to present the materials for the planning of building maintenance and management. The maintenance records at a certain office building are investigated and analyzed for this purpose. The water consumption data are compared with the consumption of toilet rolls that indicate the number of persons in the building. The trend of increase and decrease of refuse quantity for 5 years is analyzed. And some features of the malfunctions occur in the sanitary equipment are grasped.
Following acquaintance was obtained by field and questionnaire survey. (1) Most of the residents in a "hillside area" perceive the characteristic of atmospheric phenomena. (2) Concerned with energy consumotion for air-conditioning, consumption of "hillside area" is less than the neighboring city statistically. (3) In a "hillside area", resident's attitude of strength of wind has an impact on energy consumption for air-conditioning. (4) Energy consumption for air-conditioning can be reduced by ventilation. However, the condition of ventilation is strongly influenced by house configuration and it's surroundings, so it is important not only urban design but also architectural design.
In this study, we find combination of building materials and construction methods to reduce environmental loads (LCCO_2, final waste, LCC) with using genetic algorithms system which is developped to select those combination. We apply the system to "the standard building model (often used at calculating thermal load)", and search combinations to minimize each value through life cycle. Then we can find combinations to reduce a11 values at the same time by the system using "restriction method". Each value is much less than each of house which has enough thermal insulating material to satisfy "standard by energy conservation next generation".
Global environmental problems are now becoming great issues. This study tries to estimate the amount of the C0_2 emissions from the households through the family expenditure survey 1990 and C0_2 basic unit. based on the 1990 input-output table. Today, family life causes a great deal of C0_2 emissions. As a whole. the amount of the C0_2 exhaust depends more on the household itself than it's contents. Even in a item which depends greatly on the number of household members, there is a basic amount of C0_2 as a household. And the family cycle relates deeply to C0_2 emissions. Thus, the household unit produces major influences on the amount of the C0_2 emissions.
The purpose on this paper is to clarify spatial composition of Akha house that stand on social structure and system of belief. This study takes up Loi Mi Akha village that names Maemon in northern Thailand. Analysis is to based on design survey and hearing with the viewpoint of Akha ways and system of belief. The main house of Akha is composed that models a man and a woman on behalf of households, with keeping situation of sexual isolation. Moreover, it appears model of becoming a believer in Akha's spiritual world.
This paper describes the order of dwelling spaces of Pingyao prefecture of Shanxi Province, China through the funeral ceremony. Here the focus is on the system of making the daily dwelling spaces and the funeral spaces. Some results as follows : l) the daily dwelling spaces and the funeral spaces are based on the models that the order of a point of the compass and the order of a member of a family. 2) the process of the funeral ceremony emophasize the marginal line(a da-gie-men, a bridge and a crossing) between the inner area and outer area of dwelling spaces and urban area.
Houses using the architectural method called "segai-style", which is characterized by its use of cantilevers as the ceiling beams to hold the roof, are often seen in the towns around Niigata City. It is considered that the different structure of those "segai-style" traditional "machiya" houses are giving a differet impression to the scenery in Nuttari district (formerly Nuttari Town), and the scenery in Niigata Island (formerly Niigata Town). We will also make it clear that there is systematic transformation in the position of "seeai" beams and rafters in those "segai-style" machiya houses by comparing "machiya" houses in the towns of Tsugawa, Suibara, and Kameda, which are a11 located in the Agano-river basin.
This is a study of the meaning of possessions of the elderly people who are resident at nursing homes. We listed every possession from photographs which were taken in forty-six elderly peoole's rooms, who stay in a nursing home. Then categorized them by using concept of action-objects and contemplation-objects by Csikszentmihalyi et a1. (1977). Some results were: (1) There is a correlation between the number of action-objects and the degree of ADL. This can be understood as the tendency that the degree of ADL has the possibilities to limit elderly person's action in nursing homes. (2) There is a negative correlation between quantity of possessions and degree of dementia. These results suggest that there is a tendency of a decrease in the dementia person's environmental behavior there. (3) Action-objects used for everyday actions have very important roles for overcoming the critical environment transition when a person moves into a nursing home.
