Here presented is a method to analyze the vibro/acoustic characteristics of plates with complex boundary conditions. The interaction between plate and air is taken into account in the form of radiation impedance. A matrix equation to compute the radiation impedance is set up through the finite elemental procedure with the help of the element selecting matrix. The transmitted sound pressure and the transmission loss can also be obtained by solving the matrix equation presented here. Several example computations on a plate showed good agreement between the values derived by this method and those by the classic analytical solutions.
Lightweight roofings made of metal and membranous materials are often used for buildings of large volume. In such cases, noise radiated from roofs excited by rainfall often causes serious acoustic problems. In order to investigate this problem, we developed an apparatus simulating natural rainfall which was reported in Part 1. With this apparatus, a series of sound power level measurements were performed under a strong rainfall conditions for 20 kinds of specimens and sound insulation performances were examined. In addition,the relationships between sound power level and sound transmission loss measured by sound intensity method was investigated statistically. As a result, it has been indicated that a linear relationship exist between them.
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) which is a technique for forecasting the state of structure-borne sound in structure is extended and reformed. The assumption that "the system is diffuse, "which limits the range of applicability of SEA is relaxed by expressing the energy of the elements as the sum of the component due to reverberant wave vibration and the component due to direct wave vibration. The extended SEA is able to handle even cases in which the system is not very diffuse and the attenuation is not so small. A comparison of these computed values with the actual measured values, proved that the extended SEA makes it possible to predict the characteristics of vibration propagation or attenuation in the buildings.
The test membrane structure was constructed in Iiyama city, that is extraordinary snowy area in Japan. Snow removal experiments were practiced in winter season of 1992-1993. We obtained the following results. (1)Two snow slip patterns were certified. The first pattern was occurred on the whole area of roof in snowing. The main cause of it was the deep snow on the roof. The other pattern was occurred on the each point position on the roof, and snow pieces were slipped down in step by step after snowing. The characteristic of snow on the roof were varied with the outside air temperature and the heat flux through the membrane. Snow slip patterns were depending in them. (2)When the snow falling vigorously, the heat quantities for real time melting were increasing. The heat quantities were calculated by the differential between the inside surface temperature of membrane and the under air temperature. (3)The low air temperature conditioning was useful to real time snow melting, and the snow on membrane was reduced effectively.
The air flow in a room of a building contains in-room wind particular to the room which is accommodated with various fittings, unlike natural convection in a closed spase. In order to get a clue to obtain the surface heat transfer coefficient in a room under such conditions, I set up a nozzle-shaped or slit-like air inlet and outlet in the upper and lower portions of the wall of a room model (3m×3m×3m) and carried out cooling and heating experiments. The heat transfer coefficient becomes larger as compared to that of natural convection, and it becomes larger as the ventilation frequency increases. The heat transfer coefficient of each wall surface shows an almost constant value both during cooling and heating regardless of how to measure the air temperature for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer coefficient of the ceiling surface and the floor surface vary greatly depending on how to measure the air temperature; during coolig the vicinity of the ceiling surface gives the minimum air temperature value and during heating it gives the maximum air temperature value. Also, I attempted to arrange the heat transfer coefficient by the Archimedes' number.
This paper describes a method to calculate the entropy and exergy associated with architectural daylighting. The purpose for using these concepts is to show explicitly the irreversible energy conversion process of solar radiation incident upon glazing during the course of daylighting, and to provide a global understanding of how a daylighting systemworks. This method has been tested for a room having a single window with single clear or reflective glazing, each under a clear and an overcast sky. The result indicates that the exergy contained in solar radiation admitted by any daylighting system is first consumed by illuminating the requisite room surfaces while the entropy produced is given off as waste. So-called energy-efficient daylighting systems therefore selectively admit solar exerey to meet the illumination requirements.
In summer, when mean air velocities were 0.2〜0.3(m/s), indoor velocities were measured for spectrum analysis and comfort votes were taken for air-conditioning, natural ventilation, and ventilation with air-conditioners running. The results were following. (1)For natural ventilation, occupants felt most natural and comfortable, though half of the spectra were characteristic of 1/f^2. (2)For another half and all of the ventilation with air-conditioners running, spectra were characteristic of Lorentz, though coefficients of variance of the wind were 60〜70%, which differs from former researches for air-conditioning.
Measurements of turbulent flow properties on natural convection along a heated vertical plate was conducted using a LDV and a thermocouple with 12ym diameter. The purpose of this experiment is to obtain data for validating the numerical simulations which consider high temperature variation, that is, strong density variation. The temperature difference between the plate surface and the ambient air, ΔT, is set at 404℃. As well as this high ΔT case , a low ΔT case(ΔT=43℃) was made , and the reliability of the measurements was verified through the excellent agreement with previous measurements. This study of the natural convection along a heated vertical plate is the first step towards that of more complex geometry.