The office space to fit the work-style is highly needed, while we exoerience the diversification of workplaces lead by the development of information technology. This paper seeks for the planning criteria for alternative office strategy. The analysis was carried out from three aspects using graph models established from the two office observations. The findings are as follows; 1. Three sets of classification criteria were found with reeards to the three aspects, namely, circulation continuity and branching hierarchy in path patterns for plan compositions, autonomy and diversity for work-styles, and amount and place of conversation for conversation behaviors. 2. A planning methodology was proposed to utilize the above three aspects.
In this paper, an Area Measurement Standard mainly for Space Management is proposed. Several analysis are made to check the suitability of this standard to the space management, e.g. the influence to office floor area data by the two measuring methods; measures to center of walls and to face of walls is analyzed and some points are found out by analyzing area data of 91 well evaluated intelligent offices, the parameter for making the change from the area data which measures to center of walls to the area data which measures to face of walls are found out. At last New Area Measurement Standard is proposed by these office area analysis. By using this standard the tendency of office floor area, which is very important for space management is clarified.
In a process of architectural design, the role of the language use is important. In order to make the function of language in design process clear, we construct a comoutational model of linguistic instructions to modify the architectural forms. In the model, the words as linguistic instructions and forms are expressed as vectors in a semantic space. The relation of these vectors is determined by exoeriments of word-association to the graphical presentation of forms. The graphical presentation of each form is determined by design variables. The mapping from the vectors to design variables is estimated by neural network model.
In this paper we typologically clarified the characteristics of relationship between framework and spatial composition of contemporary architectural works in terms of external volumes and internal space. First we analyzed their arrangements of walls and columns, and found several 'framework models.' Secondly we analyzed their external volume arrangement and internal spatial characteristics. Thirdly we found several types from framework models and spatial composition, and clarified their characteristics. In conclusion, we pointed out that most of models' external volumes and internal spaces were articulated according to each framework unit, and that suggests the possibility to find alternative types through relationship between framework and spatial composition.
This study considers 'PAO' as a unit of spatial volume. In 2 experiments, subjects experienced a fixed room as 'PAO' (10m^3, 12m^3) individually, and then a room in which volume of spaces was varied (2.7-4.5 sq. m.). Then subjects answered questionnaires concerning spatial volume and 'Ochitsuki*' As a result, in the case of 10m^3 and 12m^3 as 'PAO', there were not so much difference about the evaluations of spatial volume and 'Ochitsuki'. * The Japanese word 'Ochitsuki' includes sense of calm, composure, and comfort.
The information system constructed as an visual cognition model through solid angle ratios shows the results below. 1. 1f the schemata is constructed by the perceptual circulation through the process of education and experience, solid angle ratios 1 : golden proportion^i (= 1:0.61803399^i) can be corresponded to psychological stresses 1: 2^i. 2. By the design works, psychological stress can be set to any plus proportion, so that relativity between solid angle ratio and psychological stress can be controlled to explain orders such as Greek on the same system above.
We intend to clarify the perceived shapes of the street with setback space in the building lower part. Firstly, we made percentual experiments, using perspectives, and got 12 types of perceived shapes. Secondly, we showed subjects scale models using a visual simulator, and asked them to choose the perceived shapes from the types. Analyzing the results, we found that perceived shapes are related to the physical proportions of the street. Thirdly, we focused on the factors of the street such as frontage, depth, width, and height of building lower part, and got the relation between perceived shapes and these factors. Finally, using these 4 factors we made a diagram of distinction of these types. The diagram allows us to easily distinguish between perceived shapes.
It investigated to nursing home and health care facilities which are in Japan. The contents are the following five items about the refuge safety of the resident in case of a fire. The problem about shortage of the number of the institution personnel of night, the protection from smoke of the room, and refuge instrument use became clear. 1. A resident's move capability and the relation of the number of the personnel. 2. The opening situation of the room, and a smoke-free relation. 3. The installation situation of a refuge instrument, and validity of use. 4. The enforcement item and participating situation of disaster prevention training. 5. The number of residents according to room condition.
The purpose of this study is to make clear of the elements in the living environment contributed for the Livability and 'ikigai' of Young adults in hilly and mountainous areas. The analysis resulted in the following contents. 1) For young adults the Livability isn't enough in the present conditions, which is the obstructive of the local community, the interference from the neighborhood etc. The low of livability have a bad influence to intention of permanent dwelling. 2) For the ikigai, the selectivity of the employment condition makes contributions to the rise of the degree.
This study highlights settlement-shrines because that are considered to represent the basic and specific image to settle down on lowland that is a new making land. From the analysis of the specific aspects, two typical patterns can be defined. The first is "relation to mountain"that has greenery, is positioned in the mountainside of settlements, and has the orientation to the mountain. The second is "relation to living" that has living facilities, and is positioned in the inner part of settlements. 0n the lowland area many settlement-shrines represent the "relation to living" and only sign of the "relation to mountain". So this model of the settlement-shrines is considered to be a devise to settle down on this place.
The purpose of this study is to realize design review by ordinance to control townscape in Furukawa-cho. Gifu prefecture. And we also aim to acauire the challenge after this. Based on field survey and hearing, we analyze actual condition of the procedure and details of advice by the ordinance and clear up the tendencies of a grant used as method to review. As a result. there are six problems of the management. These causes are closely related with system of the ordinance. It is necessary to improve details of the procedure and to keep fairness of the ordinance.
The image of Buddhist temples districts case by Nagano Prefecture Iiyama City is grasped. Five chief priests, five inhabitants and five liyama suburb peoples were interviewed about the favorability of Buddhist temples districts by the method of repertory grid. From each evaluation, 15 bunches of evaluation and 38 evaluative elements were extracted, and considered about the connections between them. Then, 2 "images" of Buddhist temples districts were founded out. 0ne "image" was explained by the evaluation of evaluative elements existing concretely. Another "image" was explained by the evaluation of evaluative elements existing idealisticly.
"Kenchiku-Torishimarikisoku" was important for the growth of the modern building codes system in Japan. This paper investigates the enacting conditions of this code, and reports the following points. (1) Osaka Private Association for Sanitation proposed to Osaka Prefecture that a building code should be established for the purpose of preventing the plague (1906). (2) Mainly because of this recommendation Osaka Prefecture drafted the building code, but there was little progress, in its enacting procedure. A great fire broke out in Osaka, 1909, when Osaka Private Association for Sanitation took a good chance of the proposition again. This building code enacted after that.
This report is a study on the situation of the sports institution on the result of questionnaire. The "Dome stadium" type buildings increased recently, but actual result and state of utilization are not different from Gymnasium's in small or medium cities and they are not satisfied with their operating in large cities. And the managing staffs of the "Dome-type stadium" tend to respect the increment of events more than them of formal-type sports institutions without regard to the city scale.
Our current reauirements of the building construction projects are to account for the building process and to define architects' and engineers' responsibilities. In order to meet their requirements. the purpose of this paper is to analyze the organizational design of its projects under reconsidering ones' professions. The procedures are as follows,: (1) Defining the professions of architects and engineers in our country, comparing with them in the U.S. and Europe. (2) Defining the framework for the organizational design of the building construction projects. (3) Designing the organizational elements that are the operating and reoresentative units of the building process.
Characteristics of MUTUAL SUPPORTING DWELLING of Chinese urban elderly are following: l)The ratio of living together is high, and inter-communication between elderly and their posterity is so frequent. There is a typical family type, which is called "LIVING TOGETHER WITH GRANDCHILD". 2) These mean the mutual supporting. 3) The past welfare housing system has been supported the mutual supporting dwelling. 4) According to aging, their relationships change, and the conditions of elderly become worse. Eventually MUTUAL SUPPORTING DWELLING is standing on the delicate balance of human and spatial factors.
The aim of this paper is to survey home activities by the single aged living in housing units rented by UDC. The conclusion is as follows : 1 The single aged usually use "private room 1 " for main activities. The "yukaza(sitting on the floor)" is a main style except meals and is almost in the "ibasho(rooms of leisure activities in housings)". 2 They don't socialize much with each other and they only exchange greetings and have short conversation at most. Many residents in "Hamakoshien Danchi" have short conversation and many in "Mukogawa Danchi" exchange greetings. 3 Many of the aged hope for one more room. About 7Opercents of residents living in "2 DK" answered "l don't hope.".