The purpose of this report is to show the approach to "the minimum demand for water", which is the concept of defining as the limit volume of water considering the level of keeping one's life and household sanitation in an emergency and urgency piriod. In this paper, authers estimated the ordinary volume and the limit volume of water consumption in bathing based on the questionaire survey, and sized real volume from bathing experiment. And they showed the possibility of decreasing water consumption in bathing.
This study was conducted to evaluate physiological and psychological effects of visual environments in windowless office spaces. A series of experiments were carried out in an experimental office space. The experimental factors were a window, potted plants and paintings. There were four experimental patterns made up of combination of these factors. The measurements used were electroencephalogram(EEG), finger photoelectric plethysmogram(PTG), heart rate, critical flicker frequency, and subjective appraisals of impression of the visual environments, etc. The results are summarized as follows. 1) These factors especially caused the power of alpha-waves, beta-waves and PTGs to increase. This means that these factors not only make the subjects relaxed but also activate them mentally. 2) Three psychological factors were extracted from the subjective appraisals. "Variety" and "ease" were related to the potted plants and paintings, while "spaciousness" was related to the window. It was demonstrated that these factors create feelings of variety, ease and spaciousness, cause people to relax,and activate them mentally.
In order to confirm the possibility of introducing, and the usefulness of, an open enrollment school district system for public primary and lower secondary schools, the "Tokunin (Specially Authorized) Enrollment System" in Sapporo City was analyzed in this report. The results show the following: (1) Judging from the number of children applying for the school, the system is useful in the vitalization of specially authorized schools. (2) Most children use public transportation; rough ideas of commuting time and distance have been obtained. (3) Parents are greatly satisfied with the fact that children can study in an educational environment that is in touch with nature, and their expectation are high; parents consider the environment and reputation of the school to be important, and have a strong interest in the content of education and guidance. (4) There is a teacher allocation system which may weaken the characteristics of the specially authorized enrollment system. The author obtained information regarding the feasibility of introducing an open enrollment school district system and the potential direction of the system.
This paper arranged the situation of using upper stage-machinery and clarified the logic of movement of the machinery at the theaters. On basis of analysis about eight cases, we grasped following facts: light button needs to fine-tune its height and it is operated frequently; variable speed of machinery is utilized in term of set-up, and has good possibility of the stageeffect; the manual operated machinery has some problems on its low reappearance of movement; there are some difficulty on computer operation of the machinery when we suddenly want to operate the machinery flexibly or irregularly, and when we input or change data of operation into computer. The operation of stage-machinery is divided into two groups and classified into four categories based on the contents of operation, and there are eight patterns in the operation with its kind of load. In view of these facts, we clarify the design of stage machinery is important to make the theater useful and attractive.
The purpose of this paper is to study the relation between working efficiency and the space of the stage during the preparation of the stage by investigation of using stage. We investigeted the working process from setup period to the stage by 8 different performances at three theaters. The conclusion shows : (1) In order to increse the working efficiency, it is not enough only have main stage but also should have assembly space and side stage. (2) Because the regulation of the lighting fixtures is very often, so as to make it simply it is necessary to set up the light bridge.
The Japanese circuit-style gardens have long been appreciated for their sequential scenes of beautiful landscapes. The aesthetic experience, however, has rarely been analyzed in a scientific manner. The present study attempts to analyze the sequential experience by measuring sensory stimulus information from the environment. A set of personal computer programs was developed and applied to the environmental data of three famous circuit-style gardens in order to measure the following three aspects of sensory stimulus information: (l) ambient visual information; (2) focal visual information; and (3) such non-visual information as tactile and kinesthetic information. In this paper, part 1 of the study, the profile of each aspect was obtained by assessing consecutive points every 0.5m (one step of a pedestrian) apart along the garden path. In the future study, changes in the profiles of sensory stimulus information can be used to examine the sequential experience as people moved through the garden.
The paper proposes die concept of balancing between the life of building components with input of natural resource from the aspect of constraining rapid consumption of natural resources by fabricating and installing building component. To judge the balancing the index of natural resource consumption per year is proposed with several mathematical formulas. Methodology for identifying the time period when building components are applied in buildings is presented for evaluating the index. Basic mathematical formulas of the index are introduced for three cases where different kinds of maintenance strategy for replacing buildingcomponents. Here probability function on expected number of replacing building components is introduced.Using the formula, the indexes are simulated for specific cases where the strategies are applied and die results of simulation are demonstrated.
Binary codes enable one to represent and process floor plans for houses made up of a lot of horizontal and vertical lines. Careful consideration is given to the following three items in view of these features: 1. A study of the "multistage separate coding" used as a method for reducing the number of binary digits required to represent image data made it clear that the coding has a big coefficient of compression. 2. For automatic adjustment of image angles, the "two-dimensional XOR processing (exclusive OR )" was used to judge whether the image was vertical or horizontal. And an algorithm was established for rotating the image only by addition and subtraction of positive integers. 3. Introduction of the degree of analogy calculated from the features of image configurations has conclusively revealed that the degree is useful in retrieving overlapped things drawn in plans.
Errors in a transition matrix of land-use cause very serious problems when we forecast the land-use by Markov chain models. In the previous papers we proposed the method for evaluating the error of estimate in the land-use forecasting. Also, we constructed the area dividing method using the neuralnetwork theory. In this paper we attempt to combine these two methods and decrease the error of estimate by dividing the objective area into some adequate zones. The result of case studies on the actual urban lattice data shows that the error of estimate can be minimized by the proposed method.
This paper aims to consider the rerationship between public housing estate and its surrounding area, from view point of changing of residence. Some conclusions are as follows: 1)The tenants who have children, tend to move to private rental housing in the same ward. 2)The tenants who emigrated from the public housing in the same ward, tend to up their residential enviroment. In the view point of this paper, it is important to consider the linkage program between public housing estate renewal and improvement of private rental housing which located surrounding residential area of public housing estates.
In order to obtain a guide to landscape planning, this paper examines the characteristic of the elements composing UKIYOE landscape paintings mostly drawn by HIROSHIGE in the 19C Japan, of which a perspective drawing and a good proportion make a quantitative analysis possible. Specifically, induction of super-short-distance landscape, elements of each distance landscape and typical landscape of UKIYOE paintings are discussed mainly by quantification theory. The results are as frollows; 1) Super-short-distance landscape is induced to the short-distance landscape, medium-distance landscape and long-distance landscape so far in use. 2) UKIYOE landscape is classified by quantification theory to typical landscapes: (1)The landscape of plain including a river. (2)The landscape of plain including streets. (3)The landscape of streets in the mountains. (4)The landscape of the seashore. (5)The landscape overlooking a lake. (6)The landscape of a dry riverbed. (7)The landscape on the street. (8)The landscape of streets and buildings.
House plans which appeared in Fujin-no-Tomo between 1908 and 1934 were analyzed on the separation of the daily space of the family from the space for guests. The following results were obtaind. 1) Readers of Fujin-no-Tomo wanted not to pass the rooms. But the privacy of the family was not emphasized. 2) Their strong need was the separation of daily space of the family from the space for guests. 3) In the plans by housewives they tried separate the flow of family movements from that of guests by using halls.
Here is analyzed the form of Little Thakeham, Sussex. England, designed by Edwin Lutynes in 1902. Little Thakeham has a typical H-shaped plan, which has been developed from the E-shaped plan of Marshcourt(1901-04) and the reversed E-shaped plan of 'Little White House'(1896). The drawing room,hall and dining room are symmetrically composed respectively and connected each other by a longitudinal axis. The ingenious manipulation of axes is also seen in the hall itself. Stylistically, the interior of the hall consists of the details of Stuart Baroque, in contrast to the exterior of Tudor manor house, thus creating the image of the old house redecoreted in the later period, such as Mapledurham House, Oxfordshire, which Lutyens visited in 1889.
Knowledge processing by CAD systems poses challenging problems for the efficient integration of design and construction processes. While CAD systems have been applied to various phases of building construction to improve productivity in drawing activities, the demand for sufficient use of knowledge arises. Knowledge may be produced in the fields of technical standard review, construct ability investigation, and production information management. This paper presents the recent utilization of CAD applications in several construction projects and the analysis of drawing objects' categories described in working drawings of the projects.
This is a review to the article titled " Design Theme of Architects in "SHIN-KENCH1KU", one of pupular architectural journals of Japan, after World War II". Although the discussant is like to evaluate to this trial for the development of design theory and stream, some previous consideration to choose the data source that is SHIN-KENCHIKU'. The architectures and architects on this magazine are selected as a jounalistic sense time by time, then some kind of reason to choose this eccentric material should be explained.
We will answer to Dr. NISHIYAMA's objection to our previous paper : DESIGN THEME OF ARCHITECTSIN SHIN-KENCHIKU AFTER WORLD WAR II. Though Dr. NISHIYAMA agrees to the significance of our paper, he doubts our attitude to architectural journal which we chose as source of research. Here, we will show our view to Dr. NISHIYAMA's objection, particularly to his question to our attitude to SHIN-KENCHIKU journal.