In this paper, a potential possibility of housing condition improvement by existing housing stock utilization was analyzed using linear programming method. The result is as follows; (1) Today, the potential possibility of housing condition improvement by housing stock re-distribution has become considerable level, and it is still increasing. In the case of 1998, the people's satisfaction ratio for housing floor area can increase from 53.4% to 62.6% at maximum by housing stock re-distribution. (2) By trial calculation, it takes 150 billion yen for improving all households who are living under the minimum housing standard.
This paper is on ginmi of Edobakufu-Kobushinkata after the abolition of Kozaikukata. The point is as follows; 1. There were big construction work after the abolition of Kozaikukata such as Gokokuji, Gojiin, and Ueno. In the case of ueno, chudo was built by Kobushinkata, but butsuden and honbo were built by both Sakujikata and Kobushinkata. 2. Ginmi was done by hikan before the abolition of Kozaikukata, on the construction of Ueno-chudo, and after that. 3. Annual expenditure of Kobushinkata was researched and the importance of ginmi was emphasized, especially that of wood after the abolition of Kozaikukata.
Iwakura type is the characteristic plan type among many types in the farm houses in the Edo period. Iwakura type is consisted of four chambers. Each chambers are called Nanndo(bed room), Daidoko (living and dining), and tsuzuki-Zasiki(parlors). Iwakura type is featured by the plan arranged Nanndo in front of dirty floor. This study aims to investigate the existence of Iwakura type from the Iwakura village archives in the Edo period. As the result. It is clarified the existence of another Iwakura type which have Oue (usual parlor) instead of Daidoko and Shougi(dining table) on dirty floor after 19^<th>.
This study aims to clarify the building regulations in agricultural district of Yamashiro province through the Edo period. This paper takes up the building regulations by Kyoto machibugyosho from the 17^<th> to the 18^<th> century, and compares them with the building regulations by the Tokugawa Shogunate. As the result of that, the building development and the new housing building are prohibited in agricultural district of Yamashiro province by Kyoto machibugyosho, which afe similar to the building regulations by the Tokugawa Shogunate. But, in agricultural district of Yamashiro province, the building regulations had changed in the first place result from the flood and others.
Historical documents on the East Javanese period and beyond reveal the idea of a group of Hinduistic cosmic deities guarding particular astral quarters. These concepts of "directional deities" are embodied in the Sivaistic candis of the Central and East Javanese periods and houseyards in Bali. The genesis of the Hinduistic world guardians of ancient Java is now considered as follows: two different forms of the God Siva, guarding the East and the West, were added to the group of three deities that comprised Siva (center), Visnu (North), and Brahma (South). The resulting group of five deities was then further developed into a group of nine when four other forms of Siva, each of them in charge of one intermediate direction, were added. The group of nine deities thus represented the guardians of the center and the eight directions; later, this concept developed into the Balinese nawa-sanga svstem.
Citta ideale is composed of the fragments of Ammannati's drawings for publishing a treatise on architecture. Ammannati's treatise has many plans principally, and reflects considerable effects of Books of Serlio and those of Palladio. It takes on the character of a utility book with plural drawings corresponding to actual works, and creates the basis of various conceptions. Ammannati regarded public architectures as important, and ideally designed all kinds of architectures of the city. In Ammannati's treatise, the perfection is pursued and represented on the level of architectures, constituent elements of the city.
The purpose of this study is to consider the formal construction of German Modem architecture. Especially in this paper, the design process of Dessau Bauhaus by Walter Gropius are reconstructed from the standpoint of three dimensional volumetric reoresentation. The reconstruction is based on final proposal and eight materials of design process. The design process is divided into six steps. Three dimensional volumes are reconstructed in each stage. As a result, it is found that Gropius had evolved the three dimensional volumes of Bridge and Studio wing considering the mutual relation of each volume and the balance of whole form.
The Japanese have longed for a life surrounded by nature. Living in harmony with nature is ideal for us. This paper attempts to clarify the pleasures of living in nature by studying SANSUI of the poetry and painting scrolls in the Middle Ages and considering the theme of the poems. You will see that there are many pleasures in SANSUI, such as the feelings of aloneness, security and release, which are associated with seclusion from the world, natural beauty, which suggests a utopia detached from worldly things, and a state of mind released from all worldly intentions, which realizes inner liberty, calm and peace. In other words, you will see that the pleasures of living in SANSUI can be described as the essential pleasures of life, achieved by returning to nature and living as a part of it